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hufband's property a matter of greater importance than defending the wife's perfon from outrage, and protecting her character from inpre-famy.

afpire. Nothing was allowed to divert the r minds from thofe fervile occupations in which it was intended that their whole lives fhould be fpent, no liberal idea was fented to their imaginations that might raise them above the ignoble arts in which they were ever def tined to labour; the fmalleft familiarity with ftrangers was deemed a dangerous offence; and any intimacy or connection beyond the walls of their own family, a heinous crime; fince it might engage them to embezzle the houfehold furniture and effects committed to their care and cuftody, Even the laws of Athens confirmed this miferable degradation of women, holding the fecurity of the

By fuch illiberal inftitutions were the most amiable part of the human fpecies infulted, among a people in other refpects the most improved of all antiquity. They were totally debarred from thofe refined arts and entertainments, to which their agreeable qualities might have added a new charm. Intlead of directing the tale and enlivening the pleasures of fociety, their value was eflimated, like that of the ignobleft objects, merely by profit or utility. Their chief virtue was referve, and their point of honour, œconomy.

CHARACTER and MANNERS of the ANCIENT WELSH.

TH

[From Warrington's Hiftory of Wales.].

HE Welsh (according to Giraldus Cambrentis, who was himfelf a native of the country, and wrote in a period when their native manners, were pure and unadulterated by foreign intercourfe) were a nation light and nimble, and more fierce than trong; from the lowest to the highest of the people they were devoted to arms, which the plowman as well as the courtier was prepared to feize on the first fummons. Their chief employment in works of hufbandry was, that for oats they opened the foil, once only in March and April; and for wheat or rye, they turned it up, twice in the fummer, and a third time in winter, about the feafon of thrashing.

"The chief fuftenance of this people, in respect of their food,

was cattle and oats, befides milk, cheese, and butter; though they ufually ate more plentifully of flesh meat than of bread.

"As they were not engaged in the occupations of traffic either by fea or land, their time was entirely employed in military affairs. They were to anxious for the prefervation of their country and its liberties, that they esteemed it delightful not only to fight for them, but even to facrifice their lives: and, agreeably to this ipirit, they entertained an idea that it was a difgrace to die in their beds, but an honour to fall in the field. Such was their eager courage, that although unarmed, they often dared to engage with men entirely covered with armour. And in fuch engagements, by their actiyity and valour, they ufually came

off conquerors. That their activity might not be impeded by any unneceflary incumbrance, they made ufe of light armour; fuch as fmalller coats of mail, fhields, and fometimes of iron greaves; their offenfive weapons were arrows and long fpears. Their bows were ufually made of flight twigs joined or twifted together, and though rude in their form, they difcharged an arrow with great force. The people of North Wales were remarkable for fpears fo long and well pointed, that they could pierce through an iron coat of mail; the men of South Wales were accounted the most expert archers. The chieftains, when they went to war, were mounted on fwift horfes, bred in the country; the lower forts of people, on account of the marthes, as well as the inequalities of the ground, marched on foot to battle; though, whenever the oc afion or the place rendered it neceffary for the purpofes either of fighting or flying, the horsemen themfelves difmounted and ferved on foot.

"The Welth either went with their feet entirely bare, or they ufed boots of raw leather, instead of fhoes, fewed together with raw fkin.

In the time of peace, the young men accustomed themfelves to penetrate the woods and thickets, and to run over the tops of mountains; and by continuing this exercite through the day and night, they prepared themselves for the fatigues and employments of war.

"Thefe people were not given to excefs either in eating or drinking. They had no fet time appointed for their meals, nor any expenfive riches in their cloaths. Their whole attention was occupied in the fplendid appearance of their horfes and arms, in the defence of their

country, and in the care of their plunder. Accuftomed to faft from morning till night, their minds were wholly employed on bufinefs, they gave up the day entirely to prudent deliberations, and in the evening they partook of a fober fupper. But if, at any time, it happened, that they were not able to procure any, or only a very fparing repaft, they patiently waited till the next morning; and in this fituation, prevented neither by hunger nor cold, they were eager to take advantage of dark and stormy nights for hoftile invafions.

