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“ If you and Kitty will keep the house, I think it, that with the profits he might defray the I shall like it best. Kitty may carry on the trade expense of his mother's funeral, and pay some for herself, keeping her own stock apart, and laying little debts which she had left. He told Sir aside any money that she receives for any of the Joshua Reynolds, that he composed it in the goods which her good mistress has left behind her. I do not see, if this scheme be followed, any need portions as it was written, and had never since

evenings of one week?, sent it to the press in of appraising the books. My mother's debts, dear read it over.3 Mr. Strahan, Mr.Johnston, and mother, I suppose I may pay with little difficulty; and the little trade may go silently forward. Mr. Podsley purchased it for a hundred fancy Kitty can do nothing better ; and I shall not pounds, but afterwards paid him twenty-five want to put her out of a house, where she has lived pounds more, when it came to a second edition. so long, and with so much virtue. I am very sorry Considering the large sums which have been that she is ill, and earnestly hope that she will soon received for compilations, and works requiring recover; let her know that I have the highest value not much more genius than compilations, we for her, and would do any thing for her advantage. cannot but wonder at the very low price which Let her think of this proposal. I do not see any he was content to receive for this admirable likelier method by which she may pass the remain- performance; which, though he had written ing part of her life in quietness and competence. nothing else, would have rendered his name

“ You must have what part of the house you immortal in the world of literature. None of please, while you are inclined to stay in it; but I his writings has been so extensively diffused flatter myself with the hope that you and I shall some time pass our days together. I am very

over Europe ; for it has been translated into solitary and comfortless, but will not invite you to tale, with all the charms of oriental imagery,

most, if not all, of the modern languages. This come hither till I can have hope of making you live here so as not to dislike your situation. Pray,

and all the force and beauty of which the Enmy dearest, write to me as often as you can.

i glish language is capable, leads us through the am, dear Madam, your affectionate humble servant, most important scenes of human life, and shows Pearson MSS.

* Sax. JOHNSON." us that this stage of our being is full of “va

nity and vexation of spirit.” To those who look

no further than the present life, or who mainJOHNSON TO MISS PORTER.

tain that human nature has not fallen from the " Ist March, 1758[9].

state in which it was created, the instruction * Dear MADAM, - I thought your last letter

of this sublime story will be of no avail. But long in coming ; and did not require or expect such they who think justly, and feel with strong an inventory of little things as you have sent me. sensibility, will listen with eagerness and adI could have taken your word for a matter of much miration to its truth and wisdom. Voltaire's greater value. I am glad that Kitty is better ; CANDIDE, written to refute the system of Oplet her be paid first, as my dear, dear mother timism, which it has accomplished with brilliant ordered, and then let me know at once the sum success, is wonderfully similar in its plan and necessary to discharge her other debts, and I will conduct to Johnson's RASSELAS; insomuch, find it you very soon.

that I have heard Johnson say, that if they had “I beg, my dear, that you would act for me not been published so closely one after the without the least scruple, for I can repose myself other that there was not time for imitation“, it very confidently upon your prudence, and hope we shall never have reason to love each other less. I would have been in vain to deny that the shall take it very kindly if you make it a rule to scheme of that which came latest was taken write to me once at least every week, for I am now

from the other. Though the proposition illusvery desolate, and am loth to be universally for

trated by both these works was the same, gotten. I am, dear sweet, your affectionate ser

namely, that in our present state there is more vant,

Sam. Johnson."]

evil than good, the intention of the writers was - Pearson MSS.

very different. Voltaire, I am afraid, meant

only by wanton profaneness to obtain a sportSoon after his mother's death, he wrote his ive victory over religion, and to discredit the “RASSELAS, PRINCE OF ABYSSINIA :"* con- belief of a superintending Providence : Johncerning the publication of which Sir John son meant, by showing the unsatisfactory naHawkins guesses vaguely and idly', instead of ture of things temporal, to direct the hopes of baving taken the trouble to inform himself man to things eternal. Rasselas, as was obwith authentic precision. Not to trouble my served to me by a very accomplished lady, may readers with a repetition of the knight's reve- be considered as a more enlarged and more ries, I have to mention, that the late Mr. Stra- deeply philosophical discourse in prose, upon han the printer told me, that Johnson wrote the interesting truth, which in his * Vanity of

