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give, was not followed. They re- the fears, and endangered the commended the publication of an

throne of his master. amnesty, and the cessation of po

But even

these sacrifices to litical prosecutions, as one means the bigotry and alarms of his of restoring order ; but the council master, and to the fanaticism of of Castile opposed this recommend the courtiers and of the people, ation, and the ministry joined the were insufficient to secure his fanatical party

In this spirit, power. In October, Zea and one of the ministers, having adopt- the whole cabinet, of which he ed or pretended to adopt the was the head, suddenly received notion that Freemasons were the their dismissal; and the ecclesiasgreat cause of national anarchytical and fanatical faction came and public misery, demanded a more into full possession of power. The severe set of enactments against duke del’Infantado, who was high masonic aprons and symbols. A in credit with that party, and was body of persons, calling them- supposed to be on bad terms with selves “ defenders of the faith and the French cabinet, now became of the king," had been lately de- the chief of a new ministry. Nottected at Grenada in possession of withstanding the bigotry of his secret symbols: for this offence, character, the general opinion was, they were ordered to be tried and that his administration would be executed as Freemasons. Suffi- more steady than that of his predecient evidence was sent to Madrid cessor: for, though he might be to prove that the place where they willing, in general, to be the prompt met was not a lodge, that the instrument of the priesthood, and badges which they wore were not might thus longer oppose salutary masonic, and that the objects which reforms; yet as the church could they had in view had nothing in place reliance on his zeal, they common with the subjects generally would more readily listen to his discussed in the conclaves of the counsels, and he would possess craft; but the order was peremp- more power to execute moderate tory, and the “defenders of the measures, if so inclined, than a faith” suffered as masons. Zea man like Zea. If ever the time being himself suspected of liberal- was to come when any portion of ism, could not venture to put down the property of the church would the rebellion of fanatics, without be mortgaged for the relief of the at the same time proving that he nation, the proposition was more was ready to support the faction, likely to be heard with favour from whose furious excesses had alarmed him than from any other minister.

CHA P. XII.

IN

PORTUGAL-Change of Ministry-Recognition of the Independence of Brasil - Treaty with Brazil Change' of Commercial System

- BRAZIL-ExecutionsThe Emperor's Course of Government - The Relations between Brazil and Peru-Invasion of Chiquitos by Brazilian Troops~ The Emperor's disavowal of this Step-.-Insurrection of Fructuoso Rivera in the Banda Oriental-Expedition of Lavalleja -Provisional Government of the Banda Oriental-Incorporation of the Banda Oriental with the United Provinces of the Rio de la PlataMilitary Successes of the IndependentsVictory of Sarandi-The Emperor's preparations-Blockade of Buenos Ayres. N the beginning of the year it Mello, minister of finance, and

