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so much, the wonder is that these navigators did not know more. They named, and noted on their chart, yet did not know our Bay of San Francisco. Yearly for centuries they coasted by. A priest or soldier standing upon the deck of this old-time ship, might gaze upon a glorious land that overhung the Western Sea; with hills on hills a swelling pile, glowing in sunsets that had gilded them through countless ages. But save in the casual visits of the earliest navigators, we know not that foot of white man yet had pressed the soil of California. The world was busy in commerce and in war. But the breeze still ruffled the vacant waters, dimpled the idle grass, and fanned the sultry sides of the solitary mountains of California. These slopes and plains pastured but the deer and elk. A despicable type of man, in petty groups, wandered through these valleys, of which the bear was more the Lord than he. No other human tenant occupied the most delightful of the habitations of man, nor had from the Creation down.

The Spaniards were at best but feeble navigators; witness the galleons making a tedious progress in the latitudes of calms. Anson says that the instructions to their commanders, were in his day, to keep within the latitude of 30 degrees, if possible, as if they feared to encounter the stiffer breezes further northan instruction, however, not always followed as their chart demonstrates. To vessels such as then were built or to be found, in Mexican or South American ports, the daily winds from the north-west which in summer roughen the seas all along the coast to Cape San Lucas, were gales against which it was dangerous and almost hopeless to attempt to make head. This labor had not diminished from the days of Cabrillo and Vizcayno. These most beneficient north-west trade-winds cut off California from Spanish America by sea. By land, the desert tracts of the Gila and Upper California, both unexplored, barred the approach from the South. And to the East, the human imagination had not yet traversed the interval from the Atlantic Ocean. In 1769, the history of mankind may be said to have begun upon this coast. In this wise it begun.

Charles the Fifth, on the 17th day of November, 1526, addressed these words to his Indies:

"The Kings our progenitors, from the discovery of the West "Indies, its islands and continents, commanded our captains, "officers, discoverers, colonizers, and all other persons, that "on arriving at those Provinces, they should by means of "interpreters cause to be made known to the Indians, that they were sent to teach them good customs, to lead them from " vicious habits and the eating of human flesh, to instruct "them in our holy Catholic Faith, to preach to them salvation "and to attract them to our dominion."

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The same spirit breathes through every part of the Laws of the Indies, as they were issued for successive centuries, which may be seen by reference to the code in which they are compiled.

The Ministers who executed these pious purposes of the King were mainly the soldiers of the cross. Christian Priests converted our savage ancestors in the forests of the north of Europe, and laid the foundations of the great Republic of European States, of which the cement is modern civilization. Christian Priests endeavored to repeat that grand achievement in America. A sublime contemplation! They interposed the cross and staid the descending sword and the still swifter destruction of private greed. Their powerful protector was the King of Spain, when both continents were almost entirely Spanish. Their dusky converts who acknowledged the dominion of Christ, were saved as subjects of the King; were admitted to civil rights, and mingled their blood with that of the descendants of the Visigoths. In the lineaments and complexion of the Spanish American, we still behold the native Indian whom the Church preserved. Exalted Charity!—at least in motive, and although the teacher could not forsee that the same lesson would not effect the same result in pupils so diverse. It was not their fault, that they did not raise the crouching Indian to the level of the conquering German.

In 1767, the Jesuits being banished from the Spanish dominions, Lower California was transferred to the charge of another celebrated order, the Franciscans. Into this field, when it had been wrested from the Society of Jesus, the Franciscans were led by one who was born in an Island of the Medi

