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CONDITION and TREATMENT of the GRECIAN WOMEN.
[From the same Work.] VOR reasons which will imme. which sometimes accompanies a
diately appear, we have not violent love, and of which a certain hitherto found it neceffary parti. degree is nearly connected with cularly to describe the manners and the delicacy of paffion between the influence of the Grecian women ; fexes, the condition of the Grecian but the character and condition of women, though little less miserable the fair sex will throw light on the would have been far lels conpreceding observations in this chap- temptible. But the Greeks were ier, and present the most triking utter strangers to that refinement contratt of any to be met with in of sentiment which in the ages of hilory. If we knew not the con- chivalry, and which, itill in some sideration in which women were southern countries of Europe, anciently held in Greece, and the renders women the objects of a fufadvantages which they enjoyed at picious, but reipelful passion, and Sparta, after the laws of Lycurgus leads men to gratify their vanity had revived the institutions of the at the expence of their freedom.
we should be apt to Married or unmarried, the Gresuspect that the ungenerous treat- cian females were kept in cqual ment of the feebler fex, which restraint ; no pains were taken to afterwards fo universally prevailed, render them, at any one period of had been derived from the Egyp- their lives, agreeable meinbers of rian and Atiatic colonies, which fociety; and their education was early settled in that part of Europe. either entirely neglected, or conExcluded from social intercourse, fined at Icait to luch huinble ob. which pature had fitted them to jeêts, as instead of elevating and adorn, the Grecian women were enlarging the inind, tended only to rigorously confined to the most re- narrow and to debase it. Though tired apartments of the family, and neither qualified for holding an employed in the meanest offices of honourable rank in fociety, nor domestic oeconomy. It was thought permitted to enjoy the company of indecent for them
their nearest friends and relations, abroad, unless to attend a pro- they were thought capable of su. cellion, to accompany a funeral, or perintending or performing the to allift at certain other religious drudgery of doinettic labour, of folemnities. Even on these occa- acting as flewards for their huffions, their behaviour was atten- bands, and thus relieving them tively watched and often malig- from a multiplicity of little cares, nantly interpreted. The most in which seemed unworthy their atnocent freedoiri was construed into tention, and unsuitable to their a breach of decorum ; and their dignity. The whole burden of reputation once sullied by the such mercenary cares being im. Nightest imprudence, would never posed on the women, the first ing afterwards be retrieved. If such itructions and treatment were adaptunreasonable severities had pro-ed to that lowly rank, beyond ceeded from that absurd jealousy which they could never afterwards 1786.
aspire. Nothing was allowed to husband's property a matter of divert the r minds froin those servile greater importance than defending occupations in which it was in the wife's person from outrage, and tended that their whole lives should protecting her character from inbe spent, no liberal idea was pre- tamy. By such illiberal inftitusented to their imaginations that tions were the most amiable part might raise them above the ignoble of the human species insulted, arts in which they were ever det among a people in other respects tined to labour; 'the smailest fa- the most improved of all antiquity. miliarity with strangers was deemed They were totally debarred from a dangerous offence; and any in- those refined arts and entertain. timacy or connection beyond the ments, to which their agreeable walls of their own family, a qualities might have added a new heinous crime ; fince it might en: charm. Intiead of directing the gage them to embezzle the house- taile and enlivening the pleasures hold furniture and effects com- ot fnijery, their value was estimarmitted to their care and cułody: ed, like that of the ignoblest obEven the laws of Athens confirmed jets, merely by profit or utility. this miserable degradation of wo. Their chief virtue was reserve, and men, holding the security of the their point of honour, æconomy.
CHARACTER and MANNERS of the ANCIENT WELSH.
