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14. Advanced Physical Measurement. (G. E.)

Assistant Professor RAYMOND. Problems involving accurate measurement and mathematical work. Laboratory exercises twice a week.

6 hrs., first half-year; 3 units. Tu Th, 1-4. Elective, Senior year, in the College of Mechanics.

15. Dynamics of Rotation. (G. E.)

Professor SLATE.

Theory of the gyroscope, including precession and nutation.

2 hrs., throughout the year. Tu Th, 4. Prerequisite: Course 5. Primarily for Graduates.

16. Special Advanced Study and Research. (G. E.)

Assistant Professor LEWIS. Laboratory work throughout the year, on problems assigned according to the preparation and needs of individual students. Credit value to be fixed in each case.

Primarily for Graduates.

Professor SLATE.

17. Readings and Discussions. (G. E.) Work throughout the year, for Seniors and Graduate Students, upon topics selected by special arrangement. The following have been treated during the period 1896-1902: recent advances in the theory of electrolysis; the development of the doctrine of conservation of energy; mathematical theory of electricity; theory of double refraction and polarization; electro-magnetic theory of light.

2 hrs., throughout the year. Primarily for Graduates.

18. Special Undergraduate Study. (G. E.)*

Assistant Professors RAYMOND and LEWIS, and Mr. KRAus. All special laboratory work not included in courses announced above. Credit value to be fixed in each case. Students electing Course 18 are urged, as far as possible, to confine the work to the first half-year. On account of limited room and apparatus during the second half-year, it may be necessary to restrict the number of students to those electing the course for the entire year. Mr. Kraus will offer during the first half-year а course in laboratory manipulations, consisting mainly of glass working.

* May be chosen in the Group Elective by special arrangement only.

ASTRONOMY.

ARMIN O. LEUSCHNER, Ph.D., Sc.D., Associate Professor of Astronomy and Geodesy, and Director of the Students' Observatory. ALEXANDER MCADIE, M.A., Honorary Lecturer on Meteorology. SIDNEY D. TOWNLEY, Sc.D., Instructor in Practical Astronomy. ADELAIDE M. HOBE, B.S., Assistant in Astronomy.

Special Announcement. A special announcement concerning the facilities and the courses of instruction in the Berkeley Astronomical Department, and in the Lick Astronomical Department, at Mount Hamilton, has been published. Copies may be obtained from the Director of the Lick Observatory, Mount Hamilton, California, or from the Director of the Students' Observatory, Berkeley, California.

Courses 1, 2, and 5 are designed especially to fulfil the requirement in prescribed Natural Science for students in the Colleges of General Culture.

A part of Course 1 consists of special lectures at the regular hour by the Director and Astronomers of the Lick Observatory.

Geodesy, navigation, and nautical astronomy, especially adapted to the needs of students in the College of Commerce, will be included in Courses 2 to 4, but a special section for such students may be formed.

The Group Elective. Courses 1 and 2A in Physics are prerequisite to Group Elective work in Astronomy.

1. Modern Astronomy.

Associate Professor LEUSCHNER, the Director and

Astronomers of the Lick Observatory, and Mr. MCADIE. (a) An introductory course during the first half-year. General facts and principles underlying the science of astronomy in all its branches. (b) Second half-year. Progress in astronomy through modern methods, especially spectroscopic and photographic.

2 hrs., throughout the year. Tu Th, 11. For observatory work in connection with this course, students will ordinarily elect Course 2; but may, instead, take Course 4A or 4 B, subject to the prerequisites announced.

2. Supplement to Course 1.

Dr. TOWNLEY and Miss HOBE.

Practice in observing in connection with Course 1. One or two evenings or afternoons a week at the observatory.

3 or 6 hrs., throughout the year, as the student may elect; 3 or 6 units. The observatory is open for this course Tu Th, 7-10 p.m., Th and F, afternoons, and F and S, mornings. The course is open to students who are taking or have taken Course

1 or 3.

3. General Astronomy. (G.E.)

Dr. TOWNLEY. Prerequisite: A knowl

3 hrs., first half-year. Tu Th S, 8. edge of general physics. For observatory work in connection with this course, students may elect Course 2, 4A, or 4B, subject to the prerequisites announced.

4A. Practical Astronomy. (G.E.) Dr. ToWNLEY and Miss HOBE. Lectures and observatory work. Geodesy, navigation, and nautical astronomy. Practical work at the observatory with sextant, clock, chronograph, transit-and-zenith telescope, equatorial telescope, alt-azimuth instrument. Computing.

