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there, perhaps he could tell the that the bill ought not to pass. The house that it was introduced with a absence of that person was of itself fpeech, attacking certain arguments a strong argument in his mind which had been advanced within against proceeding any farther with those walls, and taking very great the bill at present. The reasonings liberties with a moit respectable au- of lord Sydney were answered by thority. Lord Sydney was not in the marquis of Carmarthen, and the habit of saying things in a flip the bill was farther supported by pant way, and he hoped he should lord Hopeton. The noblemen who never accuítom himself to such ex- fpoke on the other side were doctor pression, as that this was absurd, that Warren, bishop of Bangor, and was foolish, and the other was stuff. the earl of Sandwich. Upon the It was caly to apply a debafing second reading the house divided, epithet to any thing, but with men contents in favour of the bill 11, accustomed to examine before they not contents 4 ; but upon the third determined that mode of debate reading the house having muliered would have little weight. The in a fomewhat greater number, and nobleman to whom he alluded had several proxies being given, the fie by most irrefragable arguments con- nal division was contents 150 noc sinced the house in a former sellion contents 38.

CHAPTER, V.

T

Bill for establishing a Sinking Fund. Civil Lift Bill. Wine Excise Bill.

Bill of Crown Lands. Mr. Wilberforce's Bill. Fifbcries. Complaint of Lord Rodney. HE subject, which the minister dental subjects, and the fingularity

seemed to intend Mould make of their ideas enables them to sucthe principal figure in this fellion of ceed in discoveries, which the plain parliament, was the proposal of a and arrless enquirer after truth linking fund, to be applied towards would never have thought of. discharging the national debt. We Thus it has notoriously happened have already endeavoured to dism in the present instance. The æra cover the general merit of projects at which we are arrived, has proof this fort, when we had occasion duced reasoners, who have endeato treat of the plan of the French voured to demonftrate that the ex. caifle d'amortiffement, which was tinction and the reduction of a pas instituted in the month of August, tional debt are vain and visionary 1784. There are few writers whose theories ; that they can never be works are more instructive or more effected in any important degree, useful than the ingenious inventors and that the purfuit of them is of paradoxes. While they are in pregnant with distress, calamity and the pursuit of a propolition which ruin. Maintaining a propofition is neither plausible nor true, they so indefensible in its tenour, they occa Goually illustrate various inci. have taught us in a more striking manner than any other political furplus of the revenue, these were speculacists, that an object of this circumstances in which every man kind may be pursued with an ex- must rejoice. No party, no polititreme aud a deilructive vehemence; cal faction, no set of persons of that, so long as the prefent lituation any name or de criprion could with. of things shall continue, the carry- hold their exultation upon a sub. ing ou of svars upon loans is a mat- ject of so general benefit. The ter of indispensible. neceflity ; that conclusion ihat was to be drawn the increating the number of our from these appearances, the return. taxes is no infallible receipt for the ing vigour of our resources, muit increaling our income; and that in afford matter of folid satisfaction the hands of a skilful financier the and unrestrained triumph toall ranks abolition of impoits will sometimes of men and all parties in the fate. be found to enhance the amount of But were these matters of surprise, the general revenue. These fpe- or circumttances to cause astonish. cula ions have not been without ment: Undoubtedly they were not. their effet upon our practical states. Almost every man knew there would men, and upon the ministers of the be some surplus ; almost every man frit courts in Europe. M. de Ca- expected it; they only differed lunne, in the instance to which we about the amount of that surplus. have alluded, set apart no greater a Mr. Fox would not pretend to sum than an annuity of 120,000l. aflign the causes to which these as the original foundation of his fymptoms of returning vigour were finking fund ; and we shall find Mr. afcribable: that might be matter of Pitt laying few additional burthens much useless difference of opinion. on the people of England for the Several of them might be owing to creation of his favourite object of the success of some of the measures an annual million,

