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be not guarded against. Some of the settlers have mentioned this matter to me, and have requested that I would place the circumstance in a clear light on my return home, not only for the sake of humanity, but also to save the Colonization Society great and unnecessary expense.
They say "some of the emigrants who have been sent out to us, are soon, like the many paupers
who have been sent out to the United States from Europe, objects for the poor house; but there is this difference between us and the people of the cities of the United States, we are not yet able to support more than our own families.” Except in a few instances, this is too true. It appears, numbers of emigrants arrive unwilling to labor. Numbers, also, who would labor, during the half year period they are subsisted by the Society, are unable to do so on account of sickness, which all, more or less, have to suffer shortly after their arrival. And at the expiration of their six months' support, still sick, and thrown upon the charity of the community, they get dispirited, give up and die. Of this description of people, we may number those generally who have been recently emancipated.
There are, however, some creditable exceptions. From this, it would appear, that six months' provision is not sufficient for a settler, who comes without means. The country is fertile and productive of every variety of sustenance necessary to man, and no settler, however poor, with industry and Frugality, after a year's support, need to be in want. An old settler, in comfortable circumstances, assured me, he had done all for himself by the sweat of his own brow; and that, too, under the disadvantage of having an axe in one hand to clear his land, and his gun in the other for self-protection, against the occasional attacks of the natives.
This difficulty, a new settler has not now to encounter; added to which, he has all the benefits resulting from a well-established town, composed of several hundred individuals.
The recaptured Africans, five miles distant, settled at New Georgia, are spoken of in the most commendable terms, as industrious, frugal, and thriving, and capable of taking care of themselves. Amongst the products of the country, or those which may be produced, either in the neighborhood of Montserado, or at a distance in the interior, may be enumerated the sugar cane, rice, cassada, corn, plantains, bananas and sweet potatoes, coffee, indigo, dyewoods, ivory, and gold dust; the three latter of which may be obtained by barter, on advantageous terms, from the native traders of the interior. This opens a wide field for settlements and speculations, and will, at no distant period, be of vast consequence to American commerce and industry. The settlement must move onwards, and, with all its disadvantages, it appears a miracle that it should be in such a state of advancement. Idlers and persons incapacitated for freedom, should not be sent here at present, if it be desirable to benefit the free colored population from the United States, and, through their means, to regenerate Africa; but that class of them should be sent who know how to appreciate the rights of man, and who will not make an improper use of the blessings of liberty, equality, and freedom of social intercourse. Such persons of color, here, in the land of their ancestors, find a home and a country, and here only do they find themselves "redeemed, regenerated, and disenthralled.” An intelligent old man, about 60 years of age, with whom I conversed, stated that he had been here about eighteen months, and was getting on cleverly for himself and family, “but that on no account would he return to the United States. It was true, he had not yet the luxuries nor the accommodations which he had been accustomed to in America, but the want of these were not to be brought into competition with his rights and privileges, as a man, in Liberia; for here only, in the consciousness of having no superior, did he feel himself a man, or had he ever known what it was to be truly happy.
The older residents of Monrovia, people of considerable experience and sound judgment, speak flatteringly of the policy of making a settlement at the mouth of the Junk river, a distance of about thirty miles to the south. It would form a connecting link with the settlements of Little and G and Bassa, about as much further to the southward. The country is represented as exceedingly well suited for settlements; and the natives are frequently giving invitations to the people of Montserado to come and settle among them. From their representations, it is, perhaps, the most eligible situation along the whole coast, and, in little time, a valuable trade might be established there. The trade of Montserado with the interior, for the last year, has fallen off considerably, in conseqnence of the war between the native tribes about two hundred anıl fifty miles distant. They are all, however, in harmony with the settlers. Journeys are occasionally made amongst them, and an intelligent youth, about 19 years of age, son of one of the settlers, lately penetrated about two or three hundreul iniles into the interior. He represents the country, at about twenty-five miles from the sea, as rising into high and hilly land, with a very agreeable and pl asant temperature; the low flat land along the coast being covered with moderalely sized trees and a thick underwood, difficult to penetrate, whilst that of the higher grounds abounds with large timber of various description, with scarcely a bush, and resembling, in some degree, beautiful cleared groves. He was treated with great kindness by all the chiefs and people throughout the whole course of his journey.
