« PrejšnjaNaprej »
* The wealth of the Amakosa,' says Mr. Kay, “and other tribes inhabiting this part of Africa, consists not in abundance of gold, silver, or precious stones; to them these things, so eagerly pursued by the civilized nations of the earth, would be mere dross. Neither do maguificent houses, nor splendid furniture, as we have already observed, constitute objects of glory here. Large herds of cattle are accounted the greatest and most valuabie riches that man can possess; and the increase of his stock, together with the various means by which that increase may be most fully ensured, is the subject of daily study with every native from the time that he is at all capable of engaging in the atlairs of life, to the very last moment cf his earthly career. This, in short, is the end of all his exertions, and the grand object of all his arts. His very heart and soul are in his herd; every head is as familiar to his eye as the very countenances of his children. He is scarcely ever seen shedding tears, excepting when the chief lays violent hands upon some part of his horned family; this pierces him to the heart, and produces more real grief than would be evinced over the loss either of wife or child.
• Beads, brass wire, and gilt buttons, rank next in point of value. These, in fact, answer the two grand purposes to which gold and silver are applied in Europe, viz. trade and aggrandisement. They constitute the bullion of the country, and the sole medium of exchange, with the exception of a spear, which is occasionally given in part of payment. In former days the returns consisted of cattle only; but since the door has been thrown open for export to the colony, ivory and hides also have become staple commodities. For the elephant's tusk they had formerly no other use than that of cutting it up into rings for bracelets; but, now that they have a regular inarket, that class of ornaments has in a great measure disappeared. As we have already remarked respecting their ruling propensity, the grand end in every thing seems to be the augmentation of their stock: hence they will seldom receive any article, however valuable in our estimation, for their staple commodities, that will not in some way or other enable thern to make an accession to their herd.
• Sheep, goats, and horses, have but recently been introduced into the country; until lately, therefore, the pack.ox constituted the only beast of burden with which they were at all acquainted. Now, indeed, we meet with a small flock of goats here and there, particularly ainongst the Amatembu, which have from time to time been imported from the colony. Horses also are to be seen scatered over the country, some of which have doubtless been stolen from the colonists, and others left on the field as cast-a:rays in the different expeditions made by the latter against the bordering clans. Many of the young chiefs are becoming real Bedouins in their fondness for these animals; and some of them now possess very fine studs, which they are annually increasing. They have been much encouraged and assisted within the last four or five years by travellers and military gentlemen, who have presented th m with horses of a superior description. The principal use, however, which they make of those serviceable creatures, is that of the chase, in which they are quite as merciless as the wildest Arabs we are acquainted with. I was much awused with the manuer in which the old chief one day tauntingly upbraided his sons with not being able to use their legs since they had got amahushi (horses) to carry thein. “This,” said he, "was not the case when S'Lhambi was young; we then thought it no task to journey on foot, or try the strength of our limbs in hunting. But things are altered now!"
• Their manner life is truly patriarchal, and their general diet extremely simple.This ordinarily consists of milk, which, like the Arabs and Foulah nation of Western Africa, they invariably use in a sour curdled state. It is called «maaz, and rendered thus thick and acidulous by being kept in leathern sacks or bottles, the appearance of which, to the eye of a stranger, is exceedingly disgusting. Those vessels are replenished with fresh milk from the cow, morning and evening; this is generally poured in an hour or two before they draw of that designed for family use. it is sometimes kept in calabashes (gourd shells); but in these it often contracts a peculiar and disagreeable taste. New milk is seldom used, excepting by children; nor does it ever undergo any other preparation than that already mentioned. This forms the Katřers' standing dish; and, next to this, a bowl of boiled corn. The grain most commonly cultivated by the tribes of Southern Africa, is a species of millet, or guinea córn, holcus sorghum. called amazimba by the Kaffer, and mabali by the Bechuana. It is used in diiierent ways; but most commonly in a boiled state. When thus prepared, it is served up in small baskets, out of which each helps himself, making his hands serve as a succedaneum for spoons. Seasoning of any kind is seldom used: excepting wien mixed with a little milk, the bare grain constitutes the sole ingredient of the mess. It is sometimes pounded betw :en two stones with the hand (corn-mills being altogether unknown in Caffraria), and made into a kind of pottage; and at other times formed into thick cakes, which are always baked on the hearth, amidst hot embers, after the manner of the ancients. Indian corn also is cultivated, but not so extensively; pumpkins likewise, together with a few other esculent plants. But of the latter they seldom lay up any store; consequently they are only useful wiile the season lasts: and this is in a great measure the case with maize also; for while it continues in season, both young and old are seen parching and eating it at all hours of the day. A species of sugar-cane, called imfe, is grown in great abundance: of this the natives are re. markably fond, on account of its sweet and succulent quality. A decoction of it, as like
wise of the Indian corn-stalk, is sometimes made for the purpose of sweetening their mess of millet. Add to the above an occasional feast of animal food, and we have the diet complete of a strong and able-bodied people. They seldom sit down to more than one good meal a-day; and that is in the evening, about an hour before bed-time; an occasional draught of milk is generally all they take beside. Few, indeed, are the wants of nature, whilst the appetite remains unenthralled by the vitiating influence of luxury. The spontaneous productions of the vegetable kingdom constitute their chief dependence, as it re, gards subsistence, in all cases of emergency.'-P. 119.