This was

1 Hawkins's account is substantially the same as Mr. Boswell's. - CEOKER.

Rasselas was published in March or April, 1759.BOSWELL. In chapter 24. Johnson, in the character of Imlac, patheti. cally describes his own feelings : “ I have neither mother to be debuted with the reputation of her son, nor wife to par. take the bonours of her husband. - MALONE. 3 See under June 2. 1781. Finding it then accidentally in

a chaise with Mr. Boswell, he read it eagerly.
doubtless long after his declaration to Sir Joshua Reynolds.
- MALONE.

4 This is not quite exact. The appearance of the two works was very near, but it seems that Johnson might have seen Candide, which was published at latest in February 1759, (Grimm, ii. 348.) and Rassellas was written, it appears, towards the middle of March.- CROKER.

1

may furnish

Human Wishes” he had so successfully en- picture. The truth, however, is, that we judge forced in verse.

of the happiness and misery of life differently The fund of thinking which this work con- at different times, according to the state of our tains is such, that almost every sentence of it changeable frame. I always remember a re

subject of long meditation. I mark made to me by a Turkish lady, educated am not satisfied if a year passes without my in France: “Ma foi, monsieur, notre bonheur having read it through; and at every perusal, dépend de la façon que notre sang circule." ? my admiration of the mind which produced it This have I learnt from a pretty hard course is so highly raised, that I can scarcely believe of experience, and would, from sincere benethat I had the honour of enjoying the intimacy volence, impress upon all who honour this book of such a man.

with a perusal, that until a steady conviction is I restrain myself from quoting passages from obtained, that the present life is an imperfect this excellent work, or even referring to them, state, and only a passage to a better, if we because I should not know what to select, or, comply with the divine scheme of progressive rather, what to omit. I shall, however, tran- improvement; and also that it is a part of the scribe one, as it shows how well he could state mysterious plan of Providence, that intellectual the arguments of those who believe in the ap- beings must “ be made perfect through sufferpearance of departed spirits : a doctrine which ing;” there will be a continual recurrence of it is a mistake to suppose that he bimself ever disappointment and uneasiness. But if we positively held:

walk with hope in “the mid-day sun” of re“ If all your fear be of apparitions (said the such, that the comforts and enjoyments in our

velation, our temper and disposition will be prince), I will promise you safety: there is no danger from the dead; he that is once buried will way will be relished, while we patiently sup

port the inconveniences and pains. After much be seen no more.

“ That the dead are seen no more (said Imlac), speculation and various reasonings, I acknowI will not undertake to maintain, against the con- ledge myself convinced of the truth of Volcurrent and unvaried testimony of all ages, and of taire's conclusion, “ Après tout, c'est un monde all nations. There is no people, rude or learned, passable.But we must not think too deeply: among whom apparitions of the dead are not re

where ignorance is bliss, lated and believed. This opinion, which prevails

'Tis folly to be wise," as far as human nature is diffused, could become universal only by its truth?; those that never heard is, in many respects, more than poetically just. of one another, would not have agreed in a tale Let us cultivate, under the command of good which nothing but experience can make credible. principles, la théorie des sensations agréables ;" That it is doubted by single cavillers, can very and, as Mr. Burke once admirably counselled little weaken the general evidence; and some who

a grave and anxious gentleman,“ live pleadeny it with their tongues, confess it by their

sant." fears."