was generally believed that sir president of the royal Exchequer ; William A'Court, the English and admiral J. J. Monteiro Torres, ambassador at the court of Lisbon, secretary of state of the marine was exerting all the influence of and colonies. Pinheiro, it was Great Britain to bring about such understood, was nominated pro a change in the Portuguese minis- tempore merely, to the department try, as might pave the way for the of foreign affairs, and was to retain recognition of the independence that office only until the count of of the Brazils. Strong represent- Villa Real, then ambassador in ations were made to the king on London, could resign his functions the subject; while M. Hyde de there and return to Lisbon. Neuville threw his weight into the The effects of the British influopposite scale. Though the topicence were seen, still more plainly, could not be very palalable to his in the new footing on which the majesty, he was too sensible of his relations between the Brazils and complete dependence upon the Portugal were placed. On the power of England for protection 13th of May, the king, by his letagainst the intrigues of the queen's ters patent, created and recognized faction, not to give way ultimately. Brazil as an empire, independent Accordingly, on the 14th of Janu- of Portugal, and ceded and transary, a change of ministry took ferred the sovereignty of it to his place; and immediately afterwards son don Pedro. This preliminary decrees were issued appointing Jose step being taken, the proffered Joaquim de Almeida de Aranjo mediation of Great Britain between Correa de Lacerda, minister of the the two states was accepted ; and interior ; Fernando Luiz Perreira sir Charles Stuart proceeded from de Sousa Barradas, minister of jus- Lisbon to Rio Janeiro as plenipotice and ecclesiastical affairs ; the tentiary of the king of Portugal, count de Barbacena, minister of in order to negociate a treaty bewar; senhor Silvestre Pinheiro tween the mother and the new Ferreira, minister for foreign af- trans-Atlantic empire. He does fairs ; don Miguel Antonio de not seem to have met with many obstacles; and, on the 29th of and Macario, governor of the ReAugust, a treaty of peace and gistro, on the 11th of February. alliance between Brazil and Por. On the 17th of March, John Wiltugal was concluded. It is a cir- liam Ratcliff, born in Portugal of cumstance not unworthy of notice, English parents, John Metrowich, a that this treaty should have been Maltese by birth, and Joquinda Silva signed on behalf of Portugal by a Loureiro, a European Portuguese, British subject only ; but it is still suffered the same fate at Rio de more remarkable, that, though his Janeiro. Besides the numbers who most faithful majesty declared in perished by the executioner, many it that he recognized Brazil as an were left languishing in prison. empire independent of, and separate The administration of the emfrom Portugal, and transferred of peror was violent and tyranhis own free will the sovereignty nical: in none of his proceedings of it to don Pedro and his legiti, did there appear any reverence mate successors, there was no sti- either for the forms or for the pulation to prevent the two crowns spirit of a free constitution. On from being united in the same the contrary, all his conduct seemperson. One of the articles of it ed to tend towards the establishwas, that the king of Portugal ment of absolute power, and to should, during his own life, retain the discouragement of a spirit of the title of emperor of Brazil (see liberty. A necessary step in this Public Documents, p. 104*]. course of proceeding was, to secure

The treaty was officially an- the co-operation of the troops, and nounced in Lisbon on the 15th of the support of the existing civil November, and the proper measures authorities. For this purpose, notwereordered to be taken for carrying withstanding the financial embarinto execution its different clauses. rassments, there issued, on the 10th

Portugal made this year an im- of January, a decree, fixing a table portant alteration in her commer- of increased monthly allowances cial system. Many of the princi- to the body of police, to the officers pal articles of traffic were excluded of foreign corps, and to those of from her ports by prohibitory laws. the other troops. Of foreign troops With respect to most of these ar- there were at that time about 4,000 ticles, the prohibition was now in Brazil, and an addition of 3,000 abolished; and in lieu of it, there was to be made as soon as they was substituted a duty of thirty per could be recruited.

At the same cent. The new regulations were time, another decree established a extended not only to Lisbon and juridical college in the capital. As Oporto, but to the Azores, Ma- another step towards the abandondeira, and the Cape Verd islands. ment of constitutional forms, loyal

addresses were procured from the The matter, which, in the be- provinces, disapproving of any reginning of the year, chiefly occu- strictions on the power of the empied the attention of the Brazilian peror, and inviting him to reign authorities, was the punishment with absolute authority. Of this of those who had been concerned kind was an address transmitted in the insurrection at Pernambuco. by the cabildo (or municipality) of Fre Caneca was executed on the Monte Video, in return for a por13th of January at Pernambuco; trait of the emperor, with which

a

his presence

he had presented them. “On the within his jurisdiction, and found 4th of December," say these loyal the people everywhere disposed councillors, “appeared on the to proclaim his majesty as the abwaters of our horizon like a true solute sovereign; and he expressed luminary, the precious gift which hopes that the capital would deyour imperial majesty had sent us. clare itself to the same effect, and On the same day, your resplend- that his majesty would be restored ent august colours ennobled the to the enjoyment of his inalienable great hall of head-quarters; and rights. Upon the receipt of this on the 5th, the same most inesti- communication, his majesty issued mable picture, was conveyed, in- a decree, blaming, but in very cognito, to the capitular palace, till gentle terms, these proceedings. a room should be prepared for its “Having been informed,” says solemn inauguration. In this in- he, "of the reprehensible conduct estimable gift your council think of Manoel da Cunha de Azcredo they perceive a solution of the Coutinho Souza e Chicoro, in takfamous problem of the quadrature ing criminal and scandalous steps, of the sphere.” After telling the contrary to the established system emperor that they experienced in of government, and to the consti

