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“ The sacred words of fidelity, very root; they will purge of this oath, legitimate order, even the foreign contagion the sacred soil of name of the Cesarowitsch and the Russia ; they will cause to disapgrand duke Constantine, were for pear that odious mixture of melanthem only a pretext for treason. choly truths and gratuitous susThey wished to profit by the mo- picions which is repugnant to noble ment to accomplish their criminal minds; they will draw for ever a design – designs long contrived, decisive and ineffaceable line of delong meditated, long matured in marcation between love of country darkness, and the mystery of which and revolutionary passions, between the government had penetrated only the desire of improvement and in part. They intended to cast down the rage of convulsions; they will the throne and the laws, to over- show to the world that the Russian turn the empire, to produce anar- nation, always faithful to its sovechy. What were their means? As reign and to the laws, repels the sassination. Their first victim was secret efforts of anarchy, as it has the military governor, count Mi- repelled the open attacks of its delaradowitsch. He, whom, in the clared enemies; they will show how field of honour, the chance of war people may free themselves from had spared in 50 battles, has fallen such a scourge; they will prove that, under the hand of an assassin. it is not every where indestructible.” This murder is not the only one. The real nature and extent of Count Sturler, commander of the the alleged plot was not disclosed regiment of grenadiers of the body to the world. The rumour was, guard, killed; major-general Schen- that an attempt to establish a conschin, major-general Fredericks, stitution was to have commenced and others, severely wounded, have by murdering the whole imperial sealed with their blood their fidelity family, on the 12th of January, to honour and to duty.

a day on which every member of “Hurried in the tumult, the the family attends, at the chapel soldiers of the companies that were in the castle, the celebration of a seduced did not participate in these religious ceremony in memory of crimes, either in act or intention. Paul. The imperial victims were A rigorous inquiry has given me to have been shut up in the chapel, the proof of this, and I consider it and there murdered ; the castle as a first act of justice, as well as was then to have been seized, all my first consolation, to declare the foreigners were to have been them innocent. But the same jus- massacred, and the town given up tice forbids us to spare the guilty to the soldiers, to be pillaged, for All those against whom proceed three days. ingsare instituted, and who shall be That there did exist a conspiconvicted, will undergo a punish- racy, subsequent events showed too ment proportioned to their crimes. plainly. In consequence of the

“From the measures already discoveries made by the committee taken in the proceedings, the pun- of inquiry, orders were sent to arishment will embrace in its whole rest lieut. colonel Mouravieff Aposextent, in all its ramifications, an tol, of the infantry regiment of evil the germ of which is of the Tchernigoff. These orders were growth of years; and I am confi- executed by lieut. colonel Gebel, dent they will destroy it to the commanding that regiment: but

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Mouravieff attacked that officer in the district of Vassilkoff. Mouand wounded him in several places. ravieff Apostol, seeing the imperial He then instigated six companies troops approach, formed the rebels of the regiment to revolt, by ur. into a square, and advanced upon ging upon them the obligation to the artillery : but being received remain faithful to the oath which by a discharge of grape shot, the they had taken to Constantine. square was immediately broken. He next arrested the courier and The cavalry then made a charge, the gens d'armes who had been and all the insurgents threw down sent to convey him to St. Peters- their arms. About seven hundred burgh, pillaged the regimental soldiers were taken prisoners, as chest, set the malefactors who were well as Mouravieff Apostol himself, confined in the municipal prison who was severely wounded by a of Vassilkoff, free from their chains, grape shot, and by a sabre cut on and gave the town up to the licen- the head; the second captain, baron tiousness of the soldiery. Three Solovieff

, lieutenant Bystrytchy, companies, however, of the regi- the sub-lieutenant Bestoujeff-Rioument, under the orders of major mine, of the infantry regiment of Trouchin, remained firm to their Poltava, and a brother of Mouraduty, and separated themselves from vieff, a lieutenant-colonel on halftheinsurgents. As soon as the com- pay, were also prisoners. mander-in-chief of the first army

Lieutenants Kouzmine, Chippela, was informed of these events, and another brother of Mouravieff he ordered prince Scherbatoff to Apostol, were killed, besides many proceed directly, with a sufficient soldiers; and some were wounded. number of troops, to exterminate Of the imperial troops not a man the rebels ; and lest they might es- was either killed or wounded. cape from the pursuit of that offi- Nicolas professed a firm purpose cer, the emperor confided the com- to pursue the same policy which mand of another corps of infantry his deceased brother had followed. to the grand duke Constantine, The note addressed by count with a view to secure more cer- Nesselrode, minister for Foreign tainly the suppression of the revolt. Affairs, to the foreign ministers

Mouravieff at first seems to have accredited to the court of Russia, intended to march upon Bronssi- on the emperor's accession, was in loff by Yastoff: but the motions of these words :- ico" Called to the in

pursuers compelled him to heritance of the dominions of the change his plan, and he was pro- emperor Alexander, the emperor ceeding towards Bela-Tcherkoff, Nicolas inherits also the principles in the hope of getting posses- which directed the policy of his sion of considerable sums of august predecessor; and his Imperial money, which were in the house Majesty has therefore given orders of the countess Branicka. He was, to his ambassadors, ministers, and however, soon surrounded on all agents at foreign courts, to declare sides; and, on the morning of the to them, that, earnestly striving to 15th of January, a detachment follow the footsteps of the Sovereign under the command of lieutenant whose loss he deplores, he will general Roth came up with the profess the same fidelity to the eninsurgents on the heights of Ousti- gagements contracted by Russia, novka, near the village of Pologoff, the same respect for all rights consecrated by existing treaties, the maintain the relations of intimate same attachment to the maxims friendship and mutual confidence, which ensure the general peace, which, having been established

, and of the bonds that subsist be- and maintained under the emperor tween the powers. On the other Alexander, have given to Europe hand, the emperor confidently hopes ten years of repose." from them the same disposition to

CHAP. XI.

