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same government with the pro. was confirmed in the command in vinces of the Rio de la Plata. chief of the army. A commission Availing himself of this disposi- of finance was established ; and tion, Fructuoso Rivera, who had duties on goods exported and imonce been in the service of Artigas, ported, were ordered to be levied. but when the fortunes of that chief- The commander-in-chief stated to tain began to decline, had entered the government, that he depended the Brazilian service as colonel, for arms, ammunition, and other and was afterwards promoted to implements of war, not only on the rank of brigadier and deco- the resources of the country, but. rated with orders of distinction, on his credit and the influence of raised the standard of revolt on his friends in Buenos Ayres. The the 27th of April, and soon cols most important proceeding of this lected such a force as enabled him government was a declaration, that to take Maldonado, and gave him the acts which purported to incorthe command of a great part of porate the province with Brazil the country. In the beginning of were null, and that their general May, a force of about 300 men, and uniform desįre had been to under the command of Juan An- remain in union with the provinces tonio Lavalleja, collected and of Rio de la Plata. This declaraequipped (it would appear) by the tion was communicated to the conzeal of individuals, and without gress of Buenos Ayres; accompanied the avowed support of the governs by a request that they might be ment, set out from Buenos Ayres ; received as a member of the reand, landing on the eastern side of public. Such an application was the river on the 6th of May, made 200 likely to be rejected. Accord218 Brazilian cavalry prisoners, ingly, the congress, by an act passtogether with eleven officers, two ed on the 25th of October, aclieutenant colonels, and one co- knowledged the independence of lonel. Lavalleja assumed the su- the Banda Oriental; declared preme military command ; and, in the nullity of those acts which conjunction with Rivera, liberated affected to unite it with Brazil ; nearly the whole of the Banda and bound themselves to defend Oriental from the Brazilian yoke. and provide for its safety, and to Colonia and Monte Video were do every thing in their power to the only points which Lecor was accelerate the evacuation of it by able to hold ; and he trembled for the troops of his Brazilian majesty. the safety of both. Even the At the same time, they added, that, latter, where he himself command preserving the same spirit of moed, was invested by part of the in, deration and of justice which had dependent troops.

always directed their councils, it Under these circumstances, a was their wish not to go to war, if provisional government was estab- the restitution of the whole of the lished in the Banda Oriental, which province could be effected amiheld its first sitting on the 14th cably.* of June. The deputies from the different districts chose don Manuel * See the note from the minister for Calleros for their president, and foreign affairs of the provinces of the

Rio de la Plata, to the Brazilian minister Francisco Oranjo, secretary. La- for foreign affairs--Public Documents, valleja appeared before them, and p. 105*.

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On the 17th of May, the news with at least 700 men. Rivera, of Rivera's revolt was received at collecting all his men, waited for Rio de Janeiro ; and on the 21st of the enemy half a league from the the same month, an expedition Rio Negro. The moment the Imsajled with a reinforcement of perialists appeared, they were atabout 1,500 men for the garrison tacked; the rout was complete, and of Monte Video. Though this they were pursued above four prompt aid saved Monte Video from leagues : they left on the field more immediated anger, it did not suffice than 100 killed, including 16 officers, to re-establish tne authority of don and above 300 were made prisoners. Pedro. In the course of July and The remainder of the enemy's forces August, fortune appears uniform- fled into the mountains ; and not ly to have favoured the cause of the above 100 of them finally escaped. Independents. In trifling skir- Colonel Ventus Manuel, with mishes during that period, the Bra- 2,000 men principally cavalry, havzilians lost about 700 horses, and had ing left Monte Video, were, on the about 50 officers and soldiers killed 12th of October, encountered on or wounded. The ranks of the the banks of the Sarandi, by an Imperialists were thinned likewise equal force under Lavalleja. The by desertion. The force of the In- engagement was short but decisive. dependents, on the contrary, was The result of it was, that more increasing in numbers and improv- than 400 of the Imperialists were ing in discipline. The provisional left dead on the field of battle ; government, which had established 470 were taken prisoners, together its seat in the town of Florida, de- with 50 officers ; without including creed the formation of a patriotic the wounded and the stragglers. legion, and made other arrange- More than 2,000 stand of arms, ments for carrying on the war. ten ammunition-waggons, and all Colonia was watched by about 600 their baggage, fell into the hands men, commanded by don Ignacio of Lavalleja. His loss was only Oribe. On the 15th of August one officer killed, and 30 wounded: the Imperialists made a sortie, but and 30 soldiers killed, and 70 were driven back with the loss of wounded. On the following day, nine men killed and ten wounded. a division of the enemy, commanded

Rivera had been employed chiefly by don Antonio Jose Oliviera, surin the neighbourhood of the Rio rendered on capitulation, at the Negro. In the beginning of Sep- pass of Perdido, to adjutant don tember, his van-guard received a Santos Aguilar, and 27 men under check, but apparently not of much his command. consequence. On the 24th of Sep- These events seemed to portend tember, at day-break, he took, that Monte Video could not but with 250 men, the Rincon de las fall shortly; especially as the BanGallinas, where the enemy had a da Oriental had been admitted a considerable number of horses, and member of the republic of Rio de a small guard, all of whom, except la Plata, and would thenceforth be such as escaped on board the ships aided by the whole strength of the of war, were put to the sword. commonwealth. The determinaAt eight o'clock, news was brought tion of the congress to expel the that the Imperial colonel, Geronimo Imperialistsfrom the Banda Oriental Gonzales Jardin, was advancing was formally announced to the


. Brazilian minister in the beginning tions were made by him for carry, of November ; and it was clear that ing on hostilities vigorously: and don Pedro could no longer retain in the mean time his naval squadron Monte Video, without involving occupied the river Plata, and estabhimself in a war with the new re- lished a blockade, which was duly public. From this war he did not notified to Great Britain and the seem disposed to shrink. Prepara- other powers.


