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NINETY-SEVEN MILITARY ACTIONS LASTING MORE THAN THIRTY DAYS

:

1798-1800: Quasi-war with France
1801-1805: War with Tripoli
1806-1810: Gulf of Mexico
1813-1814: Marquesas Islands (South

Pacific) 1814-1925: Caribbean Area 1815: Second Barbary War 1816-1818: Spanish Florida 1820-1822: West Coast of South America 1823:

Cuba 1827:

Greece 1831-1832: Falkland Islands 1835-1836: Peru 1838-1839: Sumatra 1843:

West Africa 1843:

China 1844:

Mexico 1846:

Mexico 1852-1853: Argentina 1853-1854; Japan 1854:

China 1854:

Okinawa 1855: Fiji Islands 1855: Uruguay 1856:

China 1858:

Cuban waters 1858-1859: Paraguay 1858-1859: Turkey 1865-1866: Mexican border 1866: China 1868; Japan 1869-1871: Dominican Republic 1873: Colombia 1873:

Cuban waters 1873-1882: Mexico 1885: Colombia 1888–1889: Samoan Islands 1891:

Bering Sea 1894: Nicaragua 1894-1895: China

: 1898-1899: China 1899:

Samoan Islands 1899-1901: Philippine Islands 1900-1901: "Boxer" Rebellion (Peking) 1901:

State of Panama 1902:

State of Panama 1903:

Panama 1903-1904: Abyssinia 1903-1904: Syria 1904: Dominican Republic 1904-1905: Korea

1906-1909: Cuba 1907: Honduras 1911-1912: China 1912:

Panama 1912:

Cuba 1912: Nicaragua 1913:

China 1914:

Haiti 1914: Vera Cruz (Mexico) 1914-1915 : Dominican Republic 1915: Occupation of Haiti 1916: Occupation of Dominican

Republic 1916-1917: Pershing Expedition into

Mexico 1917: Armed Atlantic merchant ships 1917:

Cuba 1918-1919: Mexico 1918-1920: Expeditions to Russia 1918-1920: Panama 1920-1922: Siberia 1922-1923: China 1924-1925: China 1924-1925: Honduras 1926-1933: Nicaragua 1926:

China 1927:

China 1936: Spain 1937-1938: China 1940: Occupation of British pos

sessions in Western Atlantic 1941: Occupation of Greenland 1941: Occupation of Dutch Guiana 1941: Occupation of Iceland 1941: Atlantic convoys 1946: Trieste 1948: Mediterranean 1948-1949: China 1950-1953: Korean War 1954-1955: Tachen Islands (China) 1958:

Lebanon 1959-1960: Cuba 1962:

Thailand 1962: Cuban naval quarantine 1964-1973: Laos 1964-1973: Vietnam 1964: Congo 1965: Dominican Republic 1967:

Congo 1970:

Cambodia

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TIREE

7. ONE HUNDRED/MILITARY ACTIONS BY THE UNITED STATES OUTSIDE THE WESTERIV HEMISPHERE

1840:

:

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1801-1805: War with Tripoli

1899: Samoan Islands 13:13-1874: Marquesas Islands (South Pacific) 1899-1901: Philippine Islands 1915: Second Baroary War

1900-1901: "Boxer" Rebellion (Peking) 1620: West Africa

1903-1904: Syria 1627: Greece

1903-1904: Abyssinia (Ethiopia) 2832: Sunatra

1904:

Morocco 1835: Samoan Islands

1904:

Korea 1838-1339: Sumatra

1911-1912: China Fiji Islands

1912: Turkey 1841: Drummond Island (Pacific Ocean) 1913:

China 18141: Samoan Islands

1916:

China 1843: Wes: Africa

1917: Armed Atlantic merchant snips 1843: China

1918:

China 18144: China

1918-1920: Expeditions to Russia 1.345: African coast

1919:

Turkey 1919:

Dalmatia 1849: Smyrna (Now Izmir, Turkey)

1920:

China 1650: African coast

1920-1922: Siberia 1851: Turkey

1922: Turkey .1 : Johanna Island (east of Africa) 1922-1923: China 1853: China

1924:

China 1893 Airican Coast

1924-1925: China 1853: Smyrna 1953-1854: Japan

1926: China African coast

1927:

China 1994: Okinawa

1932:

China lu54: China

1934:

China
China

1936: Spain 955: Fiji Islands

1937-1938: China China

1941: Occupation of Greenland 1358: Fiji Islands

1941: Occupation of Iceland 1998: African coast

1941: Atlantic convoys 2358-1859: Turkey

1946: Turkey 1399: African coast

1946: Trieste 18,9: China

1946: Greece Tüo: Kissembo (West Africa)