The effect of Rasselas, and of Johnson's Notwithstanding my high admiration of other moral tales, is thus beautifully illustrated Rasselas, I will not maintain that the “mor

by Mr. Courtenay: bid melancholy” in Johnson's constitution

may

“ Impressive truth, in splendid fiction drest, not, perhaps, have made life appear to him Checks the vain wish, and calms the troubled more insipid and unhappy than it generally is :

breast; for I am sure that he had less enjoyment from

O'er the dark mind a light celestial throws, it than I have. Yet, whatever additional shade

And soothes the angry passions to repose ; his own particular sensations

As oil effus'd illumes and smooths the deep, have thrown may

When round the bark the foaming surges sweep.” on his representation of life, attentive observation and close enquiry have convinced me, It will be recollected, that during all this that there is too much reality in the gloomy year he carried on his IDLER 3 ; and no doubt

1 This is a mere sophism ; all ages and all nations are not tioned, think it necessary to declare to the publishers of those agreed on this point, gh such a belief may have existed collections, that however patien they have hitherto enin particular persons, in all ages and all nations. He might dured these injuries, made yet more injurious by contempt, as well have said that insanity was the natural and true state they have now determined to endure them no longer. They of the human mind, because it has existed in all nations and have already seen essays, for which a very large price is paid, all ages. - CROKER.

transferred, with the most shameless rapacity, into the 2 Mr. Boswell, no doubt, saw some meaning in these weekly or monthly compilations, and their right, at least for words ; but what that meaning might be, I cannot guess. - the present, alienated froin them, before they could themCROKER.

selves be said to enjoy it. But they would not willingly be 3 This paper was in such high estimation before it was thought to want tenderness, even for men by whom no tencollected into volumes, that it was seized on with avidity by derness hath been shown. The past is without remedy, and various publishers of newspapers and magazines, to enrich shall be without resentment. But those who have been thus their publications. Johnson, to put a stop to this uniair pro- busy with their sickles in the fields of their neighbours are ceeding, wrote for the Universal Chronicle the following henceforward to take notice, that the time of impunity is at advertisement; in which there is, perhaps, more pomp of an end. Whoever shall, without our leave, lay the hand of words than the occasion demanded:

rapine upon our papers, is to expect that we shall vindicate " London, Jan. 5. 1759. ADVERTISEMENT. The proprie- our due, by the means which justice prescribes, and which are tors of the paper entitled “The Idler,' having found that warranted by the immemorial prescriptions of honourable those essays are inserted in the newspapers and magazines trade. We shall lay hold, in our turn, on their copies, de. with so little regard to justice or decency, that the Universal grade them from the pomp of wide margin and diffuse typoChronicle, in which they first appear, is not always men. graphy, contract them into a narrow space, and sell them

ance.

he was also proceeding, though slowly, in his decent nor manly degree of importunity. Your edition of Shakspeare. He, however, from debts in the whole are not large, and of the whole that liberality which never failed, when called but a small part is troublesome. Small debts are upon to assist other labourers in literature, like small shot; they are rattling on every side, and found time to translate, for Mrs. Lenox's En

can scarcely be escaped without a wound: great

debts are like cannon; of loud noise, but little glish version of Brumoy, “A Dissertation on

danger. You must, therefore, be enabled to disthe Greek Comedy,"t and “The General Conclusion of the Book."pi

charge petty debts, that you may have leisure, with

security, to struggle with the rest. Neither the An inquiry into the state of foreign countries was an object that seems at all times to great nor little debts disgrace you. I am sure you

have my esteem for the courage with which you have interested Johnson. Hence Mr. New contracted them, and the spirit with which you bery found no great difficulty in persuading endure them. I wish my esteem could be of more him to write the Introduction* to a collection use. I have been invited, or have invited myself, of voyages and travels published by him under to several parts of the kingdom; and will not inthe title of " The World Displayed :" the first commode my dear Lucy by coming to Lichfield, volume of which appeared this year, and the while her present lodging is of any use to her. I remaining volumes in subsequent years. hope, in a few days, to be at leisure, and to make I would ascribe to this year the following

visits. Whither I shall fly is matter of no importletter to a son of one of his early friends at

A man unconnected is at home every Lichfield, Mr. Joseph Simpson, barrister, and where; unless he may be said to be at home no author of a tract entitled "Reflections on the

where. I am sorry, dear Sir, that where you have

parents, a man of your merits should not have a Study of the Law.”

