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any act, which can otherwise, if 1750. It is the duty, likewise, of he does not interpose, be done by this officer to superintend all the the board : he can order the issue officers and miniliers in the various of money ; but that order must be departments of the ordnance, and executed in the established mode, to see that they perform the duties that is, by debenture figned by of their several employments, three board officers.

The other four principal officers The board are subordinate to the have each of them, independent of malter-general : they act under his being a member of the board, him, pursuant to his significations a separate and distinct branch of or directions: if he does not inter- butiness committed to his managepose, they are competent of them- ment. felves to carry on all the official The surveyor-general, or masterbusiness: they make contracts and surveyor, as he is ilyled in his paagreements for the purchase of tent, is the second board officer : stores and performance of services, his peculiar duty is, as his title imand direct the issue of money and ports, to survey all stores received stores ; but if the master-general or returned into the store-houses of chuses to exert the power intrusted the ordnance : he is interposed as a to him, he can control all their check upon the quality and quantiactions.

ty of the stores received into the During the absence of the master- magazines : at the Tower he exegeneral, or the vacancy of the cutes this duty by his clerks; at office, the whole executive power the out-ports, and foreign garritons, devolves upon the board : all war. officers called clerks of the surrey rants, letters, and orders, are di- are appointed to this service, who rected to the lieutenant • general regularly make their returns into and principal officers : they can his office. It is his province to exorder, sign, execute, transact, and amine the account of every expen. perform every service or matter in- diture; and therefore the price cident to the office of the orde book, which contains the price alnance,

lowed by the board for every (pe. The lieutenant-general, in his cies of liores and service, is lodged civil capacity, is the first in rank with him; and all bills for pay for among the members that compose ftores delivered, and services perthe board : his signature is effential furmed, with their proper vouchto a debenture, to warrant the pay: ers, are transinitted to him for his ment of it by the treasurer; unless examination and allowance : he he is absent abroad, in which cale, compares the prices charged, and any other of the principal officers sees that they agree with the terms is empowered by the king's instruc. of the contract, agreement, war. tions to sign it in his stead; or un- rant, or order, on which they are less, as has been ulual, his majetty grounded : he examines and pasles appoints an assistant and depury to the accounts of those officers, or the lieutenant-general, to act for others to whom money has been him in his abfence. The present issued on account; and after he has lieutenant-general has no deputy, finished his examination of any dee the lait appointment of this kind mand or expenditure, he forms a was that of the surveyor-general, bill, liges it, and transmits it to by warrant dated the sith of April the cierk of the ordnance, as the 5

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ground for a debenture for pay. countants to clear their accounts : ment.

The repairs of the build, he prepares the official letters to ings belonging to the ordnance at the treasurer, directing the paythe Tower, and the direction of ment of ready money debentures : the artificers, workmen, and la- be draws up, signs, and tranfmits bourers there employed, are in- to him, the lists of the debentures - truited to his care.

in course ordered for payment. The clerk of the ordnance pre. Having by these means full knowfides in ihat office, in which are re. ledge, and keeping an account of corded and preserved all the origi. the receipts and payments, he benal authorities, initruments, and comes a check upou the treasurer. vouchers, that warrant, describe, It is part of his duty to attend at and authenticate the proceedings of the receipt and return of a stores the ordnance : he is the account. into the magazine of the ordnance ant of the ordnance; and as such, at the Tower : he keeps a journal keeps the accounts of all the cash of these receipts and returns ; and and stores belonging to the whole has access to the journal kept by department: he draivs up the an- the cletk of the deliveries, for the nual estimate for parliament, and issues : from hence he forms a ledthe monthly estimate for the trea- ger, and becomes a check upon the fury. The treasurer sends him an store-keeper. He takes his accoune account of the impreits from the of the receipts and issues by the exchequer, as soon as he receives store-keepers of the out-ports and them : the articles that compose the garrisons, from their accounts trantvoluntary charge, and the impreftsmitted to the board, and referred vacated, originate froin accounts to his examination. examined and seriled in his office; The store-keeper (or principal and the instruments by which mo: store-keeper, as he is called, to difney is paid, or itled, are formed tinguish him from other store-keepby him. He makes out the quare ers) bas the custody, and keeps the ter books for the payment of the account of the ordnance and stores officers, from the appointments, received into, and issued out of, the whether they are by commiilion, Tower. The store-keepers at the patent, warrant, fignification, or out-ports and garrisons keep the order; all of which, with the fac accounts of the like articles under laries annexed to them, are entered their charge; but their accounts in his office. All debentures for are fubject to the examination both the payment of money, either for of the principal ttore-keeper and of flores delivered, or services per the clerk of the ordnance; and for formed, are made out by him, that purpose each store-keeper, and fro:n the bills transmitted to hiin every other person who becoines from the surveyor-general : he va- accountable for stores (except the cates the impreits issued to, or the gunners of thips) transmits an ae. debts due from, the persons named count of his receipts and illues, in the debentures or quarter books, with the vouchers and orders, to by entering such sums in the mare the board, who refer them to these gin: he draws all impreit bills or. two officers for their joint examindered by the board: he keeps the ation, impreit account ; and is the pro- The clerk of the deliveries is the per offices to call upon the sub-ace officer who fuperintends and keepe

