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* Saidle white Surry for the field to. of victory, he rushes on the cnemy.

It is not a formed sense of honour, Look that my saves be found, and not too heavy

nor a cold fear of disgrace, which

impels him to fight; but a natural And instead of hastily putting on, high spirit, and bravery exulting and as hallily pulling off his ar. in danger : and being sensible that mour, he quietiy alks,

the competicion is only personal “ Whit, is my beaver easier than it between him and Richmond, he was?

direcis all his efforts to the deAnd all my arniour laid into my tent?” ítruction of his rival; endeavours directing them to come about mid. himself to single him out, and night to help to arm him. He is seeking him in the throat of death, be attentive to every circumitance pre

fets his own life upon the cast. Five paratory to the battle; and pre. times foiled in his aim, únhorsed, ferves throughout a calmness and and surrounded with foes, he ftill presence of mind which denote his perfifts to fand the hazard of the die ; intrepidity. He does not lose it and having enacted more wonders than upon being told, that the foe vaunts

a min, loses his life in an attempt in the field; but recollecting the fo worthy of himself. orders he had given over night,

“ This, from the beginning of now calls for the execution of them,

their history to their last moments, hy directing Lord Stanley to be sent are the characters of Macbeth and for, and his own horle to be capa- Richard preserved entire and difrisoned. He tells the Duke of tinct: and though probably ShakeNorfolk, who is next in command speare, when he was drawing the to himself, the disposition he had one, had no atten'ion to the other; formed; and every thing being in yet, as he conccived them to be readiness, he then makes a speech widely different, exprefled his conto encourage his foldiers: but onceptions exacily, and copied both hearing the enemy's drum, he con- from nature, they necellarily becludes with,

came contrasts to each other; and,

by secing them together, that “ Fight, gentlemen of England! fight, contrast is more apparent, especi

bold ycomen! Draw, archers, draw your arrows to the

ally where the comparison is not head!

between opposite qualities, but Spur your proud horses hard, and ride arises from The different degrees, in blood;

or from a particular display, or Amaze the wekin with your broken totod omillion, of the same quality. staves !"

This lalt must often happen, as the But even in this fally of ardour character of Macbeth is much more he is not hurried away by a blind complicated than that of Richard ; impetuofity, but still gives orders and, therefore, when they, are fet and divinguishes the persons to in opposition, the judgment of the whom he addresses them. From p:et shews itself as much in what this moment he is all on fire ; and he has left out of the latter, as in poffeffcd entirely with the great what he has inierted.

The picobjects around him, others of letter ture of Macbeth is also, for the note are below his attention. Swel- fame rea!on, inui h the more highly ling himself with courage, and finished of the iwo; for it inspiring his troops with confidence a greater variety, and a greater



delicacy of painting, to express and passages. Afier every reasonable to blend with conntienes ail the le, allowance, they must stil remain veral properties which are afcribed blemishes ever to be lamented; but to him. That of Richard is mark- happily, for the most part, they ed by more careless Atrokes, buç only obscure, they do not disfigure they are, notwithstanding, perfectly his draughts from nature. Through juit

. Much bad compoticion may whole ip eches and scenes, chaindeed be found in the part; it is racter is often wanting ; but in the a fault from which the best of worit instances of this kind, Shaie. Shakespeare's plays are not exempt, speare is but infipid : he is not and with which this play particular incontilient, and in his peculiar abounds; and the faite of the age excellence of drawing characters, in which he wrote, though it may though he often neglects to esert his afford fome excuse, yet cannot talents, he is very rarely guilty of entirely vindicate the exceptionable perverting them.”

Oi LOGIC, or



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[From Sylva, or the Woon; being a Collection of Anecuotes,

