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CHAP. X.

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NETHERLANDS-Inundations-Treaties--Conclusion of the Session of

the States-General-Means taken for the Improvement of Education, and especially of the Education of the Clergy-Violent Opposition of the Archbishop of Mechlin and many of the Catholic ClergyLiberality of the Catholic Clergy of the Grand-Duchy of LuxemburgNew Duties imposed by France on Articles imported from the Netherlands-Opening of the new Session of the States-General-Financial Embarrassments of the Dutch possessions in IndiaInsurrection

Java–SWEDEN-Germany-Prussia-Wirtemberg-Bavaria Grand Duchy of Baden-Switzerland Austria ; Hungarian DietPoland-Russia Illness of the Emperor Alexander : his Death: his Character : effects of the Intelligence of that Event - Oath of Allegiance taken to Constantine : his Renunciation of the Throne : his adherence to that Renunciation-Accession of Nicholas— Military Insurrection in St. Petersburg-Alleged Conspiracy-Revolt of Mouravief Apostol -Count Nesselrode's Note to the Foreign Ministers.

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the beginning of the year, “High and Mighty Lords,

great distress was produced “ The labours of the session, throughout Holland by the exten- which I come to close in the King's sive inundations which took place. name, have not been less important To repair the devastation thus than those of the preceding sessions. produced, the States-general, by an The civil code being nearly termiunanimous vote, granted a credit nated, you will be able soon to of 8,000,000 of florins.

proceed to the examination of the On the 5th of March, the other codes. An amelioration of President of the Second Chamber great importance, the draining of informed the assembly that his a vast tract of land, has obtained Majesty had concluded two trea- for

you the gratitude of the counties relative to the demarcation try, which has so long wished, but of the frontiers one with the hardly dared to hope for it. king of France, the other with “The King intended to lay bethe king of Great Britain, as king fore you a law relative to the comof Hanover. On the following munal guards, but it has become day, a royal message was read, the subject of fresh observations, announcing that the Minister of which have delayed it. His Mathe Interior was commissioned to jesty hopes that this law, which close the session of the States- is still wanting to complete the general. The two chambers were execution of the fundamental law, then united in the usual manner, will be passed in the next session. and the Minister of the Interior His Majesty has withdrawn the delivered the following speech.

three projects of law intended to modify some taxes : it is with regret with the spirit of the most fiery that he sees the moment delayed, bigotry, or in such provincial eswhen the wish for a better propor- tablishments for education within tion in the distribution of the bur. the limits of the Low-countries as dens being fulfilled, will reconcile were entirely under the influence the interest of the subject with of the more narrow-minded portion that of the Exehequer. Meantime, of the priesthood. To correct these till this affair can be again sub- evils, decrees, were published, on mitted to your consideration, the the 14th of June, suppressing some King will make use of the means of the existing colleges, erecting a offered by the existing laws to new college at Louvain, and proattain as far as possible the end he viding more ample means of inproposed, and to fulfil the hopes struction in the established univerwhich he had conceived.

sities. “ The last part of your session In furtherance of the same has been marked by misfortunes- object, another decree was issued a deplorable disaster has desolated on the 14th of August, which several provinces. The nation has contained the following articles: shewn itself, as it always has done 1st. No young Belgians who, on such occasions, patient, coura, after the first of October next, shall geously and eminently charitable. have studied the “humanities” out The government has endeavoured of the kingdom, shall be admitted to fulfil its duties; you have nobly in any of our Universities into the seconded it; and from this three-Philosophical College, instituted fold union of sentiment and care, by our decree of the 14th of June will result, with the aid of Divine last. Providence, the prompt and entire 2nd. Those who are to be exareparation of all the disasters, and mined by the Faculty of Letters, the relief or alleviation of all the before they can be admitted as misfortunes that have been occa- students, shall first of all produce sioned.

certificates from their professors “He indulges the hope that, on that they have received "from the opening of the next session he those professors, for some years will be able to assure you, that in without interruption, instructions this respect there remains nothing in the ancient languages and the for the government to perform, or principles of the sciences.' the nation to desire.”

