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ther-in-law. This was to complete his enormities; nor can we reflect, without fhuddering on the horrors to which men are hurried by ambition.

"Ali was of the middle fize ; he had large eyes, full of fire; his carriage was graceful and noble, and his character frank and generous. Nature had endowed him with an unfurmountable courage, and a lofty genius. Far removed from that barbarous pride which leads the Turks to defpife strangers, he loved them for their talents, and generously repaid their fervices. He wifhed ardently for officers to difcipline his troops, and teach them the European tactics. died the victim of his friendship. His misfortunes arofe from nourifhing and bringing up a traitor, who took advantage of his bounty to imbitter his days, and to conduct him to his grave. Had Ruffia availed herself of his offers, had the but granted him fome engineers, and three or four thousand men, he would have made himself sovereign

He

conjured him to take refuge with
him at St. John of Acre. Mou-
rad, Ibrahim, Soliman, and Abd
Errohman, arrived there alfo, and
made the fame remonftrances. My
friends, replied he, fly, I com-
mand you; as for me, my hour is
come. Scarcely had they quitted
him, before he was furrounded by
the victorious troops. The Mama-
lukes, who were near his tent, de-
fended their mafter to the last drop
of their blood, and all perished
with their arms in their hands.
Defpair having given new force to
the unhappy Scheik Elbalad, he
rofe up, and flew the first two fol-
diers who attempted to feize him.
He was fired upon, and wounded
with two balls. At this moment
the lieutenant of Abou Dahab
appearing, fabre in hand, Ali fhot
him with a piftol. Swimming in
his blood he fought like a lion,
but a foldier having beat him down
by the back stroke of a fabre, they
threw themselves upon him, and
carried him to the tent of the con-
queror. The traitor carrying his
perfidy to its greatest height, fhed of Syria and Egypt, and have
feigned tears on feeing him in this
condition, and tried to confole him
for his difgrace. Ali turned away
his eyes, and uttered not a word.
He died of his wounds eight days
after. Others have affured me that
They were not mortal, and that he
was poifoned by his infamous bro-

transferred to his ally the commerce of Arabia and India. He perifhed at 45 years of age. The Egyptians long wept his lofs, and faw themselves again plunged into all the miferies from which he had delivered them.

MAN

MANNERS OF NATIONS.

EFFECT of the PUBLIC GAMES on the CHARACTER of the GREEKS.

[From the First Volume of Dr. GILLIES'S Hiftory of GREECE.] 64 N examining the effect of the, the feafon of the Olympic games), games, as inftitutions for bo- they received, bare headed, the dily exercife and mental improve-. direct rays of the fun. And the ment, it is neceffary to reflect, not. firm organization, acquired by peronly on the univerfality of their petual exercife, counteracted that establishment, but on the frequency fatal propenfity to vicious indulof their repetition. Befides the pub- gence, too natural to their voluplic folemnities already defcribed, tuous climate, and produced thofe innumerable provincial festivals inimitable models of strength and were celebrated in each particular beauty,, which are fo defervedly republic. The Athenians employ- admired in the precious remains of ed near a third part of the year in Grecian ftatuary. fuch amufements; and, if we may be allowed to conjecture, that those communities which inflituted moft festivals, would moft excel in the arts and exercifes difplayed in them, we may conclude, from the national delignations of the Olympic victors, preferved in ancient authors, that the number of the Athenian festivals was rivalled by that of feveral other states.

"For thefe warlike and elegant amufements the youth were carefully trained by the difcipline of the gymnafia, in which they learned whatever can give ftrength and agility to the limbs, eafe and grace to the motions, force and beauty to the genius. Bodily ftrength and agility were accompanied by health and vigour of constitution. Their athletic hardinefs bore, without inconvenience, the viciffitudes of cold and heat. Even in the fcorching warmth of July (for that was