Diflertations, &c.]
, or (as it may truly instinct honestly do-s her beít, is

be called) the art of dif- sure to attain those several objects, puting sophistically, makes a confi- without any didactic rules or preder.ble part of our academical cepts. education : yet Gafsendus, who “ If Logic therefore be not newas a very great renfoner, has al- ceffury, it is probably of no great tempted to prove, that it is, in ule: and indeed it has been dec intruth, neither neceffary nor useful. ed not only an impertincnt but a He thinks, that reaton, or innate pernicious science." Logic," fais force and energy of understanding, Lord Bacon, “is ufuslly taught is sufficient of itselt; that its own too early in life. That minds, natural movements, without any raw and unfurnished with matter, discipline from art, are equal to thould begin their cultivation from the invesligation and settling of such a science, is just like learning truth ; that it no more wants the to weigh or measure the wind. allistance of Logic to conduct to Hence, what in young men should this, than the eye wants a lanthorn be maniy reasoning, often degene10 cnable it to fee the fun: and, rates into ridiculous affectations and however he might admit as curious, childifa fophiftry." Certainly, he would have rejected where materials are wanting, the as usclefs, all such productions, as dispute must turn altogether upon Quillet's Callipad'a, Thevenot on words ; and the whole will be the Art of Swimming, or Borelli conducted with the fleight and lede Motu Animalium ; upon the gerdemain of fophiftry. firment persuition that the innate “ Many appearances may tempt force and energy of nature, when one to lulpect, that the under



standing, disciplined with Logic, of understanding, and had spent is not so competent for the inveiti- all his younger time in disputagation of truth, as if left to its tion; of which he arrived to so natural operations.

great a mattery, as not to be infe“ A man of wit,” says Bayle, rior to any man, in those skir66 who applies himself long and mishes : but he had, with his notclosely to logic, seldom fails of able perfection in this exercise, becoming a caviller; and by his contracted such an irresolution and sophistical subtleties perplexes and habit of doubting, that by degrees embroils the very theses he hath he grew confident in nothing, and defunded. He chufes to destroy a sceptic (at least in the greatest his own works rather than förbear mysteries of faith. All bis doubts difpuring; and he staris such ob- grew out of hims:lf, when he jections againit his own opinions, allifted his fcruples with the itrength that his whole art cannot solve of his own reason, and was then them. Such is the fate of those too hard for himielf.” who apply themselves too much to 66 To conclude What was the the subtleties of dialectics.” This meaning of that stricture upon is the opinion of Bayle, who pro- Seneca, Verborum minutiis bably knew from feeling and ex. frangit pondera, which, according perience the truth of what he said ; to lord Bacon, may thus be apfor he was as very great logician, plied to the schoolmen, Quaftionum as well as a very great sceptic. minutiis fcientiarum frangunt solidita

" Our memorable Chillingworth tem? Why, that by their litigiofa is another instance to prove, that fubtilitas, as he calls it, by their logic, instead of affilting, may logical refinements and distinctions, poffibly obstruct and hurt the un- they had chopped truth fo down into derstanding. Chillingworth, says mince-ineat, as to leave it not only Lord Clarendon, who knew him without proportion or form, but well, was a man of great subtlety almost without substance."


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[From the firme Work.] N quotations, as in all other have scarcely quoted at all, as

things, men have run into Locke and Hadley, with some of extremes. Some writers have quot, an inferior kind, who perhaps have ed most abundantly, in order (as hence affected to pa's for original Mould seem) to make an orientation writers, that needed no extraneous of learning; with one of whom helps : and indeed, in books of La Mothc le Vayer, though him- mere rcafoning, all quotation to felt a great quoter, appears to have many may seem impertinent. been much fatigued: “God grant ** La Bruyere has animadverted you," cries he, “to become less upon the former extreme : he comlearned,"~Dieu vous fare la grace plains of books, being crowded so de devenir moins avant. Others with quotations, as to be hardly 1786.




any thing else; of citing Ovid and my pitch,” said the learned Mark Tibullus at the bar, Horace and land to his friends ; " but I read Lucretius in the pulpit : where, it with pleasure as his, and becaaje fays, he, “ Latin and fometimes of the quotations from the ancients, Greek are the languages chosen to which are numerous.” entertain the women and church- “ But quotation is useful, as wardens with.” And doubtless, well as plealing, to confirm and nothing can be more absurd and illustrate the sentiments of a writer; ridiculous than this; by this and especially in works like this of author's sense, if peradventure he ours: where the great object is, had any, is almost suppressed and not fo much to teach men things of fmothered under his learning; which they are ignorant, by defand, as Ovid said of a girl overload. canting in detail and at large, as to ed with dress and ornament, he is remind them of what they know ; so garnished out with foreign ma- not so much to make mon read, to terials, as to be, in truth, the least borrow Montesquieu's expreffion, part of himfelf. Mean while, as as to make them think. For this, the Bayle obferves upon Bruyere, “it citing of authorities, and dealing in is to be feared, that the very oppo. perfonalanecdotesandapophthegms, fite custom of nor citing at all, scem perfectly well caculated : for, into which we are fallen, will make however it be, men frequently learning too much despised, as a pause and dwell upon names, who piece of furniture entirely useless." would hastily and inadvertently And he has elsewhere mentioned, skim over ihings. Nay, let the as one principal cause of neglect reasoning be ever so close and in the study of the Belles Lettres, found, it shall often pass for littie that a great many wits, real or pre. more than declamation ; while the tended, have, with an air of disdain, name of some admired author, espe. run down the custon of citing cially if he be dead, shall arrest the Greek authors, and making learned imagination, and make all the remarks, as so much pedantry, and impression which is necessary to fit only for a college.