3rd. Those young Belgians, who, The difference of religious opin- after the first of October next, shall ion, which existed in the two divi- have studied the “humanities” sions of the kingdom of the Nether- out of the kingdom, or who shall lands, had been felt to be so serious have pursued their academical an inconvenience, that the atten- studies out of the kingdom, shall tion of the government had been not be appointed by us to any emstrongly drawn to a circumstance ployments, or admitted to exercise which was likely to increase the any ecclesiastical functions. mischief. That circumstance was These measures produced great the education of the clergy, and of dissatisfaction among the more many of the children of Catholics bigotted portion of the clergy; in foreign seminaries, where every who, headed by the archbishop of endeavour was used to imbue them Mechlin, and encouraged by the

approbation of the pope and the copacy—to the free exercise of the sympathy of France, protested Catholic religion, and the protecloudly against a course of proceed- tion guaranteed to it by the funing, which they denounced as “in damental law-and finally, to the direct opposition (to quote the several declarations and promises words of the archbishop himself) made to us by his majesty." These “ to the interests of our holy reli- sentiments, however, were not gion—to the orders of the council universal, even among the Caof Trent, concerning the formation tholics of the kingdom. In the of a virtuous, regular, and ortho- grand duchy of Luxemburg, in dox college-to the rights belong- particular, the Catholic clergy preing, of divine right, to the epis- sented an address to the king,

breathing a most liberal and enIn consequence of the discussions lightened spirit. “ The decree of concerning the Philosophical college the 14th of June," says this aderected for the clergy, the following dress, “has fulfilled the hopes of letter was sent by the court of Rome to the archbishop of Mechlin :

those Catholic priests, who are sin“My Lord, I find it my duty to give cerely attached to the doctrines of you an account of the examination made their holy religion. Those of the by order of the Holy Father, of the two grand duchy, who present their redecrees of the Belgian government, of the 14th of June last, and I have heard spectful homage, see in it a new with satisfaction that all the heads of cause of prosperity to the Catholic the dioceses have united with the arch- church. In all civilized states, inbishop of Mechlin in making a protesta- struction spreads with astonishing tion against these decrees, and that M. rapidity. Letters, sciences and Chamberlane has followed the same course with the clergy of Holland. The arts

become accessible

to all sovereign pontiff has, on his part, or- classes ; and shall that which by dered a strong representation to be its essence is called to diffuse made to the government of the king of the knowledge most necessary to the Netherlands, in a note put into the the human race remain behind ? hands of M. Reinhold, envoy at the court of Rome. His holiness will judge Such an order of things is evihereafter, according to circumstances, dently subversive of the spiritual what it is proper to do; in the mean and temporal welfare of man." time, he is of opinion, that all the The whole of the address was ordinaries ought to act with one common accord, and remain quite passive, should written in the same spirit of subthe Belgian government proceed to the mission to government and respect execution of its orders. His boliness, for the system of public instruction. whose lieart has been filled by the most lively regret by these two decrees, is

The ultra journals of Paris cenconvinced that the general protestation

sured it as deficient in reverence will be worthy of the heads of the dio- for episcopal authority and in subceses from whom it emanates, and that mission to the see of Rome. it will be modelled on that made by the Great complaints were made of ordinates of Belgian in 1787, against the general seminary erected by the

an ordinance, issued by the king emperor Joseph at Louvain, and that

of France, about the beginning of they will not have lost sight of the de- July, by which additional duties claration made by the king of the were imposed on several producNetherlands in July, 1815, in virtue of tions of Flemish industry, and eswhich he guaranteed the Catholic religion its dignity and security.”

pecially on the importation of [By order] (Signed)

linen. Petitions were immediately “ R. Magro," presented to the government, call. ing upon it to make reprisals, by Moluccas, Sumatra, Celebes, and adopting similar measures against elsewhere, rendered military armaFrance.

ments necessary. To these causes On the 17th of October, the were added the failure of the crops, new session of the States-general and contagious diseases, which had commenced. It was opened by carried off several thousands of the the king in person, accompanied natives, so that many tracts of land by the crown prince and prince remained uncultivated. Frederick. · In the speech which Till 1824, the distress was ashis majesty delivered on that occa- cribed in India to temporary causes. sion, after alluding to the marriage Under this idea, every thing was of his second son with a princess conducted on a large scale, and of Prussia, which had been solemn- even considerable domains, alienatized since the close of the last ses- ed in former years, were re-pursion, he gave a very favourable ac- chased ; but, in that year, a concount of the state of the kingdom, siderable fall in the price of coffee and touched lightly upon the various taking place, reduced at once the branches of the administration, in large stock in the hands of governwhich improvements had been made, ment to one half of its value, so or were making (see Public Docu- that a great embarrassment ensued, ments p. 89*]

