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however I can no where find in ter nominem, nisi ut laudem; fed nec the book) thus is the Conjunction peccata reprehenderem, nisi ut aliis explained by Mr. Harris. A prodeffem.-Indeed you have borne found fignificant devoid of signifi- your tettimony for me in very cation, having at the fame time a trying fituations, where few besides kint of obscure fignification ; and yourself would have ventured fo. yet having neither fignification nor much honetty. At the same time, no signification ; but a middle fome. I confess, I fiould disdain to handle thing betwe: n fignification and no any useful truth daintily, as if I fignification, sharing the attributes frared let it fould sting me; and both of fignification and no signiti. 10 employ a philosophical inquiry cation ; and linking fignification as a vehi: le for interested or cow. and no signification together. ardly adulation.

“ If others, of a more elegant “ I protest to you, my notions of taste for fine writing, are able to language were formed before I receive either pleasure or inttruc- could account etymologically for tion from such truly philosophical lan- any one of the words in question, guage,

I Mall neither di pute wiih and before I was in the least acthein nor envy thein: but can on- quainted with the opinions of ly deplore the dullness of my own others. I addressed myself to an apprehenfion, who, notwithliand- inquiry into their opinions with all ing the great authors quoted in Mr. the dilfidence of conscious igno, Harris's treatise, and the great au- rance; and, so far from spurning thors who recommend it, cannot authority, was disposed to admit of help confidering this perfect ex. half an argument from a g cat ainple of analysis," as an approv- name.

So that it is not my fault, et compilation of almost all the er- if I am forced to carry initead of rors which grammarians have been following the lanthorn : but at all accumulating from the time of A- events it is better than walking in ristotle down to our present days, total darkness, of technical and learned affectation. “ And ye, though I beliere

I differ from all the accoun:s which “ I am afraid, my good friend, have hitherto been given of lanyou still


with you your old guage, I am not so much without humour in politics, though your authority as you may imagine. subject is now different. You speak Mr. Harris himself and all the too sharply for philofophy. Come, grammarians whom he has, and confers the truth. Are not you a- whom (though uting their words) gainit authority, because authority is he has not quoted, are my autho. against you. And does not your fpleen rities. Their own doubts, their to Mr. Harris arile principally from difficulties, their dissatisfaction, their his having taken care to fortify his contradictions, their obfcurity on opinions in a manner in which, from all thele points are my authorities your fingularity, you cannot? againit ihein: for their rystem and

their difficulties vanish tog-ther. “I hope you know my disposition Indeed unless, with Mr. Harris, I better. And I am persuaded that I had been repeating what others owe your long and licady friendship have written, it is impossible I 80 me, to the conviction which an should quote any direct authorities early experience in private life af- for my own manner of explanation, sordid you, that-neminem liben. But let us hear Wilkins, whose in


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dustry deserved to have been better mysterious Conjunctions, though employed, and his perseverance he left ut among them. better rewarded with discovery ; " And Servius Scioppius, G. J. let us hear what he says.

Voffius, Perizonius, and others, “ According to the true philoso- have cxplained and displaced many phy of speech, I cannot conce've other supposed Adverbs and Conthis kind of words” (he speaks of junctions. Adverbs and Conjunctions) " to Skinner (though I knew it not be properly a distinct part of speech, previously, had accounted for ir as they are cominonly called. But before nie, and in the same manner; until they can be distributed into which though so palpable, Lye their proper places, I have so far confirms and compliments. Even complied with the Grammars of in. S. Johnson, thougħ mistakenly, has stituted languages, as to place attempted AND; and would find no them here together."-And again, difficulty with THEREFORE.

“ For the accurate effecting of “ In Thort, there is not such a thing this [i. e. a real character] it would as a Conjunction in any language, be necessary that the theory itself which may not, by a skilfull herald, [i.e. of language upon which such a be traced home to its own family design were to be founded, should and origin ; without having rebe exactly suited to the nature of course to contradiction and mystery things, But upon supposa! that with Mr, Harris : or with Mr. this theory (viz. of language) iş Locke, cleaving open the head of defective, either as to the fulness man to give it such a birth as Mior the order of it; this must needs nerva's from the brain of Jupiter, add much perplexity to any such

5B attempt, and render it imperfect, And that this is the case with that "! Call you this authority in your common theory already received, favour? When the full stream peed not much be doubted. and current sets the other way, and