They have some peculiar prejudices regarding certain sorts of food.Pork, fish, poultry, and eggs, they consider unclean; nor will they eat the flesh of the elephant. They appear to reject all meats considered unclean by the Arabs.
· Being almost entire strangers to the nature and use of spirituous liquors, they are in a great measure free from many of those disorders which are so dreadfully destructive in other countries. There is indeed a sort of metheglin which they make when wild honey is plentiful: of this they sometimes drink to excess.
* The most prominent trait in the character of the Kaffer, is decidedly that of the herdsman, rather than the warrior; for, as already intimated, he is never so happy as when engaged in something that is calculated either to increase the numbers or improve the appearance of his cattle. Such is bis daily attention to these, that one out of a thousand would be immediately missed. His perfect acquaintance with every little spot on the hide, turn of the horns, or other peculiarity, after having seen an animal once or twice, is indeed astonishing, and says much for his powers of observation.
. Although he may have numerous servants or vassals at his command, it is accounted no disparagement for an Incos enkulu (great Captain or Chief) to be seen tending his own herds. The numerous and fantastical shapes into which they twist the horns of many of their oxen, give them a singular and often an unnatural appearance. This is of course done while the horn is flexible, and capable of being bended any way without difficulty. to the operator or injury to the beast. Their expert management and perfect command of oxen is such as often furnishes demonstrative evidence of the knowledge these creatures possess of their respective owners, whose singular maneuvres as well as language might seem to be instantly comprehended by them. One of their most favourite amusements is that of racing young cattle, which are sometimes made to go at an astonishing rate: on these occasions, a native, on horseback and at full gallop, frequently leads the van. The winning ox is lauded to the very skies, and the praises of the multitude pronounced upon it in the most vociferous manner.'-P. 127-9.
• Some of the natives are by no means contemptible artisans. Had they but proper tools, and a little instruction as to the use of them, their abakandi (smiths) would in all probability excel. The remoter tribes are far in advance of the Kaffer, as it regards the smelting of iron. Nevertheless, when it comes into his hand in a malleable state, the latter is able to shape it to his purpose, with great ingenuity; Their hammer, as well as anvil, seldom consists of any thing more than a com,non hard stone, with which, however, they manage to give a neat finish to spears of different forms, metallic beads and smali chains; bracelets also, both of iron and brass, are frequently manufactured by these selftaught mechanics with considerable taste. Much genius and clever workmanship are sometimes displayed in the blade of the assagai, (umkonto,) which constitutes their principal weapon, offensive and defensive. In addition to this, the smith (umkandi) makes a small description of hatchets, which, although very inefficient in the estimation of a Europ an, serve every purpose for which the natives want them.
. The various wars that have taken place within the last few years among the tribes higher up the coast, and in the interior, have been the means of throwing amongst the southern clans numbers of poor «lestitute exiles, who, from their being acquainted with the art of smelting metallic ores, are likely to prove very useful, both to the Amakosa and Amatembu.'--P. 133.