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the account of the issues of the ed, and not provided for-and, fores and ordnance : he prepares, thirdly, a Itate of the debt of the pursuant to the direction of the ordnance.- The eximate is an arboard, an instrument, called “a rangement of the ordnance services proportion,” directed to a store- under general heads, and states the keeper, authoriting him to iffue fum that will probably be wanted certain stores, particularly specified for each head of service during the to a place therein named: this in- year: it is divided into the ordistrument, being figned by any three nary, and, the extraordinaries, board officers, he delivers to the The ordinary comprehends the perftore-keeper as his warrant for the manent establithients, and certain issue: he receives from him the ar- usual services; the fums eltimated ticles specified, and delivers them as necessary to answer these efta. to the person who is to receive or blishments and services are taken or convey them; if the articles be computed from what has been the arms or ammunition, he takes an ufual expence of them in the preindent, by which the person re. ceding years. The extraordinaceiving engages to render an ac. ries conlist of sums that will probacount of them.

bly be wanted in certain garrisons, Such being the duty of these of- either in Great Britain or elsewhere, ficers, both collectively as a board, or for casual services; these expences and in their separate capacities, we are calculated either upon the estiproceeded to inquire by what ge- mates of engineers, relative to the , neral rules the business of the ord- conitruction of new or the repairs nance is conducted in the several of old works, in those garrisons or departments.

divisions ; or from the usual annuThe bufiness of the ordnance al expences of such casual services. may be considered as comprehend. The account of the expence of ed under what relates to the re- services performed, and not proceipt, and what relates to the ex- vided for, includes services that penditure, of the money applicable were unforeseen, and the excelles to that service.

of expences beyond the provisions The money provided for the made for them : it has been the ordnance fervice is received by the usage of office to insert likewise, in treasurer from the exchequer: it is this account, fome fervices, which, distinguished under two heads - for though foreseen, were yet omitted the land-and, for the sea service. in the estimate ; but the two lalt The

money for the land service is estimates have been formed with a contained in two accounts - the ef- view of avoiding as much as portimate for the current year--and fible, the necessity of coming to the account of services performed, parliament with an aceount of sinoand not provided for. The money provided services. for the sea service is 5l. per cent. The state of the debt of the ord. of the sum granted by parliamentnance, contains such of the debts for the seamen.

incurred in all the preceding years Every year the clerk of the ord- as can be ascertained, and remain nance draws up, and presents to unpaid ; either no provifion having the House of Commons, three ac- been made for them by parliament, counts—first, an estimate for the or the provition made for them current year-secondly, an account having been otherwise applied. Afof the expence of services perform. ter the suns in the estimate, and in

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the account of services performed, Thomas Dickenson, efquire, superand not provided for, are voted, intendant of shipping ; William the clerk of the ordnance, at the Adum, esq. a contractor for bricks requifiçion of the lords commile and timber; colonel Mathew Dixon, fioners of the treasury, draws up a commanding engineer at Plymouth; monthly estimate, that is, a tiate major William Congreve, deputyof the Tums that will probably be controller of the king's laboratory wanted in every month during the at Woolwich ; and major Thomas year, both for the land and tea fer- Blometield, the inspector of arvice, distinguishing the current fer- tillery. vices from the payments in courle : In most of the transactions of this the fum, thus divided into twelve office, the distinguishing circumstanparts, is compounded of the fun ces to which we particularly direct. in the estimate, the fum granted for ed our attention, are-the contract; the unprovided services, and the sumn the execution—and the payment. ariting from the five pounds per Every contract or agreement is cerit. of the vote for the seamen. made by the board. The terms This estimate is transmitted to the have usually been settled, either in treasury, and the board apply to consequence of proposals delivered them by memorial every month for in, sometimes pursuant to adverthe portion stated for that month in tisements, and sometimes upon the the ettimate; it is issued to the tender of the contractor without treasurer of the ordnance at such advertisements; or, in consequence time as is convenient to the trea. of appointments, by the mattersury.