ITALY.-Papal States-Censorship-Carbonari.Naples New Con

vention concerning the Army of Occupation-Miraculous MadonnasThe Ionian ISLANDS: Ecclesiastical Establishment Abolition of feudal Tenures-- TURKEY-Foreign Relations Internal Disturbances—GREECE-Suppression of Colocotroni's Insurrection-Blockade of Patras-Preparations of the Turks-Disembarkations of the Egyptians-Siege of Navarino-Sphacteria taken-Old Navarino surrenders--Capitulation of Navarino-Naval success-Recall of Colocotroni- Military Operations in the Morea— Operations of Redschid Pacha-Naval Skirmishes-Siege of Missolonghi - Naval Operations--Unsuccessful attempt to burn the Turkish Fleet in the Port of Alexandria-Insurrection in CandiaProposal of the Greeks to place themselves under the Protection of Great Britain.

I userliyana 2 owas tranquilo lo The their possession: Prohibited books N

were public its usual routine; and in the Papal libraries, the inspectors of which states, the administration of Leo were to have a part of the fines 12th, though not distinguished by imposed on the transgressors of the any wondrous excess of bigotry, law. No private presses were to was, upon the whole, less liberal be allowed. than that of his predecessor. Asy- Considerable numbers of persons Jums were instituted for assassins wore arrested at Rome on the in Ostia, and three other unhealthy charge of Carbonarism; and two towns. On the 18th of August, individuals were executed for an the law regulating the censorship atrocious murder, which seems to of the press was re-modelled. Ac- have been the result of political cording to the new scheme, a coun- cabals (See Chronicle, p. 160]. cil of revision, consisting of four These intrigues, however, do not members of each of the five colleges appear to have been of such & of the university, was formed, for nature as to excite any serious the purpose of examining all works alarm. intended to be printed, and of ascer- The health of the Pope was taining that they contained nothing throughout the greater part of the which might lead to disputes with year in a very infirm, and somea foreign government. This coun- times in an alarming state. cil was also to revise all public inscriptions. All printers and book. Ferdinand, king of Naples, died sellers were to procure, within a of apoplexy on the 4th of January ; month's time, licences to continue and was succeeded by his son. А their business, and were annually treaty was entered into between to deliver in a list of the prohibited the new sovereign and the emperor books which they might have in of Austria, for the immediate di. minution of the number of the he still further reduced, without Austrian troops in the kingdom of endangering the tranquillity of the Naples, and for the prolongation of kingdom, this corps was, at the dethe period of occupation by the re- sire of his Sicilian majesty, to be mainder, till the end of March, brought down to 12,000 men; and 1827. The preamble of the treaty the saving thence arising was to be stated that, according to the pre- to the advantage of the Neapolitan ceding convention, the number of treasury. the Austrian troops in the kingdom Events, which excited infinitely of the Two Sicilies was fixed at more interest in Naples, than any 33,500 men, and the evacuation of alterations in the political world, the kingdom was to take place by were the miraculous changes which the end of May, 1826; but that his were devoûtly believed to have beSicilian majesty had considered, on fallen divers holy pictures of Mathe one hand, that the numerical donnas; some of them opening their strength of the Neapolitan army, eyes, or weeping, or shedding blood, and the degree of its organization, and others, from being black and dinwould probably render the support gy as they had long been, becoming of other troops necessary even after bright and fresh, as if they had rethat date ; and, on the other hand, cently come from the painter's hand. that the consolidation of tranquillity These miraculous tales were related in the kingdom of the Two Sicilies first of the Madonna of Caserta; and was so certain, that a diminution caused such a sensation in every of the auxiliary army might be part of Naples, that the interference effected ; and that the emperor of of the government became necesAustria had nothing more at heart sary, to suppress the disturbances, than to promote, in concert with and apprehend the supposed prohis allies, every measure which moters of the plot. On the 14th was calculated to accelerate the of July, a few weeks after the entire évacuation of the kingdom commencement of the frenzy, all of the Two Sicilies by the Austrian the lower orders of the city of troops. At the same time the state Naples were thrown into agitaof the finances would not allow his tion, by a report that a Madonna, Sicilian majesty to be at a greater painted at the corner of a dirty expense for the occupation, than lane, close to the strada di Toledo, was fixed by the convention of the had been seen to open

her eyes, 31st of August, 1824; and the and to smile compassionately; and Austrian finances ought not to be towards noon, so great was the rush burdened with an additional charge, of mad fanatics towards the spot, in consequence of the prolongation that the police were obliged to of the period of occupation. It apply to the Austrian government was, therefore, agreed to reduce for troops. In the evening of the the troops to 15,000 men, so that same day, another Madonna endued the saving accruing from the dimi- with miraculous power was disnution of their number might covered in the street of Pennino cover the expense of the longer du- (a quarter inhabited by the lowest ration of the occupation. If the description of people); on the folnumerical state of the Neapolitan lowing day two or three other awkarmy should be sufficiently increas- ward creations of some miserable ed to allow the auxiliary corps to wall-dauber were said to have given

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