The arms of the Caffers are the assagai or javelin, a short club, and a shield. The first is a sleuder spear from six to seven feet in length, with an iron blade at the thickest end, from a foot to eighteen inches long, and from one to two inches broad. It is thrown by the hand alone; and the principal art in launching it, is to give the shaft a sort of tremulous motion, which greatly increases its velocity. At the distance of from fifty to sev, enty paces, a Caffer warrior can hit a large object, such as a man or an antelope, with considerable certainty, and with such force as to strike the weapon quite through the body. Every warrior or hunter carries a bun, dle of six or eight of these spears. The club is a short knob-stick, which
is used by way of bludgeon when they come to close fighting. They also use it as a weapon of defence in aid of the shield, to strike aside an assagai by a sudden side-blow. The shield is a large oval buckler of hardened bullock's hide, fixed on two cross sticks, which serve as a handle to grasp it. It is about four feet long, by two and a half broad, and is well fitted to protect these naked warriors against their slender missiles, but it is of litile avail against fire-arms. Some of the tribes in the interior, who come in contact with the Portuguese, have smaller round shields of rhinoceros hide, which are capable of turning a musket ball. Their mode of fighting is to range themselves in opposing lines, and to throw their spears from a distance. When exhibited in a sham fight (a pastime they frequently exercise themselves with), the spectacle of these fine, athletic, naked warriors, springing hither and thither with loud cries, changing their place every instant to avoid the missiles of their opponents, throwing themselves on the ground, and then quickly rising, to take their aim anew, is exceedingly striking. The wars between the contiguous clans of the Southern Caffers are seldom very bloody. They commonly arise from grievances connected with the invasion of each other's pasture grounds, or the stealing of cattle; and are usually decided by a skirmish or two with missiles, without coming to close quarters. The devastating ravages of the Zoolu and Mantatee tribes, described by Mr. Thompson, and briefly noticed by Mr. Kay, are, however, of a different and far more ferocious character; these tribes rushing on to combat in dense masses with the stabbingspear, the war-club, and the battle-axe, and destroying the hordes overwhelmed by them root and branch.
(TO BE CONTINUED.)
The kindness and liberality of the Messrs. Gracie, Prime & Co. six reams mefriends of the Society in New York, Mr.J. D. Holbrook, cash for this ob
dium Printing in aiding by contributious of money
$5 00 and useful articles in fitting out the Seth Grosvenor, goods for Eunce Jupiter with supplies for Liberia, Sharp,
$10 50 deserves great praise.
cash for general objects of the So
ciety, exerted himself much to obtain a sup- Mr. Stanley, piece Cotton Shirting;
14 50 25 50 ply of paper and types for the Colo. Package for Eunice Sharp from 209 Pearl nial press, and the following state
street. ment is from the New York Specta- Cash for do. from Mrs. John Limber.
3 00 tor of the 18th ult.
ger, (with the note annexed]
“Mrs. Limberger having noticed in your THE COLONIZATION CAUSE.
paper yesterday afternoon, an appeal
to the Our appeals yesterday in behalf of the Ladies of this city in behalf of Eunice righteous and noble cause, were not in vain. Sharp, who is bound to the colony of Liberia The type founders came generally forward, in the best of causes, encloses to your care and our little printing office in Liberia will for her benefit her mite, viz. $3, towards be furnished with new types, and other con making her comfortable-regretting at the veniences. The donations for this object, same time, that the donation is so small stand as follows:
-trusting at the same time that God will Mr. Elihu White, 100 lbs. Small Pica. spare her useful life and make her the inMessrs. Conner & Cook, 100 lbs. and up- strument in his hands, in illuminating the wards, Pica.
minds of many of the ignorant in that secdo. do. small font two line do. tion: who may hereafter rise up and call her Messrs. Geo. Dearborn, and-Smith, font of blessed.” English, 50 lbs.
Cash from A. Chandler for E. S. $1 00 Messrs. G. & D. Bruce, Job type, flowers, A friend, for Eunice Sharp,
$10 00 &c.
A friend, for the cause,
10 00 Messrs. Hoe & Co. 3 pairs cases, brass Editors of the Observer, two reams imperial
rules, Printing office furniture, &c. printing paper.