general, of particular persons to The ordnance money is employ- supply certain species of stores or ed, in general, either in the pur- materials, or to perform certain chase of stores and materials, or in branches of service; but by a late payments for services performed. resolution, the board have deter: To come at a knowledge of the ge- mined for the future to advertise neral rules by which these pur. for every kind of stores or services chases are made, and services con- they fhall itand in need of. The ducted, it was necessary to direct prices agreed to by the board are our inquiry to particular articles entered in the price - book, by of buliness in the ordnance depart. which the furveyor-general checks ment, and to mark their progress the prices charged in the bills dca through the several offices. The livered to him for his examination subjects we selected werethe hire and allowance, and regulates fu• of lips--the hire of horses, con- ture contracts for the same or fimiä ductors, and drivers for the artille- lar services. The execution is ry-contracts for bricks and tim- guarded by the superintendance of ber-fortifications-gunpowder- officers employed in the service: and ordnance. Upon these subjects it is the duty of some of them to we collected information from the take an account of, and examine officers of the ordnance above men- the quantity and quality of all tioned, and likewise from the fol- stores received into, or delivered lowing persons, conversant in those out of, the magazines and of all particular branches ; viz. John Ju- materials supplied and used for the lius Angerstein and John Thomp- works : it is the duty of others to lon, esquires, contractors with the fee that the services under their in. board of ordnance for dipping; spection are faithfully performed in

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every article, according to the not customary to give notice to the terms of the agreement. Upon the owner of the time when this valu. certificates of these officers the ation is to be made ; he may have board rely for the due execution of recourse to it in the office where it every undertaking, and for the is kept : if he signs it, he contiders truth of every circumstance con- himself as bound by it, otherwise tained or implied in the instru. not. If the ship be taken or dements to which those certificates ftrored by the enemy, the sum inare annexed; and upon the credit serted in the valua ion is paid to of them they direct, the several the owner, deducting 8s. per ton, payments.

per annum, for the wear and tear. That these are the rules by which

The number of ships empli yed the board of ordnance conduct in the service of the ordnance, from themielves in the execution of the the 1st of January 1776 to the end business intrusted to their manage of the year 1783, has been 110; ment, we collect from the examin. and the number of tons, 39.934 ; ation of the subjects above men- of which the annual expence, at tioned.

139. per ton per month, the price Before the year 1777, ships for settled by the board, has been, upon freight were procured by the ord- an average, 311,4851. 45. a year; pance, either in consequence of ad- that is, for seven years, exclusive vertisements, or by the interven- of loffes and wages of extra sea. tion of brokers : but in that year men, 2,180,3961. 8s. an officer was appointed, called the The hire of horses, conductors, fuperintendant of shipping, whose and drivers, for the service of the bufiness it is, either to look out for ordnance, during the late war, has such ships as the service may stand been by contract. The obligation in need of, or, where thips are upon the contractor is, to provide tendered in pursuance of advertise and supply, from time to time, as ments, to examine the condition of many of ench as shall be required them, and the proposals delivered by the board. The commander in in by the contractors, and report chief regulates the number and the his opinion thereupon to the board: time when they will be wanted. it is his duty likewise to assist at the From the account of the number valuation of the thip, rigging and of horses, conductors, and drivers, ftores. Government is bound by employed in the service of the arthe charter-party, where a ship istillery in England, from January taken or destroyed by the enemy, 1778 to Dece:nber 1783, returned to pay to the owner the value of to our requisition by the clerk of zhe thip, rigging, and stores; this the ordnance, it appears that the makes it necesary to set a value establishment for the train in Engupon them previous to her failing. land, from its commencement in Certain officers, of whom the su: May 1778 to the end of October perintendant is one, are appointed 1782, confifted of 1637 horses, 32 by the board to take an inventory of conductors, and 581 drivers. By all her rigging and stores, and to a contract with Mr. Fitzherbert, of make a valuation of them, and of the year 1775, the full pay of the the fhip: this valuation is figned horses was is.gd, and of the conby all the officers, and lodged with ductors, 3s. a day; and of the the clerk of the ordnance. It is drivers, ss. a week each. They

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