1948: Palestine 1863: Japan

1948: Mediterranean 1964: Japan

1948-1949: China 1962:: Japan

1950-1953: Korea China

1954-1955: Tachen Islands (China) 1867: Formosa

1956: Egypt leö: Japan

1957:

Indonesia lui: Korea

1957:

Taiwan 1879: Hawaii

1958: Indonesia 16:32: Egypt

1958:

Lebanon 2.383: Korea

1962: Thailand 1803-1889: Samoan Islands

1964-1972: Laos Hawaii

1964-1973: Vietnam 2034-1896: Korea

1964: Congo 1896: China

1967: Syrian coast 1895-1896: Korea

1967: Congo 1893-1899: China

1970:

Cambodia
1970: Jordanian-Syrian Crisis

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Indicates operation occurred under Act of 1819 or Treaty of August 9, 1842, with Great Britain, both relative to the suppression of slavery.

2 Indicates military activity may have occurred pursuant to broad interpretation of authority conferred by certain Acts of Congress against piracy,

rch 3, 1819 (3 Stat. 510), Act of January 14, 1823 (3 Stat. Po),

sĆ 5, 2Sól (12. Stat. 324).

See

Year

Military Operation

Legislation

Treaty

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1891 1894 1895 1899 1899-1901 1901 1902 1903 1904 1906 1911-1912 1912 1912 1913 1914 1916 1916 1917 1918 1918-1920 1920 1921 1922-1923 1924 1924-1925 1925 1926 1927 1932 1933 1934 1937-1938. 1950-19533 1957 19584 19625 ,1962 1964-1973 1964-193 1970

Navassa Island, Haiti
Brazil
Panama
Samoan Islands
Philippine Islands
Panama
Panama
Panama
Panama
Cuba
China
Panama
Cuba
China
Vera Cruz, Mexico
Pershing Expedition into Mexico
China
Cuba
China
Panama
China
Panama-Costa Rica
China
China
China
Panama
China
China
China
Cuba
China
China
Korean War
Taiwan
Lebanon Operation
Cuban Naval Quarantine
Thailand
Vietnam
Laos
Cambodia

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Though reliance was also placed on the U. N. Charter, the Truman Administration based its authority to commit troops squarely on the President's independent Constitutional authority. Rogers, discussion supra, footnote 55, at $7197.

*In fact President Eisenhower sent troops into Lebanon without seeking specific Congressional approval and without specifically basing his authority on the 1957 Middle East. Resolution. Id.

5According to Secretary of State Rogers, "the Cuban Resolution, unlike the other area resolutions contained no grant of authority to the President." I.

STATEMENT OF HON. FRANK HORTON OF NEW YORK

Mr. Chairman, I am grateful for the opportunity to address this subcommittee on the crucial question of war powers legislation. As you know, Mr. Chairman, I sponsored legislation in the last Congress

I which was very similar to the Javits-Eagleton-Stennis war powers bill passed by the Senate. The major difference between my bill and the Senate bill is that I propose the creation of a new joint committee.' As a result, my legislation is again pending before our Rules Committee even though its basic thrust is appropriately under this subcommittee's purview.

I should begin by commending this subcommittee for promptly returning to the question of war powers after the failure last year to gain House and Senate agreement on a single bill. I must also voice my hope that this subcommittee will report out a bill that is significantly stronger than those previously sent to the House floor. The subcommittee has numerous measures before it that would accomplish that goal.

In the war powers area, as in others, there is a compelling need for Congress to redress an imbalance of power. I say imbalance because the President not only wields virtually unilateral power to defend our Nation, but also to involve us in future Vietnams. For that reason, many of my colleagues and I are seeking ways to govern the commitment of Armed Forces "in the absence of a declaration of war by the Congress.”

While the framers of the Constitution did not en vision an era of undeclared warfare, they had much to say about war powers. Article I, section 8 of the Constitution enumerates the comprehensive war powers of Congress as follows:

Provide for the common defense.
To define and punish * * * offenses against the law of nations.
To declare war.
To raise and support armies.

To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces.

To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws * * * and repel invasions.

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the milita, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States. In contrast to this specific enumeration, the war powers actually granted the President are far less clear. Article II, section 1 states:

The executive power shall be vested in a president of the United States of America.

Article II, section 2 goes on to state without further elaboration:

The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several States, when called into the actual service of the United States. 1 Membership of the proposed joint committee appears at end of statement on p. 379.

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