It appears evidently there. only sume little brook or rivulet fore that Wilkins (to whom Mr, runs with you? You know very Locke was much indebted) was well well that all the authorities which convinced that all the accounts you have alleged, except Wilkins, hitherto given of language were are upon the whole against you. erroneous. And in fact, the lan: For though they have explained guages which are commonly used the meaning, and traced the derithroughout the world, are much vation of many Adverbs and Conmore limple and easy, convenient junctions ; yet (except Sanctius and philosophical, than Wilkins's in the particular instance of Quod, scheme for a real character; or than-whose conjunctive use in Latin any other scheme that has been at he too strenuously denies) they all any other time imagined or pro- acknowledge them ftill to be Adposed for the purpose. Mr. Locke's verbs or Conjunctions. It is true, diffatisfaction with all the accounts they distinguished them by the title which he had seen, iş too well of reperta or usurpata : but they ar known to need repetition.

the same time acknowledged (indeed " Sanctius rescued QUOD parti- the very distinction itself is cularly from the number of these acknowledgment) that there are



others which are real, primigenia, called indeclinable proceeds merely nativa, pura.

from the ignorance of those who « H.

could not account for them; and, “ True. Because there are some, who therefor, with Mr. Harris, of whole origin they were totally were driven to say that they have ignorant. But has any philofopher neither meaning nor infiction or grammarian ever yet told us whilft notwith itanding they were what a real, original, native, pure ftill forced to acknowledge (either Adverb or Conjunction is ? Or directly, or by giving them diffewhich of these Conjun&tions of rent titles of conditional, adverfative, fentences are fo? Whenever that &c.) that they have a kind of is dore, in any languge, I may obscure meaning.venture to promise you that I will • How much more candid and Mhew those likewise to be repertas ingenuous would it have been, to and ufurpatas, as well as the rest : have owned fairly that they did not And till then I shall take no more understand the nature of these trouble about them. I Mall only Conjunctions; and, insted of wrapadd, that though abbreviation and ping it up in mystery, to have corruption are always bufies with exhorted and encouraged ethers to a the word, which are most frequently farther search. in ujë; yet the words moft frequently

« B. sifed are leaft liable to be totally laid “ You are not the first person afide. And therefore they are often who has been misled by a fanciful retained, -(I mean that branch of etymology. Take heed that your them which is most frequently derivations be not of the same ridiused) - when most of the other cuious cast with theirs who deduced words-(and even the other branch- Conftantinople from Confiantine the es of these retained words)--are, noble,-Breeches from bear:riches, by various changes and accident, Donna from Dono-and King Pepin quite loft to a language. Hence from botig. . the difficulty of secounting for

" H. them. And hence (because only - If I have been milled, it moft one branch of each of thele declina certainly is not by etymology: of able words is retained in a language) which I confess myself to have been arises the notion of their being thamefully ignorant at the time indeclinable ; and a separate fort when there my notions of language of words, or part of speech by were first formed. Though even themselves. But that they are not that previous ignorance is now a indeclinable, is sufficiently evident circumstance which confirms mc by what I have already faid. For much in my opinion concerning Lif, An, &c. certainly could not be these Conjunctions: for I knew not called indeclinable, when all the even the character of the language other branches of those verbs, of from which my particular proofs of which they are the regular impe the English Conjunctions were to be ratives, were likewise in use. And drawn. And notwithstanding lord that the words IF, AN, &c. (which Monboddo's discouraging sneer), still retain their original figni- it was general reasoning a priori, fication, and are used in the very that led me to the particular infame manner and for the same pur- ítances; not particular instances to pose as formerly) thould now be the general reasoning. This ety