"Thefe corporeal advantages were followed by a train of excellencies, to which they are nearly allied. There is a courage depending on nerves and blood, which was improved to the highest pitch among the Greeks. They delight, fays Lucian, to behold the combats of bold and generous animals; and their own contentions are still more animated. In the memorable war with Perfia, they fhewed the fu periority of their national courage; and it is worthy of obfervation, that the moft fignal exploits were performed in the field of battle by thofe who had been previoufly adorned with the Olympic crown. It was a general boaft, that one Grecian could conquer ten Perfians; and the fuggeftions of reafon tend to confirm the evidence of hiftory. In the battles of the Greeks and Perfians, victory was not obtained by the mechanical exer

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tions of diftant hoftility. The
conteft was decided by the point of
the fword and fpear. Thefe wea-
pons require activity of the limbs,
iteadinefs of the eye, and dexterity
of the hand. They improve the
courage as well as the vigour of the
foldier; and both were admirably
promoted by the habitual exercises
of the gymnasia, which infpired not
only the fpirit to undertake, but
the ability to execute, the most
dangerous and difficult enterprizes.
"The gymnaflic arts encouraged
other qualities ftill more important
than bodily accomplishments and
Courage. Chiefly by their in-
fluence, the love of pleafure and
the love of action, the two most
powerful principles in the human
breat, were directed to purpofes
not only innocent but ufeful. The
defire of an Olympic crown re-
ftrained alike thofe weakneffes
which form the difgrace, and thofe
vices which form the guilt and
mifery, of undifciplined minds;
and an object of earthly and pe-

rifhable ambition, led to the fame external purity and temperance, that is recommended by the precepts, and enforced by the fanctions, of a divine and immutable religion. The oil, the crown, the robes, and the palms, compofe not the only refemblance between the Chriftian and the Olympic victors. Thefe vifible images have been borrowed, indeed, by the facred writers, to affift our imperfect conception of divine truths; but they have been borrowed from an inftitution which refembles Chriftianity, not in the honours and rewards which it propofed, but in the efforts and duties which it required. The ambition of honeft fame taught men to controul the appetites of the body by the affections of the foul; the fprings of emulation répreffed the allurements of fenfuality; one dangerous paffion combated another fill more dangerous; and a train of ufeful prejudices fupported the caufe, and maintained the afcendant of virtue.

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INFLUENCE of their MUSICAL and POETICAL CONTESTS. [From the fame Work.]

N explaining the influence of the Grecian folemnities, we mut not forget the mufical and poetical exhibitions, which, from being employed to reward the victors in the gymnastic exercises, came to be themselves thought worthy of reward. The martial leffons of Tyrtæus and Callinus admirably confpired with the effects which have already been defcribed, encouraging the firm and manly virtues both by the enthufiafm with which their precepts were

conveyed, and by the lively impreffions which they gave of those objects for which it is important to contend. The courage depending on blood and nerves is uncertain and tranfitory in its existence; and even while it exists, may be indifferently employed to purposes beneficial or deftructive. It belonged to the martial bards to determine its doubtful nature, to fix and illuftrate its genuine motives, and to direct it to the proper objects of its purfuit.

"The

[48] INFLUENCE of the Musical and Poetical Contests of the GREEKS.

"The mufical entertainments thus ftrengthened, efined, and exalted the manly principles inspired by all the customs and inftitutions of that warlike age. But as bravery is a hardy plant that grows in every foil, the moft beneficial confequence of the arts confitted in infufing a proper mixture of foftnefs and fenfibility into the Grecian character. This is well known to be their effect in every country where they are allowed to flourish. The Greeks, in a peculiar manner required their affiftance; nor could it have been poffible for that people, without the happy influence of the arts, to controul the barbarity naturally occafioned by their conftant employment in war, the favage cruelty introduced by the practice of domeftic fervitude, and the intolerable ferocity which feems effentially inherent in the nature of democratical government. Amidst these sources of degeneracy and corruption, the time and application neceffary to attain proficiency in the purfuits of genius, habituated the Greeks to gentle amufements, and innocent pleafures. The honours and rewards bestowed on the fuccefsful candidates for literary fame, engaged them to feek happiness and glory in the peaceful fhade of retirement, as well as on the contentious theatre of active life; and the obfervations and difcoveries occafionally fug. gefted by the free communication of fentiment, ftrengthened and confirmed thofe happy prejudices which combat on the tide of virtue, and enforce the practice of fuch rules of behaviour as are most useful and agreeable in fociety.

