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clined likewise to insist that the Minister for Foreign Affairs, one ministers should remain in office of its most popular and respected only to further the views, and adopt members. Indisposition compelled the policy, of the party who had him to withdraw from public life. made them. On the other hand, His character and high connexions, the royalist party was still too the sacrifices which he had formerly strong, and the favour of the mo- made for the royal cause, and the narch towards their principles and zeal which he had recently evinced their persons was much too mani- in support of the charter, his confest, to give the ministry any se- ciliatory temper, and the confidence curity against a sudden dissolution, which the moderation of his prinif they blindly followed in the ciples inspired into the court as well train of the popular leaders. Thus as into the people, had rendered no party trusted them; what was him of infinite importance to the worse, no party obeyed or was existing cabinet, because they gave controlled by them. Instead of him great influence with the parties being a powerful government, whom it was necessary to manage. compelling respect from all other The jealousy of these parties made parties by its own substantive it a work of much embarrassment weight, its intrinsic weakness re- to find a successor.

To name a duced it to the necessity of occa- candidate who was thought to lean sionally seeking succour from both. to the court-party, immediately calIt had to inquire, not what policy led forth a thousand denunciations would be most pleasing to itself, against the ministry, as betraying but what was the policy that the cause of the people ; and to would be demanded by those on seek a minister among the liberals, whom it was dependent. The was to rouse the wrath of the popular party was now triumphant court and of the priests. About in the Chamber of Deputies, and the time of Count de Ferronay's the measures of the new ministry retirement, Prince Polignac, the had hitherto partaken of a popular French Ambassador at London, character. But the people be made an unexpected visit to Paris. lieved that the new ministry had It was immediately said, that the been friendly to the popular cause, king had sent for him to fill the only in so far as they could not safely vacant office, and change the spirit venture to do otherwise, and that of the too liberal cabinet. Count to insure the maintenance and pro- Portalis was charged with having gress of the popular cause, it was sent the invitation unknown to his necessary that the popular party colleagues. The proposal, or the should continue to act, almost as supposition, was received in Paris if ministers were their opponents, with loud dissatisfaction. It was and to force upon them such mea- objected to the prince, that he was sures as the popular spirit might a confirmed enemy of all popular require.

rights; that he had been a partisan The difficulties, with which the of Villèle, and would set up anew peculiar position of the administra- that minister's system of internal tion surrounded it, were increased, oppression and degradation ; that in the beginning of the present he was a declared champion of year, by the retirement from office the Congregation, and would lend of the Count de Ferronay, the all his influence to that faction of

bigots and Jesuits, which cvery talis belonged to the cabinet already good and wise man in France was in two capacities, and M. de Bourlabouring to keep down; that he deau in one. The former merely was a creature of the English cabi- made a surrender of one of his net, and would conduct the foreign portfolios to the latter, who was affairs of France only in accordance already performing, in the character with the views and interests of the of under-secretary, the same duties British government; nay, that which he would now have to disthe very scheme of making him a charge as head of the department. minister was nothing else than an The opposition insisted that the intrigue of the duke of Wellington vacancy should have been filled by The public voice being decided, de- taking some man of character and cided the cabinet. The greater influence from the popular party. number of the ministers threatened If the ministry could not venture to resign, if the royal nomination to seek even an accession of strength, were insisted on; and Prince Po- or rather the mere reparation of a lignac returned to London, but not loss, by taking such a step, it proved until he had defended himself, in a that they wanted inclination to speech delivered in the Chamber identify themselves with the libeof Peers, against the accusations of rals, or were willing to surrender the Press. His failure did not re- their inclinations to their dread of move the difficulties of filling up losing office; and, in either case, the vacant office. It was given they became equally objects of provisionally to the count de Por- suspicion. talis, who was keeper of the seals. Before this arrangement, howIn the month of May, he resigned ever, had taken place, the Chambers the Seals, and became Minister for had been assembled on the 27th of Foreign Affairs ; a department for January. His majesty opened the which it was doubtful whether he Session in person, and delivered would be well qualified by those from the throne the following acquirements and talents which speech. rendered him, in public estimation, “ • Gentlemen, I am happy in an excellent Minister of Justice. seeing you every year assembled He was succeeded in the latter ca- round my throne, to promote, in pacity by M. de Bourdeau, under- concert with me, the great interests secretary in the department of of my people. Justice. The nomination was not «i This satisfaction is the more calculated in itself to displease the lively on the present occasion, as public mind; for M. de Bourdeau I have pleasing communications to was a deputy of the left side, and make to you, and important labours had resigned his place as Procureur- to intrust to you. General at the Royal Court of “My relations with foreign Rennes, rather than ally himself powers continue to be friendly. with Villèle's ministry ; but the The assurances I receive from my arrangement was not one which allies offer me a pledge, that, notbrought any accession of strength to withstanding the events which the ministry, and only shewed how have desolated the East, peace will little they felt themselves at liberty not be disturbed in the rest of to manifest a decided inclination Europe. To hasten the pacificatowards either party. M. de Por- tion of Greece, I have, in concert with England and Russia, sent to “« The hope which I still retain the Morea a division of my troops. of obtaining from the Dey of At the sight of some thousand Algiers a just reparation, has reFrenchmen, determined to accom- tarded the measures which I may plish their noble task, that cele- be obliged to take in order to brated country, too long ravaged, punish him; but I shall neglect has been restored to peace and nothing to protect the French security. There, as at Navarino, commerce from insult and piracy; the union of the flags has proved and striking examples have already to the world the respect of the three taught the Algerines, that it is crowns for the faith of treaties; neither easy nor prudent to brave and my soldiers take pleasure in the vigilance of my naval force. recounting the sincere support “ • Engagements contracted by which they have found in the an ancient French colony had ceasEnglish navy,