produce conviction. " It is however certain, that “ Again, the practice of quoting many pleafing as well as useful from other writers, and especially purposes may be served by quota- from the Greek and Roman authors tions, judicioully made and aptly of antiquity, is useful, in as much applied. It is pleafing to know, (as above hinted) it must give fom while contemplating any subject, countenance and sanction eren to what other writers, men of name letters themselves : letters! neglectand abilities, have thought and rd, declining letters! and with the faid upon it and then the variety, declining all that is wife, and which the frequent introduction excellent, and beautiful, and poof new personages (as I inay call Kthed. How would an astonished them) creates, wil greatly con- macaroni stare, to be assured, that tribute to enliven attention, and the civilization of kingdoms is thereby keep off weariness and dif- founded upon letters; and that, in guít. With the Greek and Latin proportion as these are cultivated, authors the clatical reader is

fo is nearly the progress of mankind ways entertained: “ Mr. Clarhu's from their moit rude and favage book of coins is much abo:e my liate, up to that perfection of ele

gabe con.

gance and refinement, which beam- meaning, once at least with some eth forth from his all-finished and Greek, and once with some Latin, refulgent person! I speak accord. citation; and should produce at ing to the gentleman's own idea of the same time a true and well auhimself.

thenticated testimonial, that these “ Lastly, were the practice of citations were not furnished by quoting once received and establish- another, but bona fide bis own act ed, this great advantage would and deed. A test of this fort would farther accrue to letters, viz. That give a mighty check to scribbling; it would reduce the bulk of scrib- and save reams of paper, which blers, with which they are disgraced. are every moment going to perishNothing is more common in these periture parcere chartæ. days, than for men to begin to " Upon the whole, therefore, write, and affect to be authors, not let us not condemn, and affectedly only before they understand Greek avoid, the citation of authors ; and Latin, but before they have falsely delicate, falsely fastidious. any real or accurate knowledge of Let us recollect, that the greatest English. it is enough for them, and most respectable writers have if they can spell with tolerable done this : That Cicero, Plutarch, exactnefs : for this accomp’ishment Seneca, Bacon, Montaigne, and Mona joined with such materials as Maga- tesquieu, left nothing unborrowed zines, Reviews and other public from others, which might serve to prints fupply, is usually the block embellish their own writings; and in trade with which authors now, that the things thus borrowed may, as well as critics, set up. In short, it skilfully applied, have not only writing is becoine a mere manual all the energy of their old situation, operation; and books are made but all the graces invention in every day hy men without genius, their new one. And who should without letters, who are but barely they not? there being no less quit in sufficient to transcribe, at the most juftly applying the thought of another, to compile. Upon which account than in being the first author of that it might well be wilhed, that every thought. At leall, so fays Mr. one who presumes to write, espe. Bayle; who:n I have quoted the cially upon mitters of religion and more freely upon this topic, begovernment (for in romance and cause he was a very great wit, as moral painting it is not necessary), well as a very great icholar." should be obliged to support his

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[From the fame Work.] Certain writer, apologizing invariable propriety, requires a

for the irregularities of degree of firmness and of cool attengreat genii, delivers himself thus: tion, which doth not always attend " The gifts of imagination bring the higher gifts of the mind. the heavieit talk upon the vigilance difficult as nature herself secras of reason ; and to bear those facul- to have reduced the talk of reguo ries with unerring rectitude orlarity to genius, it is the supreme

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