home. I wish I could give it you. I am, my dear Sir, affectionately yours,

Sam. Johnson." JOHNSON TO SIMPSON. * Dear Sir, - Your father's inexorability not

He now refreshed himself by an excursion only grieves but amazes me: he is your father; he racteristical notice, in his own words, is pre

to Oxford, of which the following short chawas always accounted a wise man; nor do I re

served: member any thing to the disadvantage of his good nature; but in his refusal to assist you there is

- is now making tea for me. I have neither good nature, fatherhood, nor wisdom. It been in my gown ever since I came here. It was, is the practice of good nature to overlook faults which have already, by the consequences, punished have swum thrice, which I had disused for many

at my first coming, quite new and handsome. I the delinquent. It is natural for a father to think years. I have proposed to Vansittart climbing more favourably than others of his children ; and it

over the wall, but he has refused me. And I have is always wise to give assistance, while a little help clapped my hands till they are sore, at Dr. King's will prevent the necessity of greater.

speech." “ If you married imprudently, you miscarried at your own hazard, at an age when you had a right His negro servant, Francis Barber, having of choice. It would be hard if the man might not left him, and been some time at sea, not choose his own wife, who has a right to plead before pressed as has been supposed, but with his own the judges of this country. " If your imprudence has ended in difficulties Wilkes, Esq.,

from Dr. Smollett

, that his master

consent, it appears from a letter to John and inconveniences

, you are yourself to support kindly interested himself in procuring his them; and, with the help of a little better health, release from a state of life of which Johnson you would support them and conquer them. Surely, that want which accident and sickness pro- always expressed the utmost abhorrence. He duce is to be supported in every region of human

once said, “No man will be a sailor who has ity, though there were neither friends nor fathers contrivance enough to get himself into a jail ; in the world. You have certainly from your father for being in a ship is being in a jail, with the the bighest claim of charity, though none of right: chance of being drowned. [August 31. 1773.] and therefore I would counsel you to omit no And at another time, “A man in a jail has

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at an humble price ; yet not with a view of growing rich by 4 Dr. Robert Vansittart, of the ancient and respectable confiscations, for we think not much better of money got by family that name in Berkshire. He was eminent for

. losses are repaid. give what profit shall remain to the Mag.

learning and worth, and much esteemed by Dr. Johnson.

BOSWELL. Dr. Robert Vansittart, LL.D., professor of dalens ; for we know not who can be more properly taxed civil law at Oxford, and recorder of Windsor. He was a for the support of penitent prostitutes, than prostitutes in senior fellow of All Souls, where, after he had given up the whom there yet appears neither penitence nor shame.". profession in London, he chiefly resided in a set of rooms, BOSWELL.

Tormerly the old library, which he had fitted up in the Gothic "It is stated in Kippis's Biog. Brit. ii. 525., and repeated style, and where he died about 1794. He was remarkable for in Park's edition of the Noble Authors (vol. iv. p. 259.), his good humour and inoffensive wit, and a great favourite that Mrs. Lenox's Translation of Brumoy's Greek Theatre on the Oxford circuit. He was tall and very thin ; and the had a Preface," written by Lord Orrery ; who also trans. bar gave the name of Counsellor Van to a sharp-pointed rock lated - The Discourse upon the Theatre of the Greeks, the on the Wye, which still retains the name. He was the elder Original of Tragedy, and the Parallel of the Theatres.brother of Mr. Henry Vansittart, governor of Bengal, father CROKER.

of the present Lord Bexley, to whom I am indebted for the She resided in the house which, by his mother's death, above particulars relative to his uucle. - CROKER. was now become the property of Johnson. - CROKER.

5 At the installation of the Earl of Westmoreland as chan3 Lord Stowell informs me that he prided himself in being, cellor of the university, July 7. 1759.

This extract was during his visits to Oxford, accurately academic in all points ; therefore misplaced by Mr. Boswell. - CROKER. and he wore his gown almost ostentatiously.-- CROKER.

