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No. 25. Declaration of the Powers, on the Abolition of the Slave Trade, of the 8th February, 1815.

The Plenipotentiaries of the Powers who signed the Treaty of Paris of the 30th May, 1814, assembled in conference:

Having taking into consideration that the commerce known by the name of the Save Trade," has been considered by just and enlightened men of all ages, as repugnant to the principles of humanity and universal morality; that the particular circumstances from which this commerce has originated, and the difficulty of abruptly arresting its progress, may have concealed to a certain extent what was odious in its continuance; but that at length the public voice, in all civilized countries, calls aloud for its prompt suppression; that since the character and the details of this traffic have been better known, and the evils of every kind which attend it, completely developed, several European Governments have virtually, come to the resolution of putting a stop to it, and that, successively, all the powers possessing Colonies in different parts of the world have acknowlenged, either by Legislative Acts, or by Treaties, or other formal engagements, the duty and necessity of abolishing it:

That by a separate Article of the late Treaty of Paris, Great Britain and France engaged to unite their efforts at the Congress of Vienna, to induce all the Powers of Christendom to proclaim the universal and definitive Abolition of the Slave Trade:

That the Plenipotentiaries assembled at this Congress cannot do greater credit to their mission, better fulfil their duty, and manifest the principles which actuate their august Sovereigns, than by endeavouring to carry this engagement into effect, and by proclaiming, in the name of their Sovereigns their wish of putting an end to a scourge, which has so long desolated Africa, degraded Europe, and afflicted humanity:

The said Plenipotentiaries have agreed to open their deliberations, on the means of accomplishing so salutary an object, by a solemn declaration of the principles which have governed them in this undertaking: accordingly, being duly authorized for this purpose, by the unanimous accession of their respective Courts to the principle laid down in the said separate Article of the Treaty of Paris; they declare, in the face of Europe, that, considering the universal abolition of the Slave Trade as a measure particularly worthy of their attention, conformable to the spirit of the times, and to the generous principles of their august Sovereigns, they are animated with the sincere desire of concurring in the most prompt and effectual execution of this measure, by all the means at their disposal, and of acting in the employment of these means, with all the zeal and perseverance which is due to so great and noble a cause.

Too well acquainted, however with the sentiments of their Sovereigns, not to perceive, that, however honorable may be their views, they cannot

be attained without due regard to the interests, the habits, and even the prejudices of their subjects; the said Plenipotentiaries at the same time. acknowledge that this general Declaration cannot prejudge the period that each particular Power may consider as most advisable for the definitive abolition of the Slave Trade. Consequently, the determining the period when this trade is to cease universally, must be a subject of negociation between the Powers; it being understood, however, that no proper means of securing its attainment, and of accelerating its progress; are to be neglected; and that the engagement, reciprocally contracted in the present Declaration, between the Sovereigns who are parties to it, cannot be considered as completely fulfilled, until the period when complete success shall have crowned their united efforts.

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In communicating this Declaration to the knowledge of Europe, and of all civilized countries, the said Plenipotentiaries hope to prevail on every other Government, and particularly on those, which, in abolishing the Slave Trade, have already manifested the same sentiments, to give them their support in a cause, the final triumph of which will be one of the noblest monuments of the age which embraced it, and which shall have brought it to a glorious termination.

Vienna, the 8th of February 1815.




No. 26. General Treaty. signed in Congress at Vienna, 9 June, 1815*.
EXTRACT. (Translation as laid before Parliament.)

XCVI. The general principles adopted by the Congress at Vienna, for the navigation of rivers, shall be applicable to that of the Po.

Commissioners shall be named by the states bordering on rivers, within three months at latest after the termination of the Congress to regulate all that concerns the execution of the present article.

CVIII. The Powers whose states are separated, or crossed by the same Davigable river, engage to regulate, by common consent, ail that regards its navigation. For this purpose they will name Commissioners, who shall assemble, at latest within, six months after the termination of the Congress, and who shall adopt, as the basis of their proceedings, the principles established by the following Articles:

CIX. The navigation of the rivers, along their course, referred to in the preceding article, from the point where each of them becomes navigable, to its mouth, shall be entirely free, and shall not, in respect to commerce, be prohibited to any one; it being understood that the regulations established with regard to the police of this navigation shall be respected; as they will be framed alike for all, and as favourable as possible to the commerce of all


Since acceded to by all the other Powers of Europe.

CX. The system that shall be established, both for the collection of the duties and for the maintenance of the police, shall be, as nearly as possible, the same along the whole course of the river; and shall also extend, unless particular circumstances prevent it, to those of its branches and junctions, which, in their navigable course, separate or traverse different states.

CXI. The duties on navigation shall be regulated in an uniform and settled manner, and with as little reference as possible to the different quality of the merchandize, in order that a minute examination of the cargo may be rendered unnecessary, except with a view to prevent fraud and evasion. The amount of the duties, which shall in no case exceed those now paid, shall be determined by local circumstances, which scarcely allow of a general rule in this respect. The tariff'shall, however, be prepared in such a manner as to encourage commerce by facilitating navigation: for which purpose the duties established upon the Rhine, and now in force on that river, may serve as an approximating rule for its construction.

The tariff once settled, no increase shall take place therein, except by the common consent of the states bordering on the rivers; nor shall the navigation be burthened with any other duties than those fixed in the regulation.

CXII. The offices for the collection of duties, the number of which shall be reduced as much as possible, shall be determined upon in the above regulation, and no change shall afterwards be made, but by common consent, unless any of the States bordering on the Rivers should wish to diminish the number of those which exclusively belong to the same.