“a mixed sensation tution which I have sworn to of pleasure and trembling, as if in maintain, I have resolved, with the presence of the angel of the the advice of my council of state, Lord,” and that Monte Video might to suspend him from the exercise say

of him, as the church says in of his functions, and to order him the Canticles, “ I am my beloved's, immediately to come to this capiand my beloved is mine,” they ad- tal to answer for such blameable vise him to “govern imperially, proceedings.” These are not the

” and assuine absolute power,” as the terms, in which treason should be most energetic and the most prompt spoken of. mode of ruling. An answer was Though there were many who returned to this address on the 7th were proud to grovel in the dust of January, in which his imperial before him, others regarded his majesty pretended to rebuke gently course of policy with alarm and the too eager zeal of the people of hatred. In May, two attempts, Monte Video; but he nominated it was reported, were made upon both the Syndic and the other his life; and several persons were members of the cabildo knights of apprehended and thrown into conthe order of Christ. A similar finement at the Isla de Cobras. address sent from Rio Grande was But so much pains were taken to answered in a similar manner. The prevent the affair from coming to abject language of these addresses the knowledge of the public, that proves, that the general opinion it remained involved in mystery. was, that absolute power was the The suspicions, that were enteraim of Pedro's wishes, though he tained of the emperor's purposes, did not think it prudent as yet to were rendered both stronger and avow his purposes.

more general, by the treaty which In a letter of the 5th of May, he concluded with Portugal. The the governor of the province of St. tenor of that arrangement was Paulo stated, that he had been such as to lead naturally to the making a tour among the towns belief, that he intended, after the

death of his father, to unite the interest of a nation is not a suffitwo crowns on his own head. cient or honourable reason for ag

The relations between Brazil grandizing itself at the expense of and some of the neighbouring in- the fidelity of people who are led dependent states, became of a very to make such a sacrifice only by delicate and perplexing kind. calamities, which, though serious, Early in the year, the independ- are, however, transitory. Beent troops of Peru, having taken sides, the government is quite possession of Santa Cruz de la incompetent to make a practical Sierra, called upon don Sebastian decision on the questions which Ramos, governor of the province divide the liberals and the royalof Chiquitos, who still adhered to ists in Spanish America, and the king of Spain, to join their should not have resolved on such standard. He refused to do so, measures. Therefore, bis maand resolved to seek the protection jesty the emperor commands the of the imperial arms. With this minister of state for foreign affairs view, he sent his aide-de-camp D. to signify his surprise to the goJose Maria de Velasco to the go- vernment at the resolution which vernor of the adjacent Brazilian it took, not only to accept the union province, Matto Grosso, with a of the province of Chiquitos, but proposal to unite the province of to make the Brazilian troops pass Chiquitos with the empire of Bra- the frontier of the empire to prozil. This proposal the governor tect it; and the more so, as, if his of Matto Grosso, by the advice of majesty had been previously conthe provisional authorities, accepted sulted, as he ought to have been, in the month of April ; and he he never would have given his immediately sent a detachment of consent to a step so contrary troops into Chiquitos, in order to to the generous and liberal senprevent the advance of the patriots. timents which guide the policy These proceedings threatened to of his cabinet, and to his intention involve the emperor in a war with of not interfering in the present Peru and Colombia. But the contest between the inhabitants of sense of danger overcame his am- Spanish America and the mother bition ; and in August, he, by an country." official document, disavowed the In adopting this prudent resolumeasures which had been taken by tion, his majesty was probably inthe provincialauthorities. “Though fluenced not a little, by the awkthe governors,"

,” said his majesty in ward circumstances in which he this instrument, “hoped, perhaps, was then placed, with respect to by this means better to provide for the government of Buenos Ayres. the defence of the capital of Matto Though general Lecor, with Grosso, and actuated, by an indis- wards of 2,000 troops, supported creet zeal, thought to do a service by a small naval squadron, still to his majesty and to the empire held Monte Video and the Banda by the acquisition of an adjacent Oriental as a dependency of Brazil, country, in order thereby to the inhabitants of that province support the exertions of the roy, were known to be exceedingly alists in America; yet it should averse to the Brazilian dominion, have occurred to the provisional and to be anxious to be united, as government, that the particular they formerly were, under the VOL LXVII.

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