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mology, mology, against whose fascination inspired me with the spirit of true you woi ld have me guard myseif, prophecy in order the more deply did not occur to me till many years to deceive me; or that my re..foriafter my fyltem was settled : and ing on the nature of language was it occurred to n e luddenly, in this not fantattical. The event was manner ;-" If ma reasoning con- beyond my expectation : for I incerning thefe Conji nctions is well liantly found upon trial, all my founded, there muit then be in the predictions verified. This his original language from which the made me presumptuous e ough to Englith (and so of all other lan- affert it univerfally. Belides that guages) is derived, literally such I have since traced these suppor-d ad fuch words bearing precisely unmeaning indec inable Conjuncmuch and such fignifications."-I tions with the same fin cess in many was the more pleased with this sug- other languages besides the Enggestion, becaule I was entirely lish. And because I know that the ignorant even of the Anglo-Saxon generality of minds receive conand Gothic characters : and the ex- viction more calily from a numperiment presented to me a mean, ber of particular 'intances, than either of di abusing myself from from the surer but more abiiradied error (which I greatly feared ;) arguments of general proof; if a or of obtaining a confirmation fuf- multiplicity of uncommon avoca. ficiently strong to encourage me to tions and engagements (aiting believe (what every man knowing from a very peculiar situation) had any thing of human nature will not prevented me, I should long always be very backward in believ. before this have found time enough ing of himfelt) that I had resily from my other pursuits and from made a discovery. For if upon trial my enjoyments (amongit which I should find in an unknown lan- idicness is not the smalleit) to have guage precisely those very words Mewn clearly ard fatis actorily, the both in found, and fignification, origin and precise meaning of each and applicarion, which in my per- of these pretended unmeaning, fect ignorance I had foretold ; indeclinable Conjunétions, at leait what must I conclude, but either in all the dead and living languages that fome dxmon had maliciously of Europe."


[From the INTRODUCTION to REMARKS on some of the CHARAC


"T to

HE writers upon dramatic Drama. It has been found easy to most part, contined their obier- obvious, they are certain, they vations to the table ; and the max- are general i and poets without ims receivid amongst them, for the genius have, by observing them, conduct of it, are therefore em- pretended to fame ; while critics phatically called, the Rules of the without discernment have allumed importance from knowing them, both to comedy and to tragedy ; But the regularity thereby establishi- and none of them deserve their ed, though highly proper, is by name any farther than this merit no ineans the first requisite in a belongs to them. Incidents, images, dramatic composition. Even wav- pallions, language, and numbers, ing all confideration of those finer are common to dramatic and to fcelings waich a poet’s imagination other compositions ; they might all or sensibility imparts, there is, be introduced into the relation of within the colder provinces of judg- an aff:cting itory; but characters ment and of knowledge, a lubcan never be perfectiy exhibited, ject for criticism, more worthy of except in a drama. When they, attention than the common topics therefore, are wanting, the want of difcution : i mean the distinction cannot be supplied, nor can it be and preservation of character, concealed ; the delusion fails, and without which the piece is at beit the intereli ceases ; the performers a tale, not an action; for the can only recite, they have nothing actors in it are not produced upon to act : for the performance is but the scene. They were dittinguish- a dialogue, not a representation ; ed by character ; all men are; by and must be received by the dis; that we know them, by that we appointed fpeétators, at the best, are intereiied in their fortunes; by with indifference. that their conduct, their sentiments, By the feeble attempts which their very language is formed : every dramatic wiiter makes in and whenever, therefore, the pro- characterize his personages, and per marks of it are milling, we im- by the rude sketches which fome mediately perceive that the person critiis have drawn of a few dramabefore our eyes is but fuppofititious, tic characters, the truth of thcie Experience has thewn, that how• principles is acknowledged, but the ever rigidly, and hwerer rightly, extent of them is not illustrated : the unities of action, time, and for general marks of distinction place have been inlisted on, they do not denote the individual, buc may be dispensed with, and the only thew the class he belongs to. magic of the scene may make the Men difler as much in their minds ablurdity invisible. Most of Shake- as in their faces ; and to cach man speare's plays abound with instances belong fomne general marks of di.. ot such a fascination. It is certain, stinction in both: his complexion too, that it is not always neceflary is brown, or it is fair ; his features strongly to affect, in order warmly are hard or foft; and there is an to intereit, the spectatois : for expreflion of vivacity of fentibility many tragedies, which are or of vacancy, in the construction pathetic, are yet very engaging; and motion of his eyes. But faces, and many comedies are amuting, agreeing in many duch circumítanthough almost destitute of humour: ces, are not therefore, upon the and as to the beauties of petry whole, like to each other : nor and of fancy, in fome very fit fub- would a picture be the prtrait of jects for a theatrical exhibition, they any individual, tu wbom, in all cannot be properly admitted ; and these, and in many inore particu. Very few abfolutely require them. Tits, it were similar, uniets the But variery and truth of character painter had also caught those pecue are indispensably neceflary to all, liarities of countenance, which di



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