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rye or tobacco; and the plains for " The produce of filk is amply that of wheat, neceffary for the sufficient to pay the miri to the support of their inhabitants. Alo Grand Signior; to purchase rice though the Bekaa produces moft and linens from Egypt, which are abundant crops, they ait never- absolute neceflaries ; and to procure theless obliged to import a large to the happy inhabitants, of these quantiry to fupply the ordinary mountains, the several articles of consumption.
pleafure and convenience with " But the principal riches of which they are supplied by the these mountains are its mulberry French. trees, which are every where cul- " When the harvest of filk is tivated with the greatest success. - over, the women employ themAr the latter end of Autumn they felves in spinning cotton and raw lop off all their branches, which, in fils, the lait is fent into Egypt, the spring following, shoot out the foriner serves to make coarse with a profution of tender luccu- linens and dimities for common lent leaves, on which the tilk- use. - This is also a branch of worm feeds with rapacity. In the industry which contributes to the interior parts of these mountains enjoyments of the inhabitants of this valuable infect is nurtured therë mountains. within doors ; but in the territory The Druses are a very nime. of Baruth in the open air, under rous people; the tranquillity which Theds, covered with briars and they enjoy, joined to the beauty brambles ; the only care neceffary and temperature of their climate, is cleanliness. - This occupation attract, in crowds, the Christians belongs to the woman.- As they do of Syria, who fly from the tyranny not hatch before the end of the of the pachas.—This nation can rainy feason, and when thunder is with ease railc ;0,000 nien, toleno more heard, their general in- rably capable of undertaking the crcase is prodigious.—Those brought defence of their mountains and up under the shelter of a good defiles.—But this militia, assembled house produce yellow filk; those in hatte, and without any kind under the sheds, white. The annual of discipline, never atchieved any products are all collected by and in thing glorious whenever they left the month of August; and in a their mountains to descend into the divan or council, where the emir plains, where the little order they presides, the price of the filk is observe gives too great an advanfixed, according to its plenty or tage to the cavalry of their ene. fcarcity and the demar.d of foreign mies. markets. The price ftated regulates
66 These armies are never any the payment of those duties which expence to the emir ; either the the cultivator owes to the emir, hope of pillage engages them to or to his respective cheik, and follow their leaders, or critical which they pay, at their option, circumstances, such as the danger either in kind or money. The of the state, induce them to take up public market is afterwards opened arms for the defence of their counat Baruth, where the French mer- try. They then convoke the chants, establithed at Sidon, either general asembly of the state : go or send brokers to exccute their every cheik, whether Druse or commillions,
Christian, is obliged to repair to
the rendezvous, at the head of the to lay in such a stock of prositions young men of their refpective vil. as is necessary for the current year; lages. The Chiefs only are on and, when an unexpected guest horseback. Every one comes arm- arrives to fhare with them, atier ed with a mulket, a battle axe, a his departure they take care to difabre, and a pair of pittols, and it minith their daily consumption, is understood that he is to furnish till by oeconomy, they have recohimself wih powder, ball, and vered what they had expended. provisions. They encamp in the 'I heir provisions confift, in defiles through which the enemy general, of burgoo, wheat boiled, may penetrate, and have a great and afterwards dried in the furi, advantage by the agility with which with which they make soup; a they climb the mountains, and fat theep, which they cut in viry their knowledge of the paths and fmall pieces and preserve in butter, remote pafles -— Their provisions after having roatied it quite brown are but little incumbrance ; they and crisp. They make much use confist of bread and checse, only, of pillaw (rice baked with butter which every soldier carrics in a small or fat), but above all of
eggs, leathern bag hung to his lide.- which they dress whole, between These numerous armies keep the two plates, or dishes, and which field only a few days, as they are they call maklabaid - The utenlil never called together till the ncar they make use of is very fingular : approach of the eneiny.