CXIII. Each State bordering on the Rivers is to be at the expense of keeping in good repair the towing paths which pass through its territory, and of maintaining the necessary works through the same extent in the channels of the river, in order that no obstacle may be experienced to the navigation.

The intended regulation shall determine the manner in which the States bordering on the Rivers are to participate in these latter works, where the opposite banks belong to different governments.

CXIV. There shall no where be established store-house, port or forced harbour duties. Those already existing shall be preserved for such time only as the States bordering on Rivers (without regard to the local interest of the place or the country where they are established) shall find them necessary or useful to navigation and commerce in general.

CXV. The custom houses belonging to the States bordering on Rivers shall not interfere in the duties of navigation. Regulations shall be established to prevent officers of the customs, in the exercise of their functions, throwing obstacles in the way of the navigation; but care shall be taken, by means of a strict police on the bank, to preclude every attempt of the inhabitants to smuggle goods, through the medium of boatmen.

CXVI. Every thing expressed in the preceding Articles shall be settled by a general arrangement, in which there shall also be comprized whatever may need an ulterior determination.

The arrangement once settled* shall not be changed, but by and with the consent of all the States bordering on Rivers, and they shall take care to provide for its execution with due regard to circumstances and locality.

CXVII. The particular regulations relative to the navigation of the Rhine, the Neckar, the Maine, the Moselle, the Meuse, and the Scheldt, such as they are annexed to the present Act, shall have the same force and validity as if they were textually inserted herein.

CXVIII These Treaties, Conventions, Declarations, Rugulations, and other particular Acts which are annexed to the present Act, viz.

15. The Declaration of the Powers on the Abolition of Trade, of the 8th of February, 1815;

16. The Regulations respecting the navigation of Rivers; shall be considered as integral parts of the arrangements of the Congress, and shall have, throughout, the same force and validity as if they were inserted, word for word, in the General Treaty.


Done at Vienna, the 9th of June, in the year of our Lord 1815.
(The Signatures follow in the alphabetical order of the Courts.)
The Prince de METTERNICH.
The Baron de WESSENBERG.
The Prince de TALLEYRAND.
The Duke de D'ALBERG.





The Comté de PALMELLA.

The Prince de HARDENBERG.
The Baron de HUMBOLDt.

Great Britain,




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L. S The Count de STACKELBERG. [L. S.] The Count de NESSELDOre.


No. 27. Treaty between Great Britain and Austria, (and Russia and Prussia) signed at Paris, 5th November, 1815.t


In the name of the Most Holy and Undivided Trinity.

His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary and Bohemia, His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, and His Majesty the King of Prussia, animated by the desire of prosecuting the negotiations adjourned at the Congress of Vienna, in order to fix the destiny of the seven Ionian

* This arrangement has since been settled aecording to the above regulations. +Since acceded to by all the other Powers of Europe,

Islands, and to insure the independence, liberty, and happiness of the inhabitants of those Islands, by placing them and their constitution under the immediate protection of one of the great Powers of Europe, have agreed to settle definitively, by a special Act, whatever relates to this object, which, grounded upon the rights resulting from the Treaty of Paris of the 30th May, 1814, and likewise upon the British declarations at the period when the British arms liberated Cerigo, Zante, Cephalonia. Santa Maura, Ithaca, and Paxo, shall be considered as forming part of the General Treaty concluded at Vienna on the 9th June, of the present year 1815, on the termination of the Congress; and in order to settle and sign the said Act, the High Contracting Powers have nominated Plenipotentiaries; that is to say.

His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Right Honourable Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh. K. G. &c. &c. &c. and the Most Illustrious and Most Noble Lord. Arthur, Duke, Marquess, and Earl of Wellington. Marquess of Douro Viscount Wellington, of Talavera and of Wellington, and Baron Douro, of Wellesley, K. G. &c. &c. &c.

And His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary and Bohemia, the Sieur Clement Wenceslas Lothaire, Prince of Metternich-Winnebourg-Ochsenhausen, &c. &c. &c. and the Sieur John Philip Baron Wessenberg, &c. &c. &c. who, after having exchanged their full powers, found to be in good and due form, have agreed upon the following Articles:

I. The Islands of Corfu, Cephalonia, Zante, Santa Maura, Ithaca, Cerigo, and Paxo, with their dependencies, such as they are described in the Treaty between His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias and the Ottoman Porte, of the 21st of March, 1800,* shall form a single, free, and independent State, under the denomination of the United States of the Ionian Islands.

II. This State shall be placed under the immediate and exclusive protection of His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britian and Ireland, his heirs and successors. The other Contracting Powers do consequently renounce every right or particular pretension which they might ha formed in respect to them, and formally guarantee all the dispositions of the present Treaty.

III. The United States of the Ionian Islands shall, with the approbation of the Protecting Powers, regulate their internal organization; and, in order to give to all the parts of this organization the necessary consistency and action, His Britannic Majesty will employ a particular solicitude with regard to the legislation and the general administration of those States. His Majesty will, therefore, appoint a Lord High Commissioner to reside there, invested with all the necessary power and authorities for this purpose.

"The Islands of Corfu, Zante, Cephalonia, Santa Maura, Ithaca, Paxo, Cerigo, and all the large and small islands, inhabited and uninhabited, which are situated opposite to the coasts of the Morea and Albania, which were detached from Venice, and have recently been conquered."-(Art. 2.)

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