7 hrs.; 3 units, first half-year; 8 hrs.; 4 units, second half-year. First half-year, lecture Tu or Th, 9; observatory, Tu Th, 7-10 p.m.; second half-year, lectures Tu Th, 9; observatory Tu Th, 7-10 p.m. Prerequisite: Course 7 in Mathematics; either Course 1 or 3 in Astronomy. The course should also be preceded by a course in differential calculus.

4B. Practical Astronomy. (G.E.) Dr. TOWNLEY and Miss HOBE. The subject-matter of Course 4A more briefly presented, and adapted to the needs of students of Civil Engineering.

7 hrs.; 3 units, first half-year; 3 hrs.; 1 unit, second half-year. First half-year, lecture, Tu Th, 9, and two observatory periods; second half-year, one observatory period. The observatory is open for this course, Tu or Th, 7-10 p.m., and S morning. But the arrangement of the work depends so largely upon weather conditions, that the student should reserve for this course several of the periods mentioned. Prerequisite for students not in the College of Civil Engineering; Course 7 in Mathematics; either Course 1 or 3 in Astronomy. Prescribed, Senior year, in the Course in Railroad Engineering, College of Civil Engineering.

5. History of Astronomy.

Dr. TOWNLEY.

3 hrs.. second half-year. Hours to be arranged with the instructor. Prerequisite: Course 1 or 3.

6. Theoretical Astronomy. (G.E.) Associate Professor LEUSCHNER. 4 hrs., throughout the year. Tu Th, 2-4. Prerequisite: Courses 3 and 4A; Course in Physics; Course 9 or 9B in Mathematics.

7. Method of Least Squares. (G.E.)

Dr. TOWNLEY.

The fundamental principles and processes of the Method of Least Squares, and their application to the solution of astronomical, physical, and engineering problems.

2 or 3 hrs., first half-year. Tu Th, 10; W, 8. Prerequisite: Working knowledge of the differential and integral calculus. Prescribed, Junior year, two units, in the Course in Railroad Engineering, College of Civil Engineering.

*8 Mechanical Quadratures. (G.E.)

Associate Professor LEUSCHNER.

Development of the formulæ of numerical differentiation and integration, and their application in the construction of tables. 3 hrs., second half-year. Hours to be arranged with the instructor. Prerequisite: Course 9 or 9B in Mathematics. Offered alternately with Course 9.

*9. Interpolation and the Use of Tables. (G.E.)

Associate Professor LEUSCHNER. The more useful formulæ of interpolation, and their application in the use of astronomical and other tables. Practice in extensive numerical computations, with special aim at rapidity and exactCalculating machines. Life insurance.

ness.

3 hrs., second half-year. Hours to be arranged with the instructor. Prerequisite: Algebra and trigonometry. Offered alternately

with Course 8.

10. Summer School. (G.E.)

A continuation of Course 4.

Dr. TOWNLEY.

Four weeks duriug the summer vaca

tion. The students determine the longitude (by the telegraphic method) or the latitude (by the method of Talcott) of the Students' Observatory.

11. Advanced Practical Astronomy. (G.E.)

The theory of refraction; eclipses.

2 hrs., second half-year.

Prerequisite: Course 4.

Dr. TOWNLEY.

Hours to be arranged with the instructor.

*Subject to demand, courses 8 and 9 may be combined into a single three hour course during the second half-year.

12. Theoretical Astronomy.

Associate Professor LEUSCHNER.

The course treats of the relative accuracy of the various methods of determining preliminary orbits.

2 hrs., second half-year. Hours to be arranged with the instructor. Prerequisite: Course 6. Primarily for Graduates.

13. Perturbations and Celestial Mechanics.

Associate Professor LEUSCHNER.

Adapted to the needs and preparation of the students. The course may be continued through three years. The following subjects are treated: General principles; special perturbations in rectangular and polar coördinates; method of variation of constants; method of determining the absolute perturbations of the minor planets after Hansen, Newcomb, and Hill; Gylden's method after Brendel's Theorie der kleinen Planeten. Bohlin's Gruppenweise Berechnung der Stoerungen. Selected topics from Tissérand's Mécanique Céleste, Poincaré's Les Nouvelles Méthodes de la Mécanique Céleste and Gylden's works, etc.

4 hrs., throughout the year. M F, 2-4. For Graduates.

14. Advanced Practical Astronomy. (G.E.)

Dr. TOWNLEY.

3 hrs., throughout the year; 1 unit each half-year. Hours to be arranged with the instructor.

15. Advanced Study and Research.

Dr. TOWNLEY.

Investigation of special problems to be selected according to the preparation and the needs of individual students. Hours and credit value arranged in each case.

Graduates.

Primarily for

16. Measurement and Reduction of Astronomical Photographs; Spectrogrammes. Dr. TOWNLEY.

Either half-year. Hours and credit to be arranged with the instructor. For Graduates.

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