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did it appear that any combined port of Alexandria. At four in the plan of attack had been concerted; afternoon, four small vessels, bearing but on the 24th, there was a slight European flags, appeared in sight skirmish between a party of Turks, of the port, three of which adwho had concealed themselves in vanced to the opening of the harone of the trenches, and the troops bour, the fourth remaining tacking of the garrison, in which the form off and on. The pilots went out mer suffered some loss. On the to bring them into the roads.

At 26th, the Grecian fleet, consisting half-past five, the first entered, and of about 30 sail, under the com- soon afterwards the second. It mand of Miaoulis, appeared, and was then perceived, that the first began to engage the Turks, who of these strange vessels was enwere awaiting them between Zante, deavouring to penetrate between Cephalonia, and Chiarenza; a de- the Turkish ships of war;

and as sultory action ensued, which last- some suspicion arose that it might ed, with little intermission, two be a fire-ship, it was ordered to days and nights. The Greeks, as stop. The captain, however, still usual, with their small, stout-built advanced, and would probably have merchant brigs, sought by the dex- succecded but for a sudden change terity of their movements to cut of the wind. Then, finding himself off and destroy isolated vessels, or discovered, he set fire to his vessel to direct fire-ships against the and abandoned it, while the whole enemy's larger men of war; but crew got into their long-boat, and on this occasion they were not suc- by dint of rowing escaped from cessful. The Turks had the ad- the port. The second, seeing what vantage of the wind blowing fresh had happened, tacked about, and from the eastward, which, increase followed the boat. Seven cannon ing on the 28th to a strong gale, put shot were fired at this second ship, a stop to further action, and obliged three others were fired at it by a the Greek fleet to retire to sea-ward. French man of war, but without The Turks affected to consider this doing it any injury. The fire-ship, as a victory; and, in fact, as they which was abandoned, was towed remained in the Gulf, Missolonghi to a part of the harbour where its was in a state of blockade for explosion could do no mischief. several days. On the 29th, another In August, the insurrection broke naval skirmish took place; partial out anew in Candia ; and the in. engagements occurred on the two surgents obtained possession of the following days; and, on the 2nd fortresses of Grambouses and Kisof December, the Greeks compelled samos. the enemy to return for shelter The distress, into which the within the Gulf. Shortly after-' Grecks were driven by the invaward, Miaoulis returned to the sion of Ibrahim Pacha, induced Archipelago. By this time, the the Senate and Executive body, whole of the southern shore of the towards the end of July, to propose Gulf of Lepanto had been reduced to place the country under the by Ibrahim, who had placed a gar- protection of Great Britain ; and rison of Arabs in Patras.

a formal manifesto to that effect On the 10th of August, a bold [see Public Documents, p. 106*] but unsuccessful attempt was made was issued by them, and transmitto burn the Turkish fleet in the ted to our government. The offer VOL. LXVII.

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was not accepted. It excited, vested with any public character, however, the zeal of two private they presented a strong protest individuals, Messrs. Roche and against a step which they conceived Washington, to such a degree, that, to be disrespectful to France and forgetting that they were not in- America.

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CHAP. XIV.

UNITED STATES-Election of a President-Mr. Adams chosen by the

House of Representatives---His Inauguration-Discontent in Georgia -Opening of the Session of Congress---Mexico-Opening of the Constitutional Federal Congress Speech of the President - The FinancesTreaty with Great Britain-Close of the Session of Congress-Extraordinary Session of the Congress Surrender of two Spanish Ships of war-Surrender of the Castle of Juan de Ulloa GUATEMALA-Election of a President - Expenditure-COLOMBIA PERUMilitary Operations Battle of AyacuchoCapitulation of Conterac— Resistance of CallaoOlaneta defeated and slain--Independence of Upper PeruConduct of Bolivar-UNITED PROVINCES OF RIO DE LA PLATA~Constituent Congress-Executive AuthorityDisturbances at Cordova, Mendoza, and San Juan--Proceedings at Tarija-Intended General Congress at Panama-Deliberations on that subjectPARAGUAY-CHILE_Plots Convention of a Constituent Congress-Disturbances-State of the Finances.

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N the United States, the public number of votes, the election, for election of a President more than history, devolved upon the house by any other event. The candi- of representatives: * who in this dates were John Quincy Adams, case vote by ballot, the delegation secretary of state ; Mr. Clay, speaks of each state having one vote. Mr. er of the house of representatives; Clay, it was understood, transferred Mr. Crawford, secretary of the his votes to Mr. Adams, upon an treasury; and general Jackson, agreement, that, if Mr. Adams obdistinguished by the cheap renown tained the presidency, Mr. Clay of being the only American gene- should be secretary of state; and ral, who, in the last war, had been by this union of strength, Mr. engaged with British troops, and Adams was enabled to triumph. yet had escaped the disgrace of The 9th of February was the day total defeat. The first was sup- appointed for the determination of ported strenuously by the New the contest : and, contrary to all England states; the second, by the previous expectation, the election Western states; the third, by Vir- was decided by the first balloting, ginia ; and the fourth, by the states Mr. Adams having received the of the South. Electors being chosen votes of thirteen states, general by the different states, their votes Jackson the votes of seven, and Mr. were returned to congress, when Crawford the votes of four. The the numbers were found to be as states who voted for Mr. Adams, follows:- For general Jackson, were-Maine, New Hampshire, , 101 ; Mr. Adams, €2; Mr. Crawford, 41; Mr. Clay, 37. As no

# The former instance in which this one candidate had obtained the happened, was in the election of 1801,

when the electoral votes were 73 for Mr. fequisite majority of the whole Jefferson, and 73 for Mr. Burr.

Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Cona sentatives, followed by the exnecticut, Vermont, New York, president and family, by the judges Maryland, Ohio, Kentucky, Illi- of the supreme court, in their robes nois, Missouri, Louisiana : for of office, and by the members of general Jackson, New Jersey the senate, Mr. Adams, in a Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Ten- plain suit of black, advanced to nessee, Alabama, Mississippi, In- the speaker's chair, and took his diana : for Mr. Crawford, --Dela- seat.

seat. The chief justice was placed ware, Virginia, North Carolina, in front of the clerks' table, having Georgia.

before him another table, on the The division in the different floor of the hall, on the opposite colleges was very unequal. In the side of which sat the remaining

. New York college, for example, judges, with their faces towards the Mr. Adams received 18 votes, Mr. chair. Silence having been proCrawford 14, and general Jackson claimed, Mr. Adams rose, and read, 2. In the Kentucky college, Mr. with a clear and deliberate articuAdams received 8, general Jackson lation, his inaugural address, (see 4: in Ohio, Mr. Adams had 10, Public Documents p. 109*]. As general Jackson 2, Mr. Crawford soon as the last sentence was pro2. In the Maryland college, Mr. nounced, a general plaudit throughAdams received 5 out of 9 votes. out the whole assembly continued In the North Carolina college, for some minutes. The president Mr. Crawford received 10, general elect then descended from the Jackson 2, and Mr. Adams 1 vote. chair, and placing himself on the

As Jackson counted among his right hand of the judges' table, partisans the whole rabble of the received from the chief justice a country, their rage at their defcat volume of the laws of the United was extreme ; and it was the more States, from which he read, in a violent, because their candidate had loud and clear voice, the oath of unquestionably a vast majority of office: the close of which was the people on his side, and must followed by repeated plaudits, and have succeeded, if the choice had by the discharge of a salute of been by the direct votes of the artillery. Congratulations poured electors.

in from every side; and general On the 4th of March, the Jackson was among the first of inauguration of Mr. Adams took those who took the hand of the place. Preceded by the vice-presi- president. dent Mr. Calhoun, with a number A convention made with Colomof members of the House of Repre- bia relative to the slave trade, * The following stateinent purports to exhibit the relative popularity of the lwo

prominent candidates for the Presidency :Number of votes, as far as ascertained, laken in all the States ... 150,800

98,169 Number of electors chosen

84 Number of electors chosen by the people Number of States which have given full electoral votes for each Number of Slates which have given a majorily of electorial voles

for each Number of States by which the second choice of the people has

been expressed, by their votes for electors, and other unequi

vocal evidence. Number of Slates preferring each

15

Jackson.

Adams.

99
94
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shared the same fate as the treaty the attention of the House of Reprewith Great Britain had experienced sentatives to the disposition, which in the preceding year. Being laid latterly had so often evinced itself before the senate for rejection or in the different branches of the approval, the first article of the general government, to control the treaty (giving the mutual right of domestic affairs, and to intermeddle search on the seas and coasts of with and to endanger the peace, Africa and the West Indies) was repose, and union of the southern struck out by a vote of 28 to 12 : states. The House of Representathe treaty was rejected unanim- tives referred the subject to a comously.

mittee, who soon afterwards preThe state of Georgia and the sented a very vehement and blusCreek nation of Indians mutually tering report.

“ The hour,” they claim certain lands in the neigh- said, “is come, or is rapidly apbourhood of that province. Of proaching, when the states from these the state had long sought to Virginia to Georgia, from Missouri possess itself ; but the general to Louisiana, must confederate, and government of the United States

as one man say to the Union, "We had refused to allow Georgia to will no longer submit our constituacquire them otherwise than by tional rights to bad men in congress amicable negotiation. A short or on judicial benches—we disclaim time since, a pretended cession of the principle of unlimited submisthe disputed territory was procured sion to the general government." from M’Intosh, one of the chiefs; The powers necessary to the probut soon afterwards the other tection of the confederated states chiefs of the Creek Indians assem- from enemies without, and from bled together, and (as they urge, enemies within, alone were conaccording to the custom of their fided to the United government; tribes) put him to death for exe- all others were retained to the cuting such an instrument without several states separate and sovethe assent, previously obtained, of reign. The states of the south the majority of the chiefs of the will convey their products to the nation. Under these circumstances, markets of the world. The world the governor of Georgia contended will open wide its arms to receive that, the cession having been made, them. Let our northern brethren, the general government of the then, if there is no peace in union, United States had no further right if the compact has become too of interference; whilst the latter heavy to be longer borne, in the insisted, that it was their duty and name of all the mercies find peace their right to ascertain whether among themselves. Let them conthe act was by Indian custom legal, tinue to rejoice in their self-righteor whether the rest of the chiefs of ousness, let them bask in their own the Creek nation refused to con- meridian, while they depict the firm the transfer. This conduct South as a hideous reverse. As on the part of the government, and Athens, as Sparta, as Rome was, the steps which had been taken or we will be: they held slaves, we were in contemplation relative to hold them. In the simplicity of slavery, produced high displeasure the patriarchal government, we in the provincial authorities; and would still remain master and the governor, in a message, called servant, under our own vine, and

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