“ March 23. 1759.

more room, better food, and commonly better

[JOHNSON TO MISS PORTER. com; any." [September 23. 1773.] The letter was as follows:

“ DEAR MADAM, — I beg your pardon for having “ Chelsea, 16th March, 1759.

so long omitted to write. One thing or other “ Dear Sir, — I am again your petitioner, in has put me off. I have this day moved my things, behalf of that great Chan' of literature, Samuel and you are now to direct to me at Staple Inn, Johnson. His black servant, whose name is Francis London. I hope, my dear, you are well

, and Barber, has been pressed on board the Stag frigate, Kitty mends. I wish her success in her trade. I Captain Angel, and our lexicographer is in great

am going to publish a little story book [Rasselas), distress. He says the boy is a sickly lad, of a deli

which I will send you when it is out. Write to cate frame, and particularly subject to a malady in his throat, which renders him very unfit for his from you. I am, my dear, your humble servant,

me, my dearest girl, for I am always glad to hear Majesty's service. You kvow what matter of ani

Pearson MSS.

“ Sam. Johnson." mosity the said Johnson has against you: and I dare say you desire no other opportunity of resenting it, than that of laying him under an obligation. JOHNSON TO MISS PORTER. He was humble enough to desire my assistance on

“May 10. 1759. this occasion, though he and I were never cater

“ DEAR MADAM, — I am almost ashamed to tell cousins; and I gave him to understand that I would make application to my friend Mr. Wilkes, you that all your letters came safe, and that I have who, perhaps, by his interest with Dr. Hay and know how, from writing. I sent, last week, some

been always very well, but hindered, I hardly Mr. Elliot, might be able to procure the discharge of my works, one for you, one for your aunt of his lacquey. It would be superfluous to say Hunter, who was with my poor dear mother when more on this subject, which I leave to your own

she died, one for Mr. Howard, and one for Kitty. consideration ; but I cannot let slip this opportunity of declaring that I am, with the most inviolable tell me how you like my little book. I am, dear

I beg you, my dear, to write often to me, and esteem and attachment, dear Sir, your affectionate, love, your affectionate humble servant, obliged, humble servant,

T. SMOLLETT."
Pearson MSS.

“ Sam. Johnson," Mr. Wilkes, who upon all occasions has acted, as a private gentleman, with most polite

TO MRS. MONTAGU. liberality, applied to his friend Sir George

"Gray's Inn, Dec.17.1759. Hay, then one of the Lords Commissioners of “ MADAM, — Goodness so conspicuous as yours the Admiralty; and Francis Barber was dis- will be often solicited, and perhaps sometimes charged, as he has told me, without any wish solicited by those who have little pretension to of his own.? He found his old master in Cham- your favour. It is now my turn to introduce a bers in the Inner Temple, and returned to his petitioner, but such as I have reason to believe you service.3

will think worthy of your notice. Mrs. Ogle, who What particular new scheme of life Johnson kept the music-room in Soho Square, a woman who had in view this year, I have not discovered; struggles with great industry for the support of but that he meditated one of some sort, is clear eight children, hopes by a benefit concert to set from his private devotions, in which we find otherwise

discharge. She has, I know not why, so

herself free from a few debts, which she cannot [24th March] “ the change of outward things high an opinion of me as to believe that you will which I am now to make;" and, “Grant me

pay less regard to her application than to mine. the grace of thy Holy Spirit, that the course

You know, Madam, I am sure you know, how hard which I am now beginning may proceed ac- it is to deny, and therefore would not wonder at my cording to thy laws, and end in the enjoyment compliance, though I were to suppress a motive of thy favour.” But he did not, in fact, make which you know not, the vanity of being supposed any external or visible change.*

to be of any importance to Mrs. Montagu. But though I may be willing to see the world deceived for my advantage, I am not deceived myself, for I know that Mrs. Ogle will owe whatever favours