ed to be executed. After having "A formal declaration, notified convinced myself that this inexecuto the Porte, has placed the Morea tion was the result of inability, I and the neighbouring islands under have consented to open with it a the protection of the three powers. more efficacious negotiation for the This solemn act will suffice to interests of the colonies and of render a protracted occupation commerce. unnecessary. I continue to assist “Many of my subjects have the Greeks to rebuild their ruins, suffered by the measures taken by and my ships bring back to them the Emperor of Brazil in his war those Christian slaves, whom the with the Republic of Buenos Ayres. pious generosity of France has Some of their vessels have been restored to their country and to captured. The convention which liberty.

I have just ratified, while it con“ • So many cares will not prove firms, with respect to the right of vain. I have reason to believe blockade, a conservatory principle that the Porte, more enlightened, always maintained by France, enwill cease to oppose the treaty of sures to them the restitution of the 6th of July, and it may be their property, and an indemnity hoped that this first arrangement proportioned to their loss. On this will not be lost for the re-establishe occasion, as on all others, I owe ment of peace in the East.

praises to the French marine, which “« The situation of Spain has shows itself worthy of its noble allowed me to recall the troops mission. which I had left at the disposal of “ • The successive shocks, which his Catholic Majesty. My soldiers have agitated some of the new have returned to their country, states of South America, have left after having received from the the political situation of those inhabitants of all the countries states uncertain, and rendered it through which they have passed, difficult to form regular relations testimonies of esteem and regret, with them. The moment is doubtdue to their excellent discipline. less not far distant, when I shall Considerable sums have been ad- be able to give to those relations a vanced to the Spanish government: stability advantageous to my suba convention has been signed to jects: meantime I have appointed regulate the repayment of them. consuls to watch over their in.


“Such, gentlemen, is the happy laws, and at the same time to state of our relations with foreign ensure amongst us the perpetuity of powers. Whatever may be the the priesthood, have induced me, events that the future reserves for after mature reflection, to prescribe us, I shall certainly never forget measures which I have felt to be that the glory of France is a sacred necessary. These measures have deposit, and that the honour of been executed with that prudent being the guardian of it is the firmness, which reconciles the obefairest prerogative of my crown.

dience due to the laws, the respect "" Order and peace prevail in due to religion, and the just regards the interior. French industry, al- to which its ministers are entitled. ready so justly celebrated, is daily Communications will be made to you distinguished by new improve on the state of our finances. You ments.

