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trary to the express tenor of its stipulations, to place no other shackles upon the free navigation of vessels under the Russian flag, in all the seas and waters of the Ottoman Empire, without any exception. In a word, to permit the merchants, captains, and all the subjects of Russia in general, to enjoy the advantages and prerogatives, as well as the entire liberty of commerce, which are formerly stipulated by the treaties existing between the two Empires.
3d. Conformably to the 1st article of the Treaty of Commerce, which stipulates in favour of all the subjects of Russia in general, the liberty of navigation and commerce in all the States of the Sublime Porte, either by land or sea, and above all, where navigation and commerce may be convenient to Russian subjects; and in virtue of the clauses of the 31st and 35th articles of the said treaty, which assure the free passage, by the canal of Constantinople, of Russian merchant ships, loaded with provisions and other merchandises and productions of Russia, or of other countries not subject to the Ottoman Empire, as well as the free disposition of their provisions, merchandises and productions, the Sublime Porte promises to oppose no obstacle nor prevention to Russian vessels, laden with wheat or other provisions, at their arrival in the canal of Constantinople, where they may reship their cargoes into other vessels whether Russian, or those of other foreign nations, to be transported out of the States of the Sublime Porte.
4th The Sublime Porte accepts the good offices of the Imperial Court of Russia for the purpose of according, after former examples, the entry of the Black Sea to the vessels of Powers friendly to the Ottoman Government, who have not yet obtained that privilege, in such a manner that the Russian commerce of importation may not, by the means of those vessels, and their exportation of Russian products, suffer any injury.
No. 22. Treaty for the Settlement of Greece. Signed at London, July 6, 1827. In the Name of the Most Holy Undivided Trinity.
His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, his Majesty the King of France and Navarre, and his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, penetrated with the necessity of putting an end to the sanguinary contest which by delivering up the Greek provinces and the isles of the Archipelago to all the disorders of anarchy, produces daily fresh, impediments to the commerce of the European States, and gives occasion to piracies which not only expose the subjects of the high contracting parties to considerable losses, but besides render necessary burdensome measures of protection and repression; his Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and his Majesty the King of France and Navarre, having besides received, on the part of the Greeks, a pressing request to interpose their mediation with the Ottoman Porte, and being, as well as his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, animated by the desire of stopping the effusion of blood, and of arresting the evils of all kinds which might arise
from the continuance of such a state of things, have resolved to unite their efforts, and to regulate the operations thereof by a formal Treaty, with a view of re-establishing peace between the contending parties by means of an arrangement which is called for as much by humanity as by the interest of the repose of Europe.
Wherefore they have nominated their Plenipotentiaries to discuss, agree upon, and sign the said Treaty
Who, after having cominunicated their full powers, and found the same in good and due form, agreed upon the following articles :
ART. 1. The contracting powers will offer to the Ottoman Porte their mediation, with the view of bringing about a reconciliation between it and the Greeks.
This offer of mediation shall be made to this power immediately after the ratification of the treaty, by means of a collective declaration signed by the Plenipotentiaries of the allied Courts at Constantinople; and there shall be made at the same time, to the two contending parties, a demand of an immediate armistice between them, as a preliminary condition indispensible to the opening of any negotiation.
ART. 2. The arrangement to be proposed to the Ottoman Porte, shall rest on the following bases :-The Greeks shall hold of the Sultan as of a superior lord; and in consequence of this superiority, they shall pay to the Ottoman Empire an annual tribute (relief,) the amount of which shall be fixed once for all, by a common agreement. They shall be governed by the authorities whom they shall themselves choose and nominate, but in the nomination of whom the Porte shall have a determined voice.
To bring about a complete separation between the individuals of the two nations, and to prevent the collisions which are the inevitable consequence of so long a struggle, the Greeks shall enter upon the possession of the Turkish property situated either on the continent or in the isles of Greece, on the condition of indemnifying the former proprietors, either by the payment of an annual sum, to be added to the tribute which is to be paid to the Porte, or by some other transaction of the same nature.
ART. 3. The details of this arrangement, as well as the limits of the terriritory on the continent, and the designation of the islands of the Archipelago to which it shall be applicable, shall be settled in a subsequent negotiation between the high powers and the two contending parties.