"If the mufical and literary

entertainments acquired fuch an happy influence over the moral difpofitions of the heart, they produced a ftill more confiderable effect on the intellectual faculties of the mind. It is almost impoffible, in the prefent age, to conceive the full extent of their efficacy in improving the memory, animating the imagination, and correcting the judgment. As to the memory, indeed, there is a period in the progrefs of fociety preceding the introduction of writing, when the energies of this faculty have been exerted among many nations with a wonderful degree of force. Even among the barbarous Celtic inhabitants of our own ifland, the Druids could repeat an incredible number of verfes, containing the knowledge of their history, laws, and religion; and a period of twenty years was required to complete the poetical ftudies of a candidate for the priesthood.

"But if the Greeks are more than equalled by other nations in the exercife of the memory, they have always been unrivalled in the delicacy of their tafte, and the inimitable charms of their fancy. Thefe excellencies, whether originally produced by natural and moral causes, or more probably by a combination of both, were doubtlefs extended and improved by emulation and habitual exercife. To this exercife the public folemnities afforded a proper field; and, in the contefts of mufic and poetry, were difplayed the opening bloffoms of Grecian genius, bloffoms which afterwards ripened into those fruits of philofophy and eloquence, that will form the admiration and delight of the laft ages of the world.

CONDITION

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[49]

CONDITION and TREATMENT of the GRECIAN WOMEN.

[From the fame Work.]

OR reafons which will imme- which fometimes accompanies a

not

hitherto found it neceffary particularly to defcribe the manners and influence of the Grecian women; but the character and condition of the fair fex will throw light on the preceding obfervations in this chapter, and prefent the most striking contraft of any to be met with in history. If we knew not the confideration in which women were anciently held in Greece, and the advantages which they enjoyed at Sparta, after the laws of Lycurgus had revived the inftitutions of the heroic ages, we fhould be apt to fufpect that the ungenerous treatment of the feebler fex, which afterwards fo univerfally prevailed, had been derived from the Egyptian and Afiatic colonies, which early fettled in that part of Europe. Excluded from focial intercourfe, which nature had fitted them to adorn, the Grecian women were rigorously confined to the most retired apartments of the family, and employed in the meanest offices of domestic oeconomy. It was thought indecent for them to venture abroad, unless to attend a proceffion, to accompany a funeral, or to aflift at certain other religious folemnities. Even on these occafions, their behaviour was attentively watched and often malignantly interpreted. The most innocent freedom was conftrued into a breach of decorum; and their reputation once fullied by the flightest imprudence, would never afterwards be retrieved. If fuch unreasonable severities had proceeded from that abfurd jealousy 1786.

violent love, and of

degree is nearly connected with the delicacy of paffion between the fexes, the condition of the Grecian women, though little lefs miferable would have been far lefs contemptible. But the Greeks were utter ftrangers to that refinement of fentiment which in the ages of chivalry, and which, till in fome fouthern countries of Europe, renders women the objects of a fufpicious, but refpectful paffion, and leads men to gratify their vanity at the expence of their freedom. Married or unmarried, the Grecian females were kept in equal restraint; no pains were taken to render them, at any one period of their lives, agreeable meinbers of fociety; and their education was either entirely neglected, or confined at least to fuch humble objects, as instead of elevating and enlarging the mind, tended only to narrow and to debafe it. Though neither qualified for holding an honourable rank in fociety, nor permitted to enjoy the company of their nearest friends and relations, they were thought capable of fuperintending or performing the drudgery of domeftic labour, of acting as flewards for their hufbands, and thus relieving them from a multiplicity of little cares, which feemed unworthy their at tention, and unfuitable to their dignity. The whole burden of fuch mercenary cares being impofed on the women, the first in ftructions and treatment were adapted to that lowly rank, beyond which they could never afterwards D

afpire.

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