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a character which made them spies, him to a public dinner. The and converted into spies the whole gentleman appointed by the minprovincial magistracy. They were isterial prefect of the departto send him, on the 1st of each 'ment 10 fill the office provisionally, month, a report “on the state of refused to accept it, stating, that opinion" in their respective neigh- as his predecessor had been deposed bourhoods; and they were told for having taken part in the honours that they would easily obtain the paid to M. de la Fayette, at which necessary information from the he himself, as well as all the inhaProcureurs du Roi, as the latter bitants of the commune had aswere in constant communication sisted, he was anxious to anticipate with the mayors, and the justices the interference of the Minister of of peace, of the arrondissements. the Interior in his own case, and “ What," exclaimed the Parisians, therefore declined the office. “all the mayors, the paternal ad- These imprudent acts, and acts ministrators of their communes, like these, incessantly presenting charged to make opinions a matter new points of collision between of police, to dive into the senti, the Cabinet and the public, kept up ments of their fellow-citizens, and the irritation, and drew forth daily to furnish bulletins of them to the new expression of public Procureurs-general, with whom opinion. That opinion was the they have continual connection! opinion of the departments fully Justices of peace, whose mission as much as of Paris.

In Septeniought to be characterised by union, ber, after the ministers had been a confidence, and, if we may use the month in power, a petition praying expression, with friendship, placed for their dismissal was addressed to as sentinels to surprise the secrets the king by a number of the inhaof those whom they are appointed bitants of Grenoble, the language to judge !-an office of conciliation of which will suffice as a specimen transformed into an inquisitorial of what was thought and said of surveillance.”

them in all corners of the kingDuring the autumn, M. de la dom. “ A faction," said they, Fayette had occasion to take a “has placed itself between the journey into the south of France. prince and the people; the avenues Every where he was received with to the throne are occupied by its public honours: the citizens, in leaders. Will they, who have alwelcoming him with banquets and ways protested against the charter, processions, welcomed him as a observe it? Will they restore to respected representative of that us those institutions which they policy which was now contending have deprived us of-they whom with the new Cabinet. The mayor we reproach for the loss of them? of the commune of Vizille, through Will they respect the liberty of the which the general passed, had taken press--they who will never cease part in one of these shows. For to be accused by France, whilst this expression of opinion the mi- France retains a voice? Will they nistry immediately deprived him of suppress electoral frauds - they, his office; and the consequence against whom we have ever been was, that the whole population obliged to contest, to have them voted him an address of thanks suppressed ? Will they reduce the and congratulation, and invited taxes. that are crushing us—they who have ever voted against every threatened, there was, beyond reduction? Will they improve doubt, a great deal that was the system of public instruction- merely imaginary. Many of the they who put all their hope in the designs imputed to the ministry ignorance of the people? Will were either useful inventions of they be able to have French gene- their opponents, put forth for the rosity respected by our neighbours purpose of keeping strenuous oppo-they who have ever been averse to sition alive, or, if really believed, any thing generous? Will they were believed only because the defend the independence of your animosity of excited party spirit crown-they who have been placed easily gives credit to whatever in power by foreign influence? Are does honour to its own sagathey worthy depositaries of the city or patriotism. But still the glory of our armies—they who are composition of the ministry, while only known to our warriors by it exhibited nothing commanding their treason? Will they drive in point of talent, was framed on vengeance from their breasts, – principles which implied a policy will they conciliate the hatred of hostile to the growth of public parties--they who prepared lists of liberty. Above all, its composiFrenchmen for the scaffold, they tion was hustile to the wishes and who call clemency inactivity; they opinions of the French people ; who, to express their horrible even its continued existence, therewishes, have become the plagiar- fore, was of itself a proof of the ists of the tribunes of terror ? spirit imputed to it by its enemies, France sees with horror united in viz. a determination to govern in the ministry men who were joined defiance of these wishes and opiin its antipathies, and from whom nions. Whether the public was every citizen fled, who enjoyed the right or wrong in what it believed, esteem and honour of his country. it did believe that the ministry men. Sire,--Have pity on France deserved only distrust, hatred, and and the throne; drive from it the contempt. Its unpopularity, foundevils with which it is menaced. ed on apprehensions, even before it To render it glorious and fortunate, had begun to act, might be partly · France has need of the confidence undeserved; but thoroughly unof its king. Give her ministers popular it was. The little it had worthy of her and yourself. Sire, done did not tend to diminish the -In terminating these humble re- dislike with which it was regarded; presentations, permit us to assert and thoroughly unpopular it conour respect for your prerogatives. tinued to be. The public voice We know good from bad ministers, might, in some measure, be misled before kings can know them. We by party violence and chimerical know them by our sufferings, and alarms, but it was too loud and too kings know them only by our universal to be despised with imgroans. That is a legitimate punity. prayer which requires from heaven The Cabinet itself, in the mean good kings; why should not that time, was divided. That it conbe the same which requires from tained Labourdonnaye was kings good ministers ?”