The settlers of Monrovia are desirous of having a person sent out to them as Chief Agent, as soon as may be practicable, the Chief Agent having left them lately for the United States. A person of some weight in years and sound discretion—not unlike Mr. SHALER, lately
Consul at the Havanna -should be selected. Such a person, it is supposed, is greatly needed here, l'oth for his administration of justice, economy, and direction of aifairs. With him, some suitable practical person ought also to be sent, to superintend the clearing of the land, and to oversee the planters for a certain period, so as to ensure attention to a proper cultivation of the soil. The services of the late lamented Dr. RANDAL continue to draw forth from every settler the most grateful acknowledgments. It appears that his directive energies gave a new existence to the place, and no one could be more deplored.
The charitable societies of our country might do great good 'oy educating some young men of color in the practice of physic and surgery for the dimerent settlements on the coastthey are greatly needed. It is reported a number of vessels for Cuba, are now on this coast, near the Equator, employed in the odious traffic of the slave trade; a steamboat is highly necessary here, as a guarda costa, and to examine into this matter. Such a vessel would clear the rivers and the whole sea. But it is vain to expect this citect, in the em loyinent of vessels with sails only. In these light wind latitudes, vessels are frequently becalmed for days; at other times they may go from one to two knots an hour, rarely more, and it is considered a good run to make forty miles a day. On the passage here, it took this fleet ship, under sky-sails, ten days to accomplish two hundred and forty miles. In a clinate like this, the very incorrect charts, as well as the sailing directory of the coast, render its navigation somewhat harassing to all. We have, however, enjoyed excellent health, not a case of fever of any description occurring. Our opportunities thus far to make all oui observations, have been particularly fortunate, not inissing a single instance, even for the variation of the compass; and having laid out our track on the churt, fron Gibralter down, if copied, it may serve as a useful guide to others,
On our way hither from Madeira, we passed through the Canaries, visiting the Islands of Palma and Teneriffe, and near the region of the Cape de Verds, and shal, leave here to-day for the United States, touching on our way for water at Martinique. And in passing the neighborhood of the Cape de Verd Islands on the several tracks of vessels, whether for the coast of Africa or across the Equator, should any pirates be hovering about those quarters, I trust we shall give a good account of them. Very respectfully, Sir, &c., &c.
P. F. VOORHEES. Hon. LEVI WOODBURY,
Secretary of the Navy, Washington.
Our readers will be gratified, we doubt not, by the opportunity now given to them, of ascertaining the names of the original subscribers who organized the American Colonization Society, in the year 1817. Subjoined, are the Constitution which they adopted, and a list of their names, copied from the original subscription list, on file in the office of the Society, and published by order of the Board of Managers.
Many of the individuals who commenced this great work of enlightened philanthropy, have since finished their mortal career. Others of them still survive, to see, every day, experience confuting the objections with which their noble experiment had been assailed, and adding new testimony in favour of their practical wisdom in attempting it. When we recollect the circumstances under which this experiment was made; the doubts and difficulties which rested on its infancy; its feeble beginnings and subsequent disasters; and then contemplate its actual results, and the present stage of its progress; it is not easy to limit the measure of gratitude due to the founders of the Society, or the hopes of its present friends and supporters.
The original Constitution and subscribers are as follows:
ART. I. This Society shall be called “The American Society for colonizing the Free People of Colour of the United States."
Art. II. The object to which its attention is to be exclusively directed, is to promote and execute a plan for colonizing (with their consent) the free people of colour, residing in our country, in Africa, or such other place as Congress shall deemn most expedient. And the Society shall act, to etiect this object, in co-operation with the General Government, and such of the States as may adopt regulations upon the subject.
ART. III. Every citizen of the United States who shall subscribe to these articles, and
be an annual contributor of one dollar to the funds of the Society, shall be a member: or paying a sum of not less than thirty dollars, at one subscription, shall be a member for life.