manner

of the prefent administration; he The present feflion of parliament would not be so uncandid as to deny appears to have commenced with that they were. But more, far ideas, if not honourable to the mi- more, he belii ved were owing to nifter, at least extremely favourable the tailure of other of their acato the success of his operation. We fures, whici, had they succeeded, found Mr. Fox in our preceding muit have been attended with con. volume, treating the subject of the sequences the mít fatal to the refinances of his country with a lan- vente, and to the national credit guage full of apprehenfion, and and prosperity that could pullibly with expressions trongly importing be imagined. Mr. Fox ftated in the immediate neceffiry of extraor. flrong terms the mischief the mea. dinary measures. In the speech fures to which he alluded had aiready 'which he made upon the firit day produced, by disgusting the manu. of the present session, he appears to facturers of Great britain, teachhave altered his tone. He no lon- ing them that the house of coina ger doubts of the prosperous fate mons would disregard their preof the revenue, he only requires tions, and bringing into discuron a to be allowed in a degree of Icepe variety of points which he was ticism respecting the causes of that convinced ought never to have beea prosperity. With regard to the disturbed. Nothing but the alarm extension of trade, the increase of and di gust atinding the agitation the public credit, and the growing of thote bad measures coulel hare

fo

so long kept back the returning before the house on the twenty-firit, trade of the country, the natural and the copies of it were delivered consequence of peace, and which to the members on the twentyhad followed upon the conclufion seventh of March. It is not ne. of every war in which we had been cessary for us to state the contents engaged. This alarm and disgust of this report, as they will come at had been in a great degree removed large before our readers in the subby the failure of the Irish propofi- sequent debates. cions; and the tide of trade was Two days after the copies had now returning to its old and natu- been delivered, Mr. Pitt opened his ral channel.

budget in a committee of the whole Mr. Pitt moved early in the fef- houte. He congratulated parliaflion, that several papers should be ment in a very animated style, upon laid upon the table of the house of the spectacle with which this day commons, to enable them to form presented them. To behold their an estimate of the annual national country, emerging from a molt unincome, as well as the amount of fortunate war, which added such the public expenditure, in confe- an accumulation to debts before imquence of which they would be em- mense, that it was the belief of powered to judge of the existing fure surrounding nations, and of many plus, and of the sum it would be among ourselves, that our powers farther necessary to provide, in or- muft neceffarily fail, and that we der to raise the total to the amount flould fink under the burthen : to which was intended to form the ori- behold the nation, instead of de. gioal basis of the intended linking spairing at its alarming condition, fund. On the seventh of March looking its situation in the face, and Mr. Pitt farther moved for the ap- establishing upon a spirited and perpointment by ballot of a select com- manent plan, the means of reliev. mittee of nine persons, to examine ing itself from its incumbrances, the papers, and to lay the result

gave

such an idea of our res before the house. His intention sources, as mult afford the inost inwas to take every possible Step to teresting spectacle to ourselves, muk give full and complete satisfaction aslonish the nations around us, and to the nation in a matter of great must enable us to regain that preand general concern; and he con- eminence to which we were on many ceived, that the solemnity of a com- accounts fo justly entitled. The mittee, and the formality of a re• wishod-for day was at length arriv. port would answer this purpose ed, when all despondency and gloo better, than a set of unconnected my fear might he laid alide, and papers or the affirmation of a mi- when our prospect brightened on nister. The members of the com- every side with exultation and hope. mittee were the marquis of Graham, With how much pleasure was Mr. Mr.William Grenville, Mr. Edward Pitt able to add, that this could be Eliot, Mr. Rose, Mr. Wi:berforce, carried into effect without laying Mr. Beaufoy, Mr. John Call, Mr. any new burthens of considerable Smyth and Mr. Addington, the two magnitude upon the people. This latt of whom had been the mover was beyond the expectation of every and seconder of the address upon man, and was indeed a subject of the speech from the throne. The the greatest rejoicing to every friend report of this committee was laid of his country.

The

The amount, Mr. Pitt observed, to go back and be lost to the pubof the revenue, as it stood for the lic; and they were belide necessary current year, was stated by the to increase our naval strength to an committee at 15,397,000l. The ex- equality with our powerful neighpenditure they divided into the ar- bours.