Some branches of our will be happy to learn, that the estiagriculture and commerce are suf- mates of the revenue for 1828 have fering, but I hope that it will be been exceeded. This increasing possible for me to lessen the evil, prosperity has not relaxed the sysif I should not be enabled to tem of economy, in which my gocure it.

vernment must endeavour daily to “The long inclemency of the advance farther, without, however, seasons, and the unfavourable de- forgetting that useful expense is lay which the harvest experienced, also economy. awakened for some weeks the soli. 06 Numerous labours will occitude of my government. Dis- cupy the Session which is opened tressing doubts with respect to the to-day. You will have to discuss state of our resources have been a code which is destined for the speedily dispelled by more positive army, and deserves serious atinformation. The subsistence of tention. all is assured ; and if the price of " " The law on the endowment corn, while it augments the pros- of the Chamber of Peers, and many perity of the landholders, increases other laws worthy of your

whole for a moment the distress of the attention, will be presented to you. indigent, Providence has created A serious and important project beneficence to relieve those who will, above all, call for your solicisuffer.

tude. It has been long since ac“. The press, freed from re- knowledged, that there is a necesstraints, enjoys entire liberty. If sity for a new municipal departlicentiousness, its fatal enemy, still mental law, the whole of which shows itself under the cover of a shall be in harmony with our ingenerous and confiding law, public stitutions. The most difficult good sense, which becomes more questions are connected with this firm and enlightened, does justice organization. It ought to secure to its aberrations, and the magis- to the communes and to the departtracy, faithful to its noble tradi- ments a just share in the managetions, knows its duties, and will ment of their interests; but it must, always fulfil them.

at the same time, preserve to the «• The necessity of placing the protecting and moderating power religion of our fathers in security which belongs to the Crown, the against any attack, to maintain in full scope of action and force which my kingdom the execution of the public order requires. I have

caused a project, which will be Collard, M. Cassimir Perrier, presented to you, to be prepared M. de Berbis, General Sebastiani, with care. I invite all the medic and M. de Lalot. The first of tations of your wisdom to this these gentlemen, a distinguished project, and I confide the discussion liberal, had 175 votes; the last of it to your love of the public had 132. Of the candidates of good, and to your fidelity. Every the opposite party, M. Ravez, the day gives me fresh proofs of the former president of the Chamber, affection of my people, and enhances stood highest, but he obtained only the sacredness of the obligation 90 votes. The king named which I have contracted, to dedicate M. Royer Collard president. The myself to their happiness. This two vice-presidents likewise, and noble task, which you, gentlemen, the secretaries, were all chosen from will assist me to fulfil, must daily among the liberal party, with the become more easy.

exception of one secretary, whom “• Experience has dispelled the the minority were allowed to name. charm of insensate theories. France, The Address, too, an echo of the like yourselves, knows on what Speech was carried by a majority basis its happiness reposes, and of 213 against 8. The principal those, who should seek it any where topics on which the orators insisted, but in the sincere union of the regarded the boundaries and ultiroyal authority and of the liberties mate fate of Greece. The liberals which the charter has consecrated, blamed the ministry for having would be openly disowned by it. recalled the French expedition, You, gentlemen, are called upon before it had accomplished all the to render this union more close and objects which ought to have been more solid; you will accomplish in view, and for having consented this happy mission like faithful to confine the new state within too subjects and loyal Frenchmen, and narrow limits. They assumed, your efforts will be equally certain moreover, that it was the policy of of the support of your king and of England which had crippled the the public gratitude.'"

efforts of France to make new The first business to which the Greece extensive and powerful; Chamber of Deputies proceeded, and that policy, again, was founded, the nomination of the list of Presi- according to them, on England's dents-proved, how completely the jealousy of a great naval state popular party had now triumphed. arising in the Mediterranean. The Chamber presents to the king They could not conceive that Bria list of five deputies, chosen by å tain, even though possessing Gibmajority of the members, from raltar, Malta, and the Ionian among whom he selects the pre- islands, could see without uneasisident; and his majesty commonly ness a rival navy, consisting of one fixes on the member who has been frigate and two steam-boats, supplaced at the head of the list. On

On ported partly by theft, and partly the present occasion, all the five by charity, belonging to a country members named belonged either to which could not maintain a buildthe liberal party, or to the ultras ing-yard within its confines ! who had united with the liberals The first measures, introduced to overturn the former adminis- into the Chamber by the ministers, tration. They were M. Royer were of a nature to merit public

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