which rendered it necessary to isThe most important measure, sue paper bearing 9 per cent inwhich was brought before the States- terest. These circumstances ingeneral, was the project of a law for duced the government in October, providing for the financial distresses 1824, to make retrenchments; and of the East-Indian possessions of it was at the same time resolved to the Netherlands, by a loan to the negociate a loan in Bengal. The amount of 20,000,000 of florins. latter project, however, was reFor the payment of the interest jected by the government at home, and for the redemption of the prin- from an apprehension that one cipal, a sum of 1,400,000 forins effect of it would be, to cause the was to be annually set apart for produce of the Dutch possessions the colonial service, commencing to be remitted to foreign merfrom the 1st of January, 1826, chants. and this annual sum of 1,400,000 The scheme of raising a loan in florins was to be guaranteed, as Bengal being rejected, the only far as necessary, by the state, for alternative was, to procure asthe period of thirty years.

sistance from the mother country; The causes of the financial em- and though her guarantee was rebarrassments of the Indian govern- quired only for the satisfaction of ment were stated to be, the incau- the Indies, yet the government tious issue of paper-currency, the stated that they confidently expayment of large sums for goods pected that the Indian treasury taken by agreement from the Bri- would be able to provide the tish government, the loss of ships annual sum of 1,400,000 florins laden with produce, &c., the great for the payment of interest and expenses incurred by the erection capital. From 1817 to 1824, the of military works, and the main- revenues amounted to about 152 tenance of a colonial marine; and millions of forins, and the expenthe serious disturbances in the diture to about 151 millions. The

a

measures

estimate for 1824 was 27 millions renders a colonial council and gofor the revenue, and 26 millions vernor either more forbearing or for the expenditure; but by the more scrupulous. The disaffected falling of the prices of coffee, there were numerous; and, in the prewas a deficiency of nearly a million sent year, they proceeded to open and a half in the first six months war. The first disturbance of much of 1824. The revenue exceeded note that broke out was in the the expenditure till 1819: when residency of Djocjokarta. It had the troubles in Palembang, and been observed by the Dutch Resithe prevalence of the cholera mor- dent, that a prince, called Dipo bus had a visible effect, in dimi- Negoro, one of the guardians of nishing the income, at the same the young sultan, who was a minor, time that the establishments re- had assembled a great number of mained on too costly a footing, and people at his abode, among whom the expenses became too great. it was suspected that some insurTo lessen the expenditure for the rectionary movement was in confuture, certain

were templation. he Resident, thereto be adopted. These were, the fore, requested the prince to exdetermination of a quinquennial plain the motives of this proceedbudget for India, from which no ing; and as he, on various pretexts, departure should be made ; the declined to do so, the Resident, on suspension of public works for five the 21st of July, thought it his years; the abolition of expensive duty to order his appearance, and boards for civil works, &c.; the to send some troops to compel him simplifications of the administra- to obey.. Dipo Negoro opposed tion; the diminution of the num- the armed force sent against him, ber of persons employed in many and made his escape, along with a of the offices, and limitations in confederate, called Mankoe Boemie. the number of new appointments. The two princes, along with their

It was calculated that the board troops, took up a position at a little of works alone cost annually distance from the residence of the 800,000 or 900,000 forins; and sultan, and were there attacked that the interest of the public cur- by a detachment of Dutch troops, rency, which was to be called in, on the 27th of July, without any amounted to 400,000, so that the decisive result; though the insursaving in these two branches gents were for the time dispersed, would amount nearly to the and fled whenever the Dutch forces 1,400,000 required.

made a demonstration of attacking But while the government at them. On the receipt of this inhome were thus devising plans for telligence, the lieutenant-governor extricating the Indian administra- sent orders to the governor of tion from its pecuniary embarrass- Samarang (the capital of the eastments, events were taking place ern district of the island) to take in Java, which tended to make all necessary precautions to prevent these embarrassments still more the evils which might arise from overwhelming. The administra- this incipient rebellion. On the tion of the Dutch had always been 29th, his excellency reached Samaunpopular among the natives: it rang, and immediately set out for was accused of being capricious Sourakarta, the capital of what is and oppressive; and poverty seldom called the empire or dominions of

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