"There was not a beggar to be feen among these people; for the tables of all were common to all; and with them bounty, and particularly hofpitable entertainment, were in higher eftimation than any of the other virtues. Hofpitality, indeed, was fo much the habit of this nation, by a mutual return of fuch civilities, that it was neither offered to, nor requested by travellers. As foon as they entered any houfe, they immediately delivered their arms into the custody of fome perfon; then if they fuffered their feet to be washed by thofe, who for that purpofe directly offered thear water, they were confidered as lodgers for the night. The refufal of this offered civility, intimated their delire of a morning's refreshment only. The offer of water for the purpofe of washing the feet, was confidered as an invitation to accept of hofpitable entertainment. The young men ufually marched in parties, or in tribes, a leader being appointed to each; and as they were devoted to arms, or given up to leifure, and were courageous in the defence of their country, they were permitted to enter the house of any perfon with the fame fecurity as their own. The ftrangers who ar

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rived in the morning were entertained until the evening, w th the converfation of young women, and with the mufic of the harp; for in this country almost every house was provided with both. Hence we may reafonably conclude, that the peo ple were not much inclined to jealoufy. Such an influence had the powers of mufic on their minds, that in every family, or in every tribe, they esteemed fkill in playing on the harp beyond any kind of learning.

n the evening, when the vifitors were all come, an entertain ment was provided according to the number and dignity of the perfons, and the wealth of the house, on which occafion the cook was not fatigued with dreffing many dishes, nor fuch as were high feafoned as ftimulatives to gluttony; nor was the houfe fet off with tables, napkins, or towels; for in all these things they ftudied nature more than fhew. The guests were placed by threes at fupper, and the dithes at the fame time were put on ruthes, in large and ample platters made of clean grafs, with thin and broad cakes of bread, baked every day. At the fame time that the whole family, with a kind of emulation in their civilities, were in waiting, the maf ter and miftrefs in particular, were always ftanding, very attentively overlooking the whole At length, when the hour of fleep approached, they all lay down in common on the public bed, ranged lengthwife along the fides of the room; a few rufhes being ftrowed on the floor, and covered only with a coarfe hard cloth, the produce of the country. The fame garb that the people were ufed to wear in the day, ferved them alfo in the night; and this confifted of a thin mantle, and a garment or fhir tworn next to the tkin. The fire was kept burning

at their feet throughout the night, as well as in the day.

to

In

"The Welsh were a people of an acute and fubtile genius; and whatever studies they applied their minds, enjoying fo rich a vein of natural endowments, they excelled in wit and ingenuity any other of the weitern nations. In civil caufes and actions, they exerted all the powers of rhetoric, and, in the conduct of thefe, their talents for infinuation, invention, and refutation, were confpicuous rhythmical fongs, and in extempore effutions, they excelled to a great degree, both in refpect to invention and elegance of ftyle; and for thefe purposes poets or bards were appointed. But beyond all other rhetorical ornaments they preferred the ufe of alliteration, and that kind more efpecially which repeats the first letters or fyllables of words. They made fo much ufe of this ornament in every finished difcourse, that they thought nothing elegantly fpoken without it.

"In private company, or in fea fons of public festivity, they were very facetious in their converfation, to entertain the company and dif play their own wit. With this view, perfons of lively parts, fometimes in mild and fometimes in biting terms, under the cover of a double meaning, by a peculiar turn of voice, or by the tranfpofition of words, were continually uttering humorous, or fatirical expreflions.

The lowest of the people, as well as the nobles, were indebted to nature for a certain boldness in fpeech, and an honeft confidence in giving anfwers to great men on matters of bufinefs, or in the prefence of princes.

Pride of ancestry and nobility of family were points held in the highest eftimation among the Welf,

and of courfe they were far more delirous of noble than of rich and fplendid marriages. So deeply rooted was this fpirit, that even the very lowest of the people carefully preferved the genealogy of their families, and were able from memory readily to recite the names, not only of their immediate ance tors, but even to the fixth and feventh generation, and even to trace them till farther back; in this manner, Rhys ap Griffydk, ap Rhys, ap Tewdur, ap Enion, ap Owen, ap Howel, ap Cadwal, ap Roderic the Great.

"A Wellman was confidered as honourable, if among his ancestors there had been neither flave, nor foreigner, nor infamous perfon, yet if any foreigner had faved the life of a Welfhman, or delivered him from captivity, he might be naturalized, and was entitled to the rights of Welfhmen. And any foreign family, having refided in

Wales for four generations, were alfo admitted to the fame privileges.