Art. IV. The officers of this Society shall be, a President, thirteen Vice-Presidents, a Secretary, a Treasurer, a Recorder, and a Board of Managers, composed of the abovenamed officers, and twelve other members of the Society. They shall be annually elected by the members of the Society, at their annual meeting, on New Year's day, (except when that happens to be the Sabbath, and then the next day,) and continue to discharge their respective duties till others are appointed.
ART. V. It shall be the duty of the President to preside at all meetings of the Society, and of the Board of Managers, and to call meetings of the Society, and of the Board, when he thinks necessary, or when required by any three members of the Board.
Art. VI. The Vice-Presidents, according to seniority, shall discharge these duties in the absence of the President.
Art. VII. The Secretary shall take minutes of the proceedings, prepare and publish notices, and discharge such other duties as the Board, or the President, or, in his absence, the Vice-President, according to seniority, (when the Board is not sitting,) shall direct.And the Recorder shall record the proceedings and the names of the members, and discharge such other duties as may be required of him.
ART. VIII. The Treasurer shall receive and take charge of the funds of the Society, under such security as may be prescribed by the Board of Managers; keep the ac'ts. and exhibit an account of receipts and expenditures at every annual meeting, and discharge such other duties as may be required of him.
ART. IX. The Board of Managers shall meet on the first Monday in January, the first Monday in April, the first Monday in July, and the first Monday in October, every year, and at such other times as the President may direct. They shall conduct the business of
the Society, and take such measures for effecting its object as they shall think proper, or which shall be directed at the meetings of the Society, and make an annual report of their proceedings. They shall also fill up all vacancies occurring during the year, and make such by-laws for their government as they may deem necessary, provided the same are not repugnant to this constitution.
Art. X. Every Society which shall be formed in the United States, to aid in the object of this Association, and which shall co-operate with its funds for the purposes thereof, agreeably to the rules and regulations of this Society, shall be considered auxiliary thereto; and its officers shall be entitled to attend and vote at all meetings of the Society, and of the Board of Managers.
LIBERALI John M’Donough, one of the most wealthy and influential citizens of New Orleans, has presented a memorial to the legislature of Louisiana, praying for leave to educate his slaves. He states that he is the owner of from forty to fifty black children, male and female, of various ages, the offspring of old and faithful servants, who have mostly been born under his roof. These slaves are valuable, being mostly mechanics, and would sell for $ 150,000. The design of the owner, however, is, to give freedom to all, and colonize them in Liberia. For this purpose, and that they may be qualified for the proposed new sphere of action, he desires permission to educate them. It will make the hearts of our immediate abolitiovists to sink to see such fruit growing from the labours of the Colonization Society. We however can rejoice, and do rejoice, to see the work going thus nobly on. Mr. M'Donough is beginning in the right way. First prepare the slaves for freedom, prepare an asylum where they can enjoy the blessing, and then bestow it.-N. Y. Commercial.
[From the Philadelphia Friend, February 22.]
“Go and do thou likewise.”—Luke, chap. x. v. 37.
While I regret the opposition which the M'Donough proposal has met with, to the interruption of his designs in the first instance, for educating "the offspring of old and faithful servants," I can but regard that gentleman’s noble intention as an incitement well calculated to influence public opinion greatly in favor of the coloured people; and I deem it to be a duty which we owe to the impending cause of negro emancipation, to give McDonough's example publicity. Let his principles circulate from west to east
- from south to north, and they will obtain the attentive audience of thousands, to an approved theory of liberality and of justice, which, is brought to bear on general practice, like good seed sown upon fruitful soil, the increase may become abundant; and the M'Donough plan for breaking the chain of slavery, for exalting the character and improving the situation of the freedman, although obstructed for the moment, will ultimately survive the resistance of tyranny and oppression.
In the mean time, permit me through thy paper, to recommend another method of imparting the boon of instruction to the uninformed children of Africa, by furnishing the means of planting schools, not only in Liberia but through the precincts of that colony, to extend the blessing to neighbouring tribes of aborigines; multitudes of whose population are to this day slumbering in gross ignorance.