[From Warrington's History of Wales.] HE Welth (according to Gi- was caitle and oats, besides milk,
raldus Cambrennis, who was cheese, and butter ; though they himself a native of the country, usually ate more plentifully of fleth and wrote in a period when their meat than ot bread. native manners, were pure and un- “ As they were not engaged in adulterated by foreign intercourie) the occupations of traffic either by were a nation light and nimble, and fea or land, their time was entirely more fierce than itropg; fròin the employed in military affairs. They lowest to the higheit of the people were to anxious for the preservation they were devoted to arms, which of their country and its liberties, the plowman as well as the courtier that they eileemed it delightful not was prepared to leize on the firit only to fight for them, but even to fummons. Their chiet employ. tacritice their lives: and, agreeably ment in works of husbandry was, to this ipirit, they entertained an ithat for oats they opened the fuil, dea that it was a disgrace to die in once only in March and April; and their beds, but an honour to fall in for wheat or rye, they turned it up, the field. Such wis their eager twice in the summer, and a third courace, that although unarmed, time in winter, about the seaton of they often dared to engage with men thrallring.
entirely vered with armour. And " The chief fusienance of this in such engagements, by their actipeople, in : respect of their food, pity and valour, they usually came
off conquerors. That their activi- country, and in the care of their ty might not be impeded by any un- plunder. Accustomed to faft from necessary incumbrance, they made morning till night, their minds were use of light armour; such as smali- wholly employed on butiness, they ler coats of mail, Thields, and fome- gave up the day entirely to prudent times of iron greaves; their offen- deliberations, and in the evening five weapons were arrows and long they partook of a sober supper. 1pears. Their bows were usually But if, at any time, it happened, made' of flight ewigs joined or twist that they were not able to procure ed together, and though rude in any, or only a very fparing repaft, their form, they discharged an are they patiently waited till the next row with great force. The people morning; and in this situation, preof North Wales were remarkable vented neither by hunger nor cold, for spears to long and well pointed, they were eager to take advantage that they could pierce through an of dark and iloriny nights for hofiron coat of mail; the men of South tile invasions, Wales were accounted the most ex- " There was not a beggar to be pert archers. The chieftains, when seen among these people ; for the they went to war, were mounted on tables of all were common to all ; swift horfes, bred in the country; and with them bounty, and particuthe lower forts of people, on ac- larly hospitable entertainment, kere count of the marshes, as well as in higher eltimation than any of the the inequalities of the ground, other virtues. Hospitality, indeed, marched on foot to battle ; though, was so much the habit of this nawhenever the oc alion or the place tion, by a mutual return of such rendered it neceffary for the pur- civilities, that it was neither offerpofes either of fighting or flying, ed to, nor requested by travelthe horfemen themselves dismount. lers. As foon as they en ered any ed and served on foot.
house, they immediately delivered “ The Welsh either went with their arms into the cutoily of some their feet entirely bare, or they person ; then if they suffered their used boots of raw leather, instead feet to be washed by those, who fur of shoes, sewed together with raw that purpose directiy offered them ikin.
water, they were considered as lodge “In the time of peace, the young ers for the night. The refusal of men accustomed themselves to pe; this oficred civility, intimated their netrate the woods and thickets, and delire of a morning's refreshment so run over the tops of mountains ; only. The offer of water for the and by continuing this exercile purpole of washing the feet, was through the day and night, they confidered as an invitation to accept prepared themteives for the fatigues of hospitable entertainment. The and employments of war.
young men ufually marched in par6. These people were not given ties, or in tribes, a leader being apto excess either in eating or drink. pinted to each ; and as they were ing. They had no set time appoint, devoted to arms, or given up to ed for their meals, nor any expen- leisure, and were courageous in the live riches in their cloaths. Their defence of their country, they were whole attention was occupied in the permitted to enter the house of any fplendid appearance of their horses person wi:h the fame fecurity as and arins, in the defence of their their own. The strangers who ar.