it is a dish made of cows-dung " The manner of affembling kneaded with earth. The more i them is sufficiently fingular to has been used the more it is held merit being related. --The emir in eitimation.- Amongit the furni. sends heralds to all the villages, ture, which compofis the marriage in which they cry-" Honour calls fortune of the girls, a dish of this
He whó hattens not at the kind is never wanting. found of his voice is a man without " To these cflential provisions honour.-At this proclamation all they add rice, greens, honey, and the women of the village allemble dried fruits. They feldom cat in the market-place, and, to en- freih' meat, as their country dos courage the young men to fly to the not abound in patturage for the defence of their country, they de- nourifhment of their flocks, mand arms for the saine purpole. “In those villages where fire
“ The right of asylum is sacred wood is scarce, it is customary to amongst the Drufes. —A man pur. fupply the want of it by the dung sued by the vengeance of govern- of their domestic animals, and the ment, if he can reach the moun- truddles of their goats, which they tains, is sure of his life ; neither knead up with their ítraw. promises nor threats can force a “ Every house makes its own culprit from the hands of an emir, bread; the oven is a great earthen or cheik, who has promised him his veflel, in which they light a fire. protection
When it is hot, they apply to its “ Hospitality is greatly honour. inner edge, w th a little leathera ed by this people, though they treat bag, a very thin cake of dough, their guests with great partimony.-- which is baked in an instant; but Temperance is one of their virtues. this bread is good only when treth, It is customary with every family " The marriage of the Drufes,
like that of the Turks, is merely tians, we might be induced to civil; they contract in the fame believe they were not averse to manner and under the same con- Christianity ; but in their hearts ditions. The cadi, or judge of they abhor its dogmas and docthe place draws up a deed, in which trines. The apparent respect they is specified, first, the dower which thoi them proceeds from their the husband gives his wife, then indifference for all religions, which the sum he is to receive in case of they equally reprobate ; without her death or repudiation.
endeavouring to accelerate the time “ The Drules carry their pre- fixed by destiny for their total decautions and jealoufies to greater struction. lengths than the other people of “ The Christians enjoy amongst the East.--Their wives live very thein the most perfect tranq'illity ; ret red : even their nearest rela. and there are more Christians, at tions are excluded from their 10- preleut, in their principality, than ciety.-They cannot legally be Druses. They are both governed scen but by their fathers, brothers, by the same laws, and enjoy the and children :- Even a brother fame privileges. is not perinitted frequently to visit " The emirs have more confi. his brother's wife. And, Mould dence in the Christians than in the it be proved that a girl had been Dules themselves ; it is from deficient in her duty, the would among them they chuse their stewfind no mercy : Mhe must be facri- ards, their guards, and their doficed to the honour of her family, mettic servants. - To them they
“ The Drules apparently pro- entrust the education of their chil. fess, but in their hearts 'detelt, dren. For these reasons, the greatMahomeranilin. - Intereit obliges est part of the emirs, in fecret, them to keep well with the Turkish proteis Chriftianity. The reigning government and the established emir Juliet is said to be a Christian. religion ; this forces them to have --The Drules have more than once recourle to diffimulation, which mewn their discontent at the ascenmay prove advantageous to them, dance which the Christians have and which their principles do not obtained in their mountains ; but, confider as illegal.
being no longer the strongest, they “ To judge of them by their are obliged to suppress their resentconduct with respeớt to the Chris
CLASSICAL AND POLITE CRITICISM.
HISTORY and CHARACTER of ANCIENT COMEDY.
[From the First Vol. of Gillies's HISTORY of GREECE.)