1 In my first edition this word was printed Chum, as it appears in one of Mr. Wilkes's Miscellanies, and I animadverted on Dr. Smollett's ignorance ; for which let me propitiate the manes of that ingenious and benevolent gentleman. Chom was certainly a mistaken reading for Cham, the title of the Sovereign of Tartary, which is well applied to Johnson, the Monarch of Literature ; and was an epithet familiar to Smollett. See “ Roderick Random," chap. Ivi. For this correction I am indebted to Lord Palmerston, whose talents and literary acquirements accord well with his respectable pedigree of Temple. - Boswell.

after the publication of the second edition of this work, the author was furnished by Mr. Abercrombie, of Philadelphia, with the copy of a letter written by Dr. John Armstrong, the poet, to Dr. Smollett, at Leghorn, containing the following paragraph:

" As to the King's Bench patriot (Wilkes]. it is hard to say from what motive he published a letter of yours asking some trifling favour of him in behalf of somebody for whou. the great Cham of literature, Mr. Johnson, had interested himself."- MALONE.

2 He was not discharged till June 1760.

3 Dr. Johnson's acquaintance with Mrs. Montagu probably began about this period. We find, in this year, the first of

the many applications which he made to the extensive and
unwearied charity of that excellent woman.
Johnson to Mrs. Montagu.

« June 9. 1759.
“MADAM, - I am desired by Mrs. Williams to sign receipts
with her name for the subscribers which you have been
pleased to procure, and to return her humble thanks for your
favour, which was conferred with all the grace that elegance
can add to beneficence. I am, Madam, your most obedient
and most humble servant,

SAM. JOHNSON." This and several other letters, which will be found in their proper places, I owe to the liberality of (the second] Lord Rokeby, the nephew and heir of Mrs. Montagu.

It is necessary to request the attention of the reader to the warm terms in which Johnson so frequently expresses his admiration and esteem for Mrs. Montagu, as we shall see that he afterwards took another tone. - CROKER.

4 This change of life was no doubt the breaking up his establishment in Gough Square, where be had resided for ten years, and retiring to chambers in Staple Inn; while Mrs. Williams went into lodgings. - CROKER.

CHAPTER XIV. she shall receive from the patronage which we humbly entreat on this occasion, much more to

1760—1763. your compassion for honesty in distress, than to the request of, Madam, your most obedient and most Miscellaneous Essays. Acquaintance with Murphy. buinble servant,

Sam. Johnson."] - Akenside and Rolt. Mackenzie and Eccles. - Montagu MSS

- Letters to Baretti. Painting and Music.

Sir George Staunton. - Letter to a Lady solicitAt this time, there being a competition among ing Church Preferment for her Son. Johnson's the architects of London to be employed in the Pension. - Letters to Lord Bute. Visit to building of Blackfriars Bridge, a question was

Devonshire with Sir Joshua Reynolds. Collins. very warmly agitated whether semicircular or elliptical arches were preferable. In the design In 1760 he wrote “ An Address of the Painters offered by Mr. Mylne the elliptical form was

to George III. on his Accession to the Throne adopted, and therefore it was the great object of these Kingdoms,” † which no monarch ever of his rivals to attack it. Johnson's regard for ascended with more sincere congratulations his friend Mr. Gwyn induced him to engage in from his people. Two generations of foreign this controversy against Mr. Mylne?; and princes had prepared their minds to rejoice in after being at considerable pains to study the having again a king who gloried in being subject, he wrote three several letters in the

" born a Briton." , He also wrote for Mr. Gazetteer, in opposition to his plan.

Baretti the Dedicationt of his Italian and If it should be remarked that this was a English Dictionary, to the Marquis of Abreu, controversy which lay quite out of Johnson's then Envoy-Extraordinary from Spain at the way, let it be remembered, that, after all, his Court of Great Britain. employing his powers of reasoning and elo

Johnson was now either very idle, or very quence upon a subject which he had studied busy with his Shakspeare; for I can find no on the moment, is not more strange than what other public composition by him except an Inwe often observe in lawyers, who, as Quicquid troduction to the Proceedings of the Committee agunt homines is the matter of lawsuits, are for Clothing the French Prisoners ; * one sometimes obliged to pick up a temporary of the many proofs that he was ever awake to knowledge of an art or science, of which they the calls of humanity; and an account which understood nothing till their brief was de- he gave in the Gentleman's Magazine of Mr. livered, and appear to be much masters of it. Tytler's acute and able vindication of Mary In like manner, members of the legislature fre- Queen of Scots.* The generosity of Johnson's quently introduce and expatiate upon subjects feelings shines forth in the following senof which they have informed themselves for tence : the occasion.