terranean, the son of humble laborers. From his infancy Father Junipero Serra was reared for the Church. He had already greatly distinguished himself in the conversion and civilization of heathen savages in other parts of Mexico; and afterwards had preached revivals of the faith in Christian places, illustrating, as we are told, the strength of his convictions and the fervor of his zeal by demonstrations which would startle us now coming from the pulpit—such as burning his flesh with the blaze of a candle, beating himself with a chain, and bruising his breast with a stone which he carried in his hand. Further, this devout man was lame from an incurable sore on his leg, contracted soon after his landing in Mexico; but he usually traveled on foot none the less. You have before you the first great Pioneer of California! His energies were not destined to be wasted in the care of missions which others had founded. He entered immediately upon the Spiritual Conquest of the regions to the North. Josef de Galvez, then Visitor General, a very high officer, (representing the person of the King in the inspection of the working of every part of the Government of the Province to which he was sent,) and who afterwards held the still more exalted position of Minister General for all the Indies, arrived at this time in Lower California bringing a Royal order to dispatch an expedition by sea, to re-discover and people the Port of Monterey, or at least that of San Diego. Father Junipero entered with enthusiasm into his plans, and after consulting with him and learning the condition of the Missions and the latitude of the most northern, Galvez the better to fulfill the wishes of his Majesty, determined besides the expedition by sea, to send another which should go in search of San Diego by land, at which point the two expeditions should meet and make an establishment. And he further resolved to found three Missions, one at San Diego, one at Monterey, and another mid-way between these, at San Buena Ventura. A fleet consisting of two small vessels, at this time came over to Lower California from San Blas; the San Carlos and the San Antonio, otherwise the Principe. Of these the San Carlos was the Capitania or flag-ship. Galvez, a really great man, labored with great diligence and good nature to

get them ready for sea; with his own hands assisting the workmen, such as there were to be found in that remote corner of the world, in careening the vessels, and the Fathers in boxing up the ornaments, sacred vases, and other utensils of the Church and vestry, and boasting in a letter that he was a better sacristan than Father Junipero, because he had put up the ornaments &c. for his mission, as he called that of San Buena Ventura, before that servant of God had those for his of San Carlos, and had to go and help him. Also, that the new missions might be established in the same manner with those of Sierra Gorda, where Father Junipero had formerly labored, and with which he was much pleased, Galvez ordered to be boxed up and embarked all kinds of household and field utensils, with the necessary iron-work for cultivating the lands, and every species of seeds, as well those of Old as of New Spain, without forgetting the very least, such as garden-herbs, flowers and flax, the land being he said in his opinion fertile for everything, as it was in the same latitude with Spain. For the same purpose, he determined that from the furthest north of the old missions, the land expedition should carry two hundred head of cows, bulls, and oxen, to stock that new country with large cattle, in order to cultivate the whole of it, and that in proper time there should be no want of something to eat.

Father Junipero blessed the vessels and the flags, Galvez made an impressive harangue, the expedition embarked, and the San Carlos sailed from La Paz, in Lower California, on the 9th day of January, 1769. The whole enterprize was commended to the patronage of the Most Holy Patriarch St. Joseph. On the San Carlos sailed Don Vicente Villa, commander of the maritime expedition; Don Pedro Fages, a lieutenant commanding a company of 25 soldiers of the Catalonian Volunteers; the engineer, Don Miguel Constanzo; likewise Dr. Pedro Prat, a surgeon of the Royal Navy, and all the necessary crew and officers. With them for their consolation, went the Father Friar Fernando Parron. Galvez in a small vessel accompanied the San Carlos as far as Cape San Lucas, and saw her put to sea with a fair wind on the 11th day of January, 1769. The San Antonio, the other vessel, went to Cape San Lucas, and

Galvez set to work with the same energy and heartiness to get her ready. She sailed on the 15th day of February, 1769. The Captain of the San Antonio was Don Juan Perez, a native of Majorca, and a distinguished pilot of the Philippine trade. With him sailed two priests, Fathers Juan Vizcayno and Francisco Gomez. The Archives of this State contain a paper of these times which cannot but be read with interest. It is the copy of the receipt of the Commander, Vicente Villa, containing the list of all the persons on board the San Carlos, and an inventory of eight months' provisions. It reads thus:

OFFICERS AND CREW, SOLDIERS, &C. OF THE SAN CARLOS. The two Army Officers, the Father Missionary, the Captain, Pilot, and Surgeon......

......6 persons

The Company of Soldiers, being the Surgeon, Corporal, and twenty-three men..

The Officers of the Ship and Crew, including two pages, (cabin

boys doubtless).

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