SPAIN.-- Appointment of M. de Zea Bermudez to be Minister-His Dis

advantages-Dismissal of Ugarte- Finances of Spain-- Disturbances -Decrees-- Plots of the Priests and of the Ultra-Royalists-- Project for placing Don Carlos on the Throne -- Insurrection of BessieresHis Failure and Death Other Plols and Insurrectionary Movements Institution of the Consultative JuntaThe course of the Administration-Dismissal of Zea and his Cabinet-- The Duke de l’Infantado appointed Minister.

TH

THE history of Spain during on the morrow. His almost total

the present year is nearly a want of personal influence, of family blank. On the last day of 1824, connexions, or of party support, Zea Bermudez was placed at the made it necessary for him to conhead of the ministry. This ap- sult the caprices of those whose pointment was said to have been erroneous views and mischievous almost forced upon Ferdinand by passions he should have been able the influence of France, and by the to control, and thus rendered it extreme difficulties in which the impossible for him to observe any court found itself placed. Zea was consistent line of conduct in atconceived to be a man of ability, tempting to restore public credit or of knowledge, and of moderation to suppress dangerous disturbances. in politics; and hopes were enter. The consequence was, that the tained that he would follow a more fanatical party, imagining that they enlightened policy than that of his had now something to apprehend, predecessors in office. But he had and at the same time freed from not sufficient strength to effect any the check of the French army, good. As he refused to go all the became more violent than before : lengths of the fanatical party, he and most of the principal towns was from the commencement of his in Spain exhibited scenes of anarchy ministry obnoxious to the church and tumult. The disorders were and the leading courtiers; and as, increased by the poverty of the from the very nature of his situa- government, who, being without tion, he could not obtain the sup- either money or credit, were unable port of public opinion in a country to furnish regularly the requisite where there was no public, he was supplies for the scanty and miserably obliged, in order to maintain him- appointed troops, and were in the self in office, to oppose intrigue to habit of having recourse to forced intrigue; to make a compromise contributions. with wrong, when he could not Many negotiations were set on carry what he thought right; and foot for the purpose of raising a to render ineffectual the measure loan, but without effect. In March, of one day, by the promulgation of Ugarte, whose private influence had a modifying or counteracting decree long been great, was dismissed from

his office of secretary of the Council venue, have sustained a defalcaof State, and appointed ambassador tion, amounting by estimate to to Turin. Having declined the about another hundred millions, embassy, he was ordered to quit which it has been found impossible the capital immediately. The to stop, as unfortunately the meacause assigned for his disgrace was, sures adopted for that purpose have that he had, without the king's not been followed by the expected authority, allowed the introduction results ; so that it is not too much of a clause into the draught of a to assert, that scarcely enough is contract for a loan, fixing a rate at received to cover the half of the which the bonds of the Cortes expenditure. Public credit, also, should be received.

is ruined by the enormous weight A report on the state of the of the debt, and by the impolicy finances, made to the minister of of making promises which could that department by the treasurer not be fulfilled, thus feeding with general, gave a lamentable picture delusive hopes the creditors, who, of the wants of the country, but on being undeceived, doubt even suggested no mode of remedying facts. The measures resorted to the evil.

with regard to this department “ The general treasury has to pro- have likewise failed to produce vide for the arming, maintenance, that favourable result which was and other expenses which the for- so much to be desired ; and the mation of a respectable army on a changes which have taken place new footing requires; to attend have been the cause of some conto the navy, at present in a most fusion, and have considerably lesdeplorable state, by taking care at sened the produce of the approprileast of the outfit of the vessels ated duties. which are indispensably necessary, “So great a deficit, and so general and of the subsistence of the off- a want of confidence, spread great cers and crews; to supply what uneasiness through all classes of is wanting for the expeditions des- the state, and the country is extined for the pacification of the posed to the terrible effects of the Americas; to give attention to general discontent, which is the the serious representations of necessary consequence of such a France for indemnification ; to pay state of things." the anticipated interest on Gueb- In a subsequent part of the rehard's loan ; and, finally, to cover port, a complaint made of “the the ordinary demands, which are arbitrary practices which are exergreatly increased by particular cir- cised by some authorities and corcumstances.

porations of the provinces, who, in “On the other hand, the resources the most shameful manner, impose have diminished and are daily di- and exact duties on articles of conminishing; the great sums which sumption. This being one of the used to be received from America, prerogatives of the sovereign, it and which in tranquil times ought not to be done without his amounted annually to more than consent, whatever may be the pre160 millions of reals, have ceased text or urgency alleged for it, parto be paid : besides, the customs, ticularly at the critical moment in the tobacco, duties, the salt du- which it is necessary to remedy ties, and other branches of the re- the abuses and preferences intro

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