It has now been fashionable, for near half a century, to defame and vilify the house of Stuart,

I Sir John Hawkins has given a long detail of it, in that friars Bridge, calling it “an edifice, in which beauty and manner vulgarly, but significantly, called rigmarole; in symmetry are in vain sought for; by which the citizens of which, amidst an ostentatious exhibition of arts and artists, he London have perpetuated their own disgrace, and subjected talks of " proportions of a column being taken from that of a whole nation to the reproach of foreigners.". Whoever the human figure, and adjusted by nature - masculine and has contemplated, placido lumine, this stately, elegant, and feminine - in a man, sesquioctave of the head, and in a wo. airy structure, which has so fine an effect, especially on apman sesquinonal; nor bas he failed to introduce a jargon of proaching the capital on that quarter, must wonder at such musical terms, which do not seem much to correspond with unjust and ill-tempered censure; and I appeal to all foreignthe subject, but serve to make up the heterogeneous mass. ers of good taste, whether this bridge be not one of the most To follow the knight through all this, would be an useless distinguished ornaments of London. As to the stability of fatigue to myself, and not a little disgusting to my readers. I the fabric, it is certain that the city of London took every shall, therefore, only make a few remarks upon his statement. precaution to have the best Portland stone for it; but as this

He seems to exulí in having detected Johnson in procur. is to be found in the quarries belonging to the public, under ing," from a person eminently skilled in mathematics and the direction of the Lords of the Treasury, it so happened the principles of architecture, answers to a string of questions that parliamentary interest, which is often the bane of fair drawn up by himself, touching the comparative strength of pursuits, thwarted their endeavours. Notwithstanding this sernicircular and elliptical arches.” Now I cannot conceive disadvantage, it is well known that not only has Blackfriars hox Johnson could have acted more wisely. Sir John com- Bridge never sunk either in its foundation or in its arches, plains that the opinion of that excellent mathematician, Mr. which were so much the subject of contest, but any injuries Thomas Simpson, did not preponderate in favour of the which it has suffered from the effects of severe frosts have semicircular arch. But he should have known, that how. been already, in some measure, repaired with sounder stone, ever eminent Mr. Simpson was in the higher parts of abstract and every necessary renewal can be completed at a moderate mathematical science, he was little versed in mixed and expense. - BOSWELL. Johnson's essay is an excellent piece practical mechanics. Mr. Muller, of Woolwich Academy, of reasoning, and does not betray any personal or national the scholastic father of all the great engineers which this prejudice against Mr. Mylne, though Boswell certainly shows country has employed for forty years, decided the question some in his favour. In the result, the Bridge does no by declaring clearly in favour of the elliptical arch. It is great credit to the artist. Its inconvenient steepness - the ungraciously suggested, that Johnson's motive for opposing columns with the proportion "not of columns but of canMr. Mylne's scheme may have been his prejudice against him dles," and the perishable nature of the stone, are essential as a native of North Britain ; when, in truth, as has been defects. - CROKER. stated, he gave the aid of his able pen to a friend, who was 2 " Born and educated in this country, I glory in the name one of the candidates ; and so far was he froin having any of Briton."- GEORGE III.'s first Speech to his Parliament. illiberal antipathy to Mr. Mylne, that he afterwards lived CROKER. with that gentleman upon very agreeable terms of acquaint- 3 This sentence may be generous, but it is not very logical. ance, and dined with him at his house. Sir John Hawkins, Elizabeth was surely as dead as the Stuarts, and would no indeed, gives full vent to his own prejudice in abusing Black more pay for praise than they could. — CROKER,

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