To those of my readers who have not yet bestowed on these subjects. that serious consideration which they deserve, my proposition may appear to be out of reach, or impracticable; and for the encouragement of some who with hold their interest through diffidence of their own judgment, or want of confidence in the scheme, I am induced to relate the following facts, in order to represent that degree of success which has already crowned the feeble exertions of an individual of this city, who, about three years ago, ventured to solicit from a few of her friends a small subscription, to enable her to set up two free schools for the instruction of females in Liberia and to pay one year's salary to the respective teachers. These schools were thus carried into effect: the first was located at Caldwell—the second in Monrovia, where they have been ever since regularly conducted by pious coloured women of competent abilities, whose school lists have mostly exceeded one
hundred pupils, and it appears from their reports, that, of necessity, many applicants are excluded who would gladly partake of the limited bounty.
Since the expiration of the first term iu agreement with Elizabeth Cæsar and Elizabeth Johnson, and their schools—No. 1 and No. 2,-have been adopted, and their salaries paid by the “ The Ladies' Association, auxiliary to the American Colonization Society, for the promotion of Education in Liberia.” Under patronage of the same association, a third school bas been instituted among the recaptured Africans at New Georgia upon Stockton creek; and they are now preparing to set up a fourth to be located perhaps at Edina, a recent settlement of emigrants, upon the St. John's river; or if the contemplated Pennsylvan colony shall go into operation-Benezet, or the chief town situate upon Bassa Cove, will probably require the earliest aid of the “Ladies' Association.”
Why should any friend of the African race shrink from their portion of service in this work of benevolence, or turn aside from the path of duty, alarmed at the magnitude of the undertaking?
It is true, an extensive field for cultivation lies open before is unhappily in a condition comparable to that of fallow ground; while the urgencies of the occasion, silently but forcibly plead the cause of our brethren in calamity." . Let us then of our abundance cast something into common stock, which if conscientiously devoted to the necessities of our fellow beings, and skilfully applied with special direction to the primary object in view, we may safely commit the freewill offering to the one all-sufficient Power, who according to his good pleasure, will again condescend to bless the loaves and the fishes, for the relief of suffering humanity. S. B.
Extracts from the proceedings of the Board of 2. Resolved, That the Agent, or (in his Managers.
absence) the Vice-Agent, together with the The following resolution was adopt- council, who shall meet on the first Monday
aforesaid six counsellors, shall constitute a ed on the 20th of February, 1834: of January and July of each year, and at
Resolved, That an effort be made to raise such other times as the Agent shall deem ex. a loan of FIFTY THOUSAND DOLLARS, in pedient. The Agent, or, in his absence, the shares of not less than one hundred dollars Vice-Agent shall preside at all their meet. each; for which a Scrip shall be issued, sign- ings. They shall have power to lay taxes, ed by the President, and countersigned by impose duties, make appropriations of pubthe 'Treasurer, bearing six per cent. interest; lic monies, fix the salaries of all officers to the said stock to be paid off in twelve years; be paid out of the funds to be raised in the • and for the payment of the interest, and the Colony, and enact such laws as they may
reimbursement of the principal thereof, a deem necessary for the general welfare, subsinking fund of six thousand dollars a year, ject, however, to the approval of the Colobe, and the same is hereby appropriated and nial Agent and the Board of Managers.pledged out of the funds which shall be re: Should any law be passed by the council and ceived by the Board in each year.
disapproved by the Agent, he shall state to On the 30th January, 1834, the the council his reasons for disapproval; and following resolutions, making certain should it then be passed unanimously by the
council, it shall remain in force until the changes in the Plan for the civil goy- Board of Managers shall pronounce their ernment of Liberia, were adopted: decision upon it.
1. Resolved, That the fourth article of the 3. Resolved, That from and after the first Plan of civil government for the Colony of day of May next, any officer or Agent of the Liberia be so amended as to read for “two,” Society or Colony, who shall be supplied “six” counsellors; this amendment not to with articles of living from the public stores, take effect until the next annual election in shall be charged on the books of the Colony the Colony; and that the other articles be so twenty five per cent. advance upon the orialtered as to correspond with this and other ginal cost and freight of such articles. amendments which may now be made. 4. Resolved, That from and after the first