The demands upon this ticles that were permanent, and the head were so considerable, that, articles that were Auctuating. In though the committee had stated the former descriprion they cont. the peace establishment of the navy dered the interests of the national at 1,800, nool., yet the expence debt, which was 9,275,7691., the attending it in the present year, was civil list 900,oool., the exchequer taken in the current estimate at bills, the charges on the aggregate 2,400,000l., and would at least fund, and the appropriated duties. amount to 2,360,00ol. In the arThe whole of this divifion was my the exceedings were much taken at 10,554,000l. The other, above the common run of the exclass of expences included the difie- pence of that eitablishment; and rent establishments for the defence this amounted to nearly 300,000l. of the nation, as the army, the These two suins would nearly effect navy, ine ordnance, and the mi- the annihilation of the surplus, if litia. They had allowed for the out of that surplus it was necessary navy eighteen thousand men, at they should be discharged. But in 1001. each, which was more than reality they were not annualcharges; had ever been kept up in time of they were the remainder of the expeace. The ariny they had taken pences of the lat war, and they upon the same mode of reasoning, mult speedily cease altogether. In and they allowed for it 1,600,000l. four years the most burthensome of The whole expenditure, permanent the articles, that of ship building, and fluctuating, they estimated at would be removed, nor could this 14,478,000l. Of consequence there be effected sooner. It was necessary remained a surplus of the annual therefore, that they should look to income above the expenditure, of a future average, in order to obtain 900,oool.

a true estimate of the disbursements It was however necessary to be of the nation. observed, that, though this was itat- Mr. Pitt proceeded to examine ed to be the annual expenditure, what the amount of the extraorsome time mult intervene before the dinary demand would be for the expenditure could be reduced to whole term of four years. The this point. The war, from the exceeding of the navy upon the cure burthen of which we were just de. rent estimates, above the sum at livered, had been most expensive which it had been taken in the rew and ruinous. Many of the drains port of the committee was 600,00cl. that had occurred during the course In the three following years it would of it, had not ended with the con• not be so much, and might be taclufion of peace, but still continu- ken at 400,000l. The sum there. ed, and must be expected for some fore to be provided for under this time to hang over the nation. Un« head, for the whole term of four der the head of the navy, many years, was 1,800,00ol. The other fhips that had been faid upon the heads, that suggested themselves as Hocks were to be finished. They matters of extraordinary demand, had been built too far to allow them were the army, the ordnance, and 1786.

G

the

the American loyalists. These three lab ur upon their hands. They was taken by Mr. Pitt for the en- had to go through one hundred and suing four years at 1,200,000l. eighteen regiments of foot, and as

The total demand of three millions many of horse and dragoons, whose might be encountered by the me- accounts for non-effective men bad thod of funding, and ways and not been examined for twenty means might be provided to answer years together. One regiment which the interelt, without occasioning any they had gone through, bad produintolerable burthen to the nation. сed 22,00 l. for the use of governBut the state of the country was at ment; and, though Mr. Piit could present fo very flourishing, that Mr. not be so far.guine as to expect that Pitt was happy to mention, that it every regiment would produce as would not be necesary to lay any much, he however thought he taxes upon the people on this ac- might state the total, including concount, and that we had certain ex- tracts and other articles of abute, traordinary resources within our- at the sum of 1,0.0,cool. The next felves, which would be found abun- fource was the balance due from dantly to answer every thing that the company for the fublulence of was required.

troops in India. This amounted to The committee had enumcrated 600,000l., and thero was a probabithese resources; and the first they lity of its being paid in a very had mentioned was that of lotteries. thort time. The compitice added It had been objected indeed to this to the account, the unclaimed diinethod of railing money, that it vidends at the bank, a part of which afforded the most dangerous encou. might with safery be applied to the ragement to the spirit of gaming. public use, and the date of the The spirit of gaming however was crown lands. so deeply rooted, that Mr. Pitt was But the great article, upon which afraid it was of little confequence they infifted, and upon which they whether a lottery was given or with- built their furcst expectations of held. In the mean time govern- a permanent furp!us, was the imment was not refolved whether provemert of the revenue by prothere Mould be one in the present per regulations to discourage an year. The next head was that of illicituade. The regulations, which favings in the army, or sums of had alreudy been made in this remoney, that had been appropriated fpeét, had not had room for their to different services, but had not full operation, and might be exbeen expended. These had been pected till to increase, fince an adfound

very

considerable after the dition of this fort deriied from a pieace of 1763; and froin the extent regular fource, and ws not the of the grants during the Inte war sudden chet of the restoration of much more might be expected. The peace. Wine was an article 1lill Tum of 450,000l. had already been subje&i to great abufus, and demandpaid under this heid into the exchc- cd an immediate remedy. The quer. There were beside immense consumption of wine in this country füms in the hands of former payı was not diminillied, and yet it ap. malters, which it was expected a peared, when the average of the last little time would bring to the public ycar came to be compared with the account. The commislioners of ac- year 17.46, that the revenue upon counts had indeed an immeníc This article fell fhort no leis than

2,0,00..

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