Box of School Books, &c. from a Friend. “Resolved, That the Synod recommend
the American Colonization Society to all It affords us pleasure to state, that the our churches, as an institution eminently ladies of the new Methodist church in Vestry calculated to promote the cause of humanist. have taken upon themselves the support of ty, and spread the Gospel through Africa, Eunice Sharp, as an instructress, after her and that according to a request of the Board arrival in the colony. The ladies of the Af- of Managers, it be recommended to our rican Education Society yesterday appro- churches to take up collections on the 4th of priated $25 towards furnishing her for the July, or any Sabbath near that day, for the voyage, &c.
benefit of that institution."
This, Mr. Editor, speaks volumes in faTHOMAS BELL, Commercial Agent vour of the Colonization Society. Notwithfor the Colonization Society, embraces this standing all the efforts that have been made opportunity of acknowledging the liberali- to prejudice the minds of the community, a ty of the citizens of New York, in enabling body of divines and laymen, consisting of the Society, at this time to increase great nearly one hundred members, collected from ly their shipment of supplies, &c. by the every part of this and the two adjoining Jupiter. This vessel sailed on Saturday, States, has given it. their solemn and delibhaving on board, consigned to Gov. Pinney, erate sanction, and recommended it to the the following amount of provisions, trade patronage of their churches. It needs no goods, &c.
comment-let it speak for itself.-N. Y. Invoice of provisions, consisting of flour, Spectator.
W. corn, pork, fish, molasses, &c.-say $3000
Invoice of trade goods, consisting of [From the Cincinnati Standard, June 13.] tobacco, dry goods, hardware, cutlery,
ERROR CORRECTED. agricultural implements, &c.
Brother Burtt.— It is industriously reportInvoice of duck, copper sheathing,
ed that the Hon James G. Birney, of Kenrigging, &c. for repairing the schooner tucky, late of Alabama, and recently Genat the Colony,
900 eral Agent of the Am. Colonization Society,
has withdrawn from that Society, and avow$6300 ed his opposition to its principles. That the
injurious report may no longer be circulated, In addition to the above, the dona- without correction, I wish to state for the tions of trade goods, together with a
information of your readers, that gentleman complete set of new type, press, &c. attended the ineeting of the Kentucky Colofor the Liberia Herald, will amount to nization Society, held a few weeks since, at about
700 Frankfort, made a speech on the occasion,
and was then elected a Vice President of the Total amount of the present per Ju- Society, and now holds that office. piter,
$7000 By publishing this in the Standard, you New York, June 20th, 1834.
will subserve the cause of truth.
June 8th, 1834. The sanction of this large and en
AFRICAN EXPEDITION. lightened body of Christians to the
Death of Mr. Lander. cause of African Colonization is of
The enterprising African traveller, Rich'd great importance. The following no- Lander, was fired upon and severely woundtice of the proceedings of the Generaled by the natives on the Nunn river, where Synod will be read with deep inter- in the month of January, and died at Fernan
he had gone for the purpose of trade, early est:
do Po, on the 2nd of February. The folThe General Synod of the Reformed Dutch lowing extract of a letter from Capt. Fuge, Church has been, during the past week, in of the Crown, contains all the particulars session in this city, and seldom has a more of this melancholy event that are yet known. intelligent and talented body of divines been Mr. Lander was buried by Capt. Fuge on convened by this or any other denomination; the day he died. including among its members such as Drs. "Mr. Richard Lander expired at FernanLudlow, Ferris, McMurray, Brodhead, and do Po, on Sunday, the 2nd of February, on others, well known for their learning and pi- his way up into the interior with a schoo ety. Scarcely had the Synod convened be- ner boat, loaded with goods for trade, and fore the emisaries of the Anti-Colonization two canoes which were towed from Cape Society
. (let them be called by their right Coast by the cutter Crown. He was attack: name) made their appearance, and loading ed on all sides by bushmen, all armed with the tables at the entrance, endeavoured to musquetry. One white man and two black force upon the members, the libellous pub- men were killed; one woman and child, with: lications recently issued; how far these at a boy, were taken prisoners. Mr. Lander tempts succeeded the result will show. The and the remainder fortunately managed to following resolution was unanimously adopt-get into one of the canoes aud pull for their ed:
lives. Mr. Lander received a shot in his
hip; a seaman and two Kroomen were also temperate and persuasive argument,-whatseverely wounded. They left the Crown to ever can be done in such ways to hasten proceed up the river on the 13th, and return- safe and healthful emancipation, let it be ed to the cutter on the 21st of January.- done. We join hands with such philanthroThey lost every thing belonging to them, pists. But we grieve to witness the present excepting what clothes they had on them.- movements of those who pursue a different Mr. 'Lander lost all his papers, not one re- course. Their arguments are not temperate mains to be shown. The Crown got under nor their plans judicious. The spirit maniweigh, and arrived at Fernando Po, on Sun- fested by them, if cherished and extended, day the 26th. Mr. Lander's wound had and the policy they pursue, if successful, mortified, but he died quite composed." would soon involve our country in the hor
Lt. Allen, RN. who had been exploring rors of a civil war. The true philanthrothe Niger, has arrived at Plymouth, Èng. in pists will beware of such consequences. the Talbot. Lieut. Allen has completed his Least of all should the advocates of abolition surveys, and immediately set off for London, oppose the Colonization Society.” with the interesting results of his expedition.