"The love which they felt for family connections was eager and warm; and of confequence they were keen in their relentments, and revenged deeply any injury committed on their family either of blood or difhonour. They were vindictive and bloody in their anger; and exceedingly prompt to revenge not only recent injuries, but even thofe which were pat and committed in a rem te period. What fpread ftill farther this fpirit of revenge, was a custom prevalent among this people, of tending their children to be fostered or nurfed in other families; who, in confequence, regarded themfelves as interefted to promote the welfare of, or revenge any injuries done to, fuch foftered children. This cuftom, it is probable principally prevailed in the families of princes and chieftains.

MANNERS of the MODERN EGYPTIANS. [From the Firit Volume of SAVARY'S LETTERS on EGYPT.]

"L'

IFE is more a paffive than an active existence at Grand Cairo. The body, during nine months of the year, is oppreffed with the exceffive heats. The mind partakes of this ftate of indolence. Far from being continually tormented by the defire of feeing, of acquiring knowledge, and of acting, it highs after calm and tranquillity. Under a temperate fky inactivity is a pain; here, on the contrary, repofe is an enjoyment. The most frequent falutation, therefore, that which is made ufe of on accotting, and repeated on quitting

you, is, Peace be with you! Effe. minacy is born with the Egyptian, grows up with him as he advances in life, and follows him to the tomb. It is a vice of the climate. It influences his tafte, and governs all his actions. It is to fatisfy this difpofition that the most luxurious piece of furniture in his apartment is the fopha; that his gardens have delightful fhades, convenient feats, and not a fingle alley one can walk in. The Frenchman born in a climate, the temperature of which is continually changing, receives every inftant new impreffions, which

D 3

keep

keep his foul awake. He is active, impatient, and inconftant as the air he breathes in. The Egyptian, who for two thirds of the year almoft invariably experiences the fame degree of heat, the fame fenfation, is flothful, ferious, and patient.

"He rifes with the fun to enjoy the coolness of the morning. He purifies himself, and goes to prayer according to the precept. He is prefented with a pipe and coffee. He remains foftly repofing on his fopha. His flaves, with their hands croffed on their breasts, ftand in filence at the bottom of the apartment, Their eyes fixed on their mafter, they strive to anticipate all his withes. His children tanding in his prefence, unlefs he gives them permiffion to be feated, difplay in all their beha viour the utmoft tenderness and refpect. He gravely careffes them, gives them his bleffing, and fends them back to the haram. He alone interrogates, and is anfwered with decency. He is at once, the chief, the judge, and the pontiff of the family, which refpects in him thofe facred rights.

." After breakfast he applies himfelf to his commercial fairs, or to thofe of the place he occupies. As to differences, they are very rare -amongst a people where the monfter of chicanery is dumb, where the name of attorney is unknown, where the code of laws is confined to a few clear and well defined precepts of the Coran, and where every man is his own advocate,

"If any visitors arrive, the mafter of the houfe receives them without many compliments, but in an affectionate manner. His equals go and feat themselves by him with their legs croffed; a pofture by no means fatiguing with cloaths which do not fetter the limbs,

His inferiors are on their knees, and feated on their heels. Perfons of great diftinction Et on an elevated fopha, from which they overlook the company. Thus Eneas was in the place of honour in the palace of Dido, when feated on a high bed, he related to the queen the difaftrous fate of Troy, reduced to afhes. As foon as every one is feated, the flaves bring pipes and coffee, and place in the middle of the chamber a pan with perfumes, the delicious vapour of which fills the whole apartment. They are next prefented with fweetmeats and forbet.

"The tobacco made ufe of in

Egypt comes from Syria. It is brought in leaves, which are cut in long filaments

It has not the .

pungency of the American tobacco. To render it more agreeable, it is mixed with the fcented wood of aloes. The pipes, ufually made of jeffamine tipped with amber. and frequently enriched with precious ftones. As they are extremely long, the fmoke one inhales is very mild. The Orientals pretend that it tickles agreeably the palate, at the tame time that it gratifies the fmell. The rich fmoke in lofty apartments, with a great number of windows.

"Towards the conclufion of the vifit, a flave, holding in his hand a filver plate, on which are burning precious effences, approaches the face of the visitors, each of whom in his turn perfumes his beard. They then pour rofe-water on the head and hands. This is the last ceremony, after which it is ufual to withdraw.

"The ancient cuftom of perfuming one's head and beard, celebrated by the royal prophet, ftill fubfifts in our days. Anacreon, the father of joy, the poet of the Graces, never ceases repeating in his odes,

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