ART. 4. The contracting powers engage to follow up the salutary work of the pacification of Greece on the bases laid down in the preceding articles, and to furnish without the least delay their representatives at Constantinople with all the instructions which are necessary for the execution of the treaty now signed.
ART. 5. The contracting powers will not seek in these arrangements any augmentation of territory, any exclusive influence, any commercial ✈ Suzerain is the term used, it belongs to the feudal law, and signifies Lord Paramount.
advantage for their subjects, which the subjects of any other nation may not equally obtain.
ART. 6. The arrangements of reconciliation and peace, which shall be definitively agreed upon between the contending parties, shall be guaranteed by such of the signing powers as shall judge it useful or possible to contract the obligation: the mode of the effects of this guarantee shall become the object of subsequent stipulations between the high powers.
ART. 7. The present Treaty shall be ratified, and the ratifications shall be exchanged in two months, or sooner if possible.
In faith whereof, the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed, and sealed it with their arms.
Done at London, July, 6, 1827.
DUDLEY. POLIGNAC. LIEVEN.
ADDITIONAL AND SECRET ARTICLE.
In case that the Ottoman Porte does not accept, within the space of one month, the mediation which shall be proposed, the high contracting parties agree upon the following measure:
1. It shall be declared, by their representatives at Constantinople to the Porte, that the inconveniences and evils pointed out in the public treaty as inseparable from the state of things subsisting in the East for the last six years, and the termination of which, through the means at the disposal of the Sublime Porte, appears still remote, impose upon the high contracting parties the necessity of taking immediate measures for an approximation with the Greeks.
It is to be understood that this approximation shall be brought about by establishing commercial relations with the Greeks, by sending to them for that purpose and receiving from them, Consular agents, so long as there shall exist among them authorities capable of maintaining such relations.
2. If within the said term of one month, the Porte do not accept the armistice proposed in the first article of the public treaty, or if the Greeks refuse to execute it, the high contracting powers shall declare to that one of the two contending parties which shall wish to continue hostilities, or to both if such become necessary, that the said high contracting powers intend to exert all the means which circumstances may suggest to their prudence to obtain the immediate effects of the armistice, the execution of which they desire, by preventing, in as far as may be in their power, all collision between the contending parties, and, in fact, immediately after the aforesaid declaration, the high contracting powers will conjointly employ all their means in the accomplishment of the object thereof, without, however, taking any part in the hostilities between the two contending parties.
In consequence, the high contracting powers will. immediately after the signature of the present additional and secret article, transmit eventual
instructions conformable to the provisions above set forth, to the admirals commanding their squadron in the seas of the Levant.
3. Finally, if, contrary to all expectation, these measures do not yet suffice to induce the adoption by the Ottoman Porte of the propositions de by the high contracting powers, or if, on the other hand, the Greeks renounce the conditions stipulated in their favour in the treaty of this day, the high contracting powers will, nevertheless, continue to prosecute the work of pacification on the bases agreed upon between them; and, in consequence they authorize from this time forward their representatives in London'to discuss and determinate the ulterior measures to which it may become necessary to resort.
The present additional and secret article shall have the same force and value as if it had been inserted, word for word, in the treaty of this day. It shall be ratified, and the ratifications thereof shall be exchanged, at the same time as those of the said Treaty.
In faith whereof, the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed it, and have thereto affixed the seals of their arms.
Done at London, this 6th day of July, in the year of Grace 1827.
TREATY OF THE HOLY ALLIANCE.
Their Majesties the Emperor of Austria, the King of Prussia, and the Emperor of Russia, in consequence of the great events, which have distinguished in Europe the course of the three last years, and esp cially of the blessings, which it has pleased Divine Providence to shed upon those states, whose governments have placed their confidence and their hope in it alone, having acquired the thorough conviction, that it is necessary for insuring their continuance, that the several powers, in their mutual relations, adopt the sublime truths which are pointed out to us by the eternal religion of our Saviour God
Declare solemnly, That the present act has no other object than to show, in the face of the universe their unwavering determination to adopt for the only rule of their conduct, both in the administration of their respective states, and in their political relations with every other government, the precepts of their holy religion, the precepts of justice, of charity, and of peace, which, far from being solely applicable to private life, ought, on the contrary, directly to influence the resolutions of pr nces, and to guide all their undertakings, as being the only means of giving stability to human institutions, and of remedying their imperfections—their majesties have, therefore, agreed to the following articles:
ART. 1. In conformity to the words of the Holy Scriptures, which command all men to regard one another as brethern the three contracting monarchs will remain united, by the bonds of a true and indissoluble fraternity; and, considering each other as compatriots, they will lend one another, on every occasion, and in every place, assistance, aid, and support; and, regarding the subjects and armies, as the fathers of their families, they will govern them in the spirit of fraternity with which they are animated, for the protection of religion, peuce, and justice.