[From the Western Luminary, June 4.]
DANVILLE COLONIZATION SOCIETY. AUXILIARY SOCIETIES.
We are glad to see our friends at DanAfter an able and full discussion of ville, Ky. still giving their influence to the
noble cause of African Colonization. The the questions of Colonization and abo- annual meeting of the Society was held a lition in Washington County (Penn.) few days since. The resolutions adopted an interesting and promising Auxili- on the occasion show the estimation in which ary Colonization Society was, on the they hold that noble and much injured insti
tution, the American Colonization Society. 7th ult. formed by the students of The following are the resolutions adopted at Washington College, and the fol- the meeting, with a list of officers for the enlowing gentlemen elected officers: suing year. MR. JOYNES, Sr., President.—MR. HER
Resolved, 'That this society places undiBURT & MR. CUNNINGHAM, Vice-Presidents. minished confidence in the integrity of the MR. McCombs, Secretary.
Managers of the American Colonization SoManagers—Messrs. JOYNES, JONES, Mc- ciety, and in the importance and ultimate ANOLL, PAULL, and Moody.
success of the scheme of African Coloniza. It is believed that a large majority
tion. of the members of this College are tion Society and the great object for which
Resolved, That the American Colonizaentirely in favour of the Colonization it is laboring, merit the patronage and supSociety.
port of the general and state governments.
Officers for the ensuing year: An Auxiliary Colonization Society, has also been formed in AUBURN
John GREEN, Esq. President.
Vice-Presidents-Rev. J. C. YOUNG, Rev. THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, N. York, W. L. BRECKENRIDGE, Dr. FLEECE, Dr. and much zeal and attachment to
AYRES. the rause prevails among its members. WELL, J. J. Polk, Rev. J. Adams, JAMES
Managers—John TOMPKINS, I. A. CALD
HOPKINS, J. GILLESPIE, THOMAS BARBEE, The Hon. Elijah Paine, President ROBERT RUSSELL. of the Vermont Colonization Socie- J. A. JACOBS, Secretary. ty, has addressed a circular to the
J.J. POLK, Treasurer. Clergy in particular, and to the Peo
CINCINNATI COLONIZATION SOCIETY. ple of Vermont generally.” After A meeting of this society was held in the alluding to the late Annual Meeting first Presbyterian church, on Wednesday, of the Parent Society and its pecuni. of the Episcopal church, presided. After
the 4th inst. at which the Rev. Dr. Aydelott, ary embarrassments, his views are
prayer by the chairman, the agent of the sotbus expressed:
ciety made a statement, setting forth the "In view of all the facts we say, unhesita- present condition and future prospects of the tingly, our confidence in the goodness of our institution. object and in the wisdom of our plan is unim- The meeting was addressed at length, by paired.
the Rev. Dr. Beecher, president of the Lane “The object is to confer the highest bene- Seminary, who defended the society in an fit on the coloured population and the white able manner, against some of the many population of our country. The introduc- charges brought against it, and endeavored tion of civilization and the Gospel to Africa, to show the friends of abolition, that they will be a consequent effect. The plan is at might and ought to act in concert with the least the best until a better is proposed.Colonization Society. The meeting was Whatever can be done to meliorate or era- then adjourned to Monday evening, the 9th dicate the evils and the wrongs of slavery by inst. in the second church.