RAGEDY, the song of fables handed down by iminemorial
the goat, and Comedy, tradition concerning that bountiful the song of the village, fuficiently divinity; this imitation was confiderindicate, by the meanness of their ed as a mark of gratitude due to the ancient name, the humility of their beneficence of the God, to whose first original. They arose amidit honours they allociated the kindred the facrifices and joyous feitivity worship of Pan, Silenus, and their of the vintage, in a country which attendant fawns and fatyrs. When feldom adopted the amusements, Æschylus represented, therefore, any more than the arts and inititu- initead of fimply reciting, the real tions, of others, but which was history, or agreeable fictions of destined to communicate her own antiquity, he only adopted a mode to all the civiliseul portion of man- of imitation already practifed in the kind. During the entertainments religious ceremonies of his country; of a seaton peculiarly dedicated to a mode of imitation more powerful recreation and pleasure, the fufcepthan the epic, fince, initead of tible minds of the Greeks naturally barely describing the deeds of gods yielded to two propensities conge. and heroes, it ihews those dittinnial to men in such circumstances, guished personages on the scene, a disposition to cxercise their fen- makes them speak and act for tibility, and a desire to amuse their themselves, and thus approaching fancy. Availing himself of the nearer to reality, is still more forformer, the sublime genius of Æf cible and affecting. chylus improved the fong of the " As tragedy was introduced in goat into a regular dramatic poem, imitation of the more serious spectaagreeing with the Iliad and Odyfiey cles of the Dionysian festival, lo in those unalterable rules of design comedy, which foon followed it, and execution which are essential was owing to the more light and to the perfection of every literary ludicrous parts of that folemnity. performance, yet differing froin Tragedy, in the imitation of an those immortal archetypes of art, important and serious action, adapein a circumstance naturally fug. ed' to effect the sensibility of the gested by the occasion for which spectators, and to gratify their natragedies were composed. It had tural propensity to fear, to weep, been usual with the Athenians, and tv wonder. Comedy is the when they celebrated in the ipring imitation of a light and ludicrous and autumn the great fellivals of Bac- action, adapted to amuse the fancy, chus, to personate the exploits and and to gratify the natural dispofition
of men to laughter and merriment. continuance. The people of all Terror and pity have in all ages ranks at Athens were then too been regarded as the main springs decply engaged in the military and of tragedy, because the laws of political tranfactions of their couna sensibility, founded solely in na- try, to enjoy any amusement which ture, are always the same. Comedy did not either directly flatter their has been infinitely varied by the paffions, or bear an immediate innumerable modes of wit, humour, relation to the great and impor. and ridicule, which prevail in tant interests of the republic. It different ages and countries, and was during the confusion and calawhich agree scarcely in any one mities of the Peloponnesian war, particular, unlets it may be rec- that all the comic pieces which koned an agreement, that men bave remain were originally represented ; feldom indulged them, except at the a period too disorderly and tumulexpence of their good-nature, and tuous to relish comedies, such as otten of their virtue. The Grecian are now written, or such as were comedy was uncommonly licen. compoled in Greece by Menander, tious; the profligare characters of in an age of greater moderation and Aristophanes and his contempora- tranquillity. The elegant and rics, Mnesilochus, Callias, Eupolis, ingenious, the moral and instrucand Cratenus, contributed, doubt tive strains of Moliere or Menander, less, to this deformity ; yet these may amuse the idleness of wealth, poets could not calily hare ren. and the security of peace. But deres their new entertainment a- amidst the fermentation of war and greeable to the talle and prejudices dangér, amidst civil diffentions of the public, without incorporat. and foreign invahons, the minds ing in them the fubftance of the of inen are too litile at ease to phallic fongs, which constituted an enjoy such refined and delicate ancient and essential part of the beauties which then appear lifeless amusements of the vintage. The and insipid. In such turbulent cir. fond adınirers of antiquiry have cumstances, the reluctant attention defended the abominable strains of must be excited by real, instead of thele licentious poets, by pretend- imaginary characters; by a truç ing, that their intention was to initead of a fictitious event; by reform vice, not to recommend it; direct and particular advice conan apology which, if admitted, cerning the actual tiate of their atmight tend to exculpate the wri- fairs, inftead of vague or abstract ters, but could never justify their. letns of wisdom and virtue. Coarse performances, since it is known by buffoonery may often force them experience, that lewd descriptions to laugh"; delicate ridicule will prove a poison rather than a re- seldom engage them to smile; they medy; and instead of correcting may be affected by the sharpness of manners, tend only to corrupt perional invective, but will remain them.
impenetrable to the thatts of general “ Besides the general licenti- satire, Aulness of the ancient cornedy, its “ By combining the different more particular ch ra teristics reparts of this description, we may fulted from the peculiar circum- form a tolerably exact notion of the fances of the Athenians, during writings of Aristophanes, which the time of its introduction and commonly conceal, under a thin