ART. 2. Therefore, the only governing principle between the abovementioned governments and their subjects, shall be that of rendering reciprocal services; of testifying, by an unalterable beneficence, the mutual affection with which they ought to be animated; of considering all as only the members of one christian nation, the three allied powers looking upon themselves as delegated by providence, to govern three branches of the same family, to wit: Austria, Prussia,
and Russia, confessing, likewise, that the christian nation, of which they and their people form a part, have really no other sovereign than to him to whom alone power belongs of right, because in him alone are found all the treasures of love, of science and of wisdom, that is to say, God, our divine Saviour, Jesus Christ, the word of the most high, the word of life.
Their Majesty's, therefore, recommend, with the most tender solicitude, to their people, as the only means of enjoying that peace which springs from a good conscience, and which alone is durable, to fortify themselves every day more and more in the principles and exercise of the duties which the divine Saviour has pomted out to us.
ART. 3. All powers which wish solemnly to profess the sacred principles which have delegated this act, and who shall acknowleg how important it is to the happiness of nations, too long disturbed, that these truths shall henceforth exercise upon human destinies, all the influence which belongs to them, shall be received with as much readiness as affection, into this holy alliance.
Made, triplicate, and signed at Paris, in the year of our Lord 1815, on the 14th (26) September.
St. Petersburg, the day of the birth of our Saviour, the 25th of Dec. 1815.
No. 24. SECRET TREATY OF VERONA.
The undersigned, specially authorized to make some additions to The Treaty of the Holy Alliance, after having exchanged their respective credentials, have agreed as follows:
ART. 1. The high contracting powers being convinced that the system of representative government is equally as incompatible with the monarchical principles as the maxim of the sovereignty of the people with the divine right, engage mutually, in the most solemn manner, to use all their efforts to put an end to the system of representative governments, in whatever country it may exist in Europe, and to prevent its being introduced in those countries where it is not yet known.
ART. 2. As it cannot be doubted that the liberty of the press is the most powerful means used by the pretended supporters of the rights of nations, to the detriment of those of Princes, the high contracting parties promise reciprocally to adopt all proper measures to suppress it, not only in their own states, but also in the rest of Europe.
ART. 3. Convinced that the principles of religion contribute most powerfully to keep nations in the state of passive obedience which they owe to their Princes, the high contracting parties declare it to be their intention to sustain, in their respective states, those measures which the elergy may adopt, with the aim of ameliorating their own interests, so intimately connected with the preservation of the authority of Princes; and the contracting powers join in offering their thanks to the Pope, for what he has already done for them, and solicit his constant co-operation in their views of submitting the nations.
ART. 4. The situation of Spain and Portugal unite unhappily all the circumstances to which this treaty has particularly reference. The high contracting parties, in confiding to France the care of putting an end to them, engage to assist her in the manner which may the least compromit them with their own people and the people of France, by means of a subsidy on the part of the two empires, of twenty millions of francs every year, from the date of the signature of this treaty to the end of the war.
ART. 5. In order to establish in the Peninsula the order of things which existed before the revolution of Cadiz, and to insure the entire execution of the articles of the present treaty, the high contracting parties give to each other the reciprocal assurance, that as long as their views are not fulfilled, rejecting all other ideas of utility, or other measures to be taken, they will address themselves with the shortest possible delay, to all the authorities existing in their scates, and to all their agents in foreign countries, with the view to establish connections tending towards the accomplishment of the objects proposed by this treaty.
ART. 6. This treaty shall be renewed with such changes as new circumstances may give occasion for, either at a new Congress, or at the Court of one of the contracting parties, as soon as the war with Spain shall be terminated.
ART. 7. The present treaty shall be ratified, and the ratifications exchanged at Paris within the space of six months.
Made at Verona, the 22d Nov. 1822.
(Signed) For Austria, METTERNICH; for France, CHATEAUBRIAND; for Prussia, Bernstet; for Russia, NESSELRODE,