rived in the morning were enter- at their feet throughout the night, tained until the evening, wth the as well as in the day. conversation of young women, and " The Welth were a people of with the mufic of the harp; for in an acute and subtile genius; and this country a most cvery houle was whatever studies they applied provided with both. Hence we may their minds, enjoying so rich a vein reasonably conclude, that the peo of natural endowments, they exple were not much inclined to jea- celled in wit and ingenuity any oIousy. Such an iniluence had the ther of the weitern nations. in cipowers of music on their minds, that vil causes and actions, they exertin every family, or in every tr.be, ed all the powers of rhetoric, and, they esteemned skill in playing on the in the conduct of these, their taharp beyond any kind of learning, lents for intinuation, invention, und
in the evening, when the vi- refutation, were conspicuous In fitors were all cone, an entertain rhythmical songs, and in extempore inent was provided according to the effutions, they excelled to a great number and dignity of the persons, degree, both in refpect to invenand the wealth of the house, on tion and elegance of tyle ; and for which occasion the cook was not these purpoies poets or bards were fatigued with dressing many dishes, appointed. But beyond all other nor such as were high icafoned as rhetorical ornaments they preferred ftiinulatives to gluttony; nor was the the use of alliteration, and that kind house fet off with tables, napkins, more ctpecially which repeats the or towels ; for in all these things firit letters or fyllables of words. they studied nature more than ther. They made for much use of this orThe guests were placed by threcs nament in every tinithed difcourse, at fupper, and the dithes at the fame that they thought nothing eleganttime were put on ruthes, in large ly spoken without it. and ample platters made of clean “ In private company, or in reagrafs, with thin and broad cakes of fons of public festivity, they were bread, baked every day. At the very facetious in their conversation, fame time that the whole fainily, to entertain the company and dií with a kind of emulation in their play their own wit. With this view, civilities, were in waiting, the mar- perfons of lively parts, fometimes ter and mistress in particular, were in mild and römetimes in biting always standing, very attentively terms, under the cover of a double overlooking the whole At length, meaning, by a peculiar turn of when the hour of fleep approached, voice, or by the transposition of they all lay down in common on words, were continuaily utrering the public bed, ranged lengthwise huinorous, or fairical expreilions. along the tides of the room; a few • The lowest of the people, as rushes being strowed on the floor, well as the nobles, were indebted and covered only with a coarse hard to nature for a certain boldncis in cloth, the produce of the country. speech, and an honest contidence in The same garb that the people were giving answers to great men on matused to wear in the day, ferved ters of business, or in the presence them also in the night; and this of princes. consisted of a thin mantle, and a 's Pride of ancestry and nobility garment or Mir tworn next to the of family were points held in the ikin. The fire was kept burning higheit estimation among the leli,
and of course they were far more Vales for four generations, were delirous of noble than of rich and also admitted to the same privileges, fplendid marriages. So deeply root- " The love which they felt for ed was this fpirit, that even the ve- family connections was eager and ry lowest of the pe ple carefully warm; and of confequence they preserved the genealogy of their were keen in their relentments, and families, and were able from me. revenged deeply any injury commory readily to recite the names, mitted on their fanily either of not only of their inmediate ance blood or dishonour. They were tors, but even to the fixth and fe- vindiciive and blo:dy in their an. venth generation, and eren to trace ger; and exceedingly prompt to them till farther back; in this revenge not only recent injuries, manner, Rhys ap Griitydk, ap but even those which were part Rhys, ap Tewdur, ap Enion, ap and committed in a rem te period. Owen, ap Howel, ap Cadwal, ap What spread still farther this fpirit Roderic the Great.
of revenge, was a custom prevalent " A Welfıman was considered as among this people, of tending their honourable, if among bis ancestors children to be fostered or nursed there had been neither llave, nor in other families; who, in conteforeigner, nor intamous perton, quence, regarred themielves as invet it any foreigner bad saved the tercited to promote the welfare of, life of a' elfhman, or delivered or revenge any injuries donc to, him from captivity, he might be such fofte red children. This curnaturalized, and was entitled to the tom, it is probable principally prerights of Wellhmen. And any fo- vailed in the families of princes and reign family, having retided in chieftains.
MANNERS of the MODERN EGYPTIANS.
[From the Firit Volume of SAVARY'S LETTERS on Egypt.)
IFE is more a pallive than you, is, Peace be with you! Effe.
an active existence at Grand minacy is born with the Egyptian, Cairo. The body, during nine grows up with him as he advances months of the year, is opprefled in life, and follows him to the tomb. with the exceilive heats. The mind It is a vice of the climate. It in-partakes of this state of indolence. fiucnces his taste, and governs all Far from being continually tor- his actions. It is to fatisfy this mented by the detire of fcting, of difpofition that the most luxurious acquiring knowledge, and of act- piece of furniture in his apartment ing, it lighs after calm and tran- is the fopha; that his gardens have quillity. Under a temperate sky de ightful shades, convenient seats, inactivity is a pain; here, on the and not a fingle alley one c.in walk contrary, repose is an enjoyment. in. The Frenchman born in a cliThe most frequent falutation, there- mate, the temperature of which is fore, that which is made use of on continually changing, receives eveaccolting, and repeated on quitting ry instant new impreffions, which