great cause of its unpopularity ; In the evils, with which public and that minister himself would alarm supposed France to be listen to no proposals of concession


-no mitigation of his own ultra saving his colleagues from the unprinciples. Another section of the gracious position of appearing to ministry, with Prince Polignac at sacrifice him to popular clamour. its head, was averse to violent or But whatever motive led to the dangerous measures; and was para event, it was one from which the ticularly willing to carry conces- ministers anticipated a relaxation sion the length of getting rid of of the popular odium. The extheir colleague. In November, minister carried with him a consiM. de Labourdonnaye retired; but derable number of ultra-royalist it was doubtful whether he retired votes ; and he had already shewn, from wounded vanity, or in the that, when driven into opposition, hope of allaying the tempest. The he would not hesitate to direct place of President of the Council them against a royalist ministry ; had been vacant since the retire- but they flattered themselves that ment of M. de Villèle, the last his retirement would bring to them ministry having had no chief under a greater accession of strength from this title. To obviate the incone among the moderate liberals, and venience which would have been would, at least, tend to divide their felt by the absence of a president enemies. at the meetings of the Cabinet, the In these expectations, however, king or the dauphin generally oc- they were disappointed.

One cupied the chair. M. de Villèle very obnoxious man was removed, had a long struggle with some of but he was not succeeded by his colleagues of higher titles and any person commanding confidence more ancient families, before he

or respect ; many obnoxious men could prevail upon Louis 18th to still remained, and the character and promote him to this high dignity. composition of the Cabinet was When at last he obtained it, he unchanged. The Ministry of the found it a real source of power, interior was filled up by simply which enabled him for several transferring to it from the departyears to domineer over his col- ment of public instruction, M. de leagues, and to direct the adminis- Montbel, the creature of Villèle. tration at his pleasure. The Pre- The only accession gained by the sident of the Council had access to ministry was in M. de Montbel's the king at all times, and could successor, a M. Guernon de Raininterfere in the direction of every ville, procureur-general of Lyons ; departinent of the State. The and M. de Rainville was known present ministry had likewise been only as an ultra, who, when presifornied on a principle of equality; dent of the electoral college of the but, in the middle of November, a arrondissement of Bayeux, had royal ordinance appeared, creating obtained, by his temerity and vioPrince Polignac President of the lence, a false return, and who had Council. To this superiority the acted, throughout his magistracy, ambition and self-love of Labour- on the principle, common to most donnaye could not submit, and the of his present colleagues, that all resignation, which he tendered, constitutional measures were revowas accepted. The appointment of lutionary. M. de Labourdonnaye a president was said to have been had been hated and feared ; nobody adopted for the very purpose of contemned him: M. de Rainville compelling a resignation, and thus was only despised and laughed at.


The expression of public opinion of the wishes, of the wants, against the ministry, continued to and of the interests, of his be as strong and unanimous as people. The majority ~ is the

At one time the organs of king.” Language like this justithie Cabinet threatened a dissolu- fied every thing that the popular tion of the Chambers—a step party could say or do. The more which they were conscious they accredited organs of the Cabinet, could not safely take; and the indeed, did not openly repeat these popular party, on the other hand, sentiments, and were even authordeclared, that they desired nothing ized to blame them; but they so much as an appeal to a new were inseparably connected, in the election, which, they were confi- minds of the people, with that set dent, would increase their num- of opinions which the Cabinet rebers. At other times the ultra presented. If the one party were journals preached up the doctrine led astray by assuming evil of ruling without the Chambers. designs, which perhaps had no “ The ministers," said they, existence, ministers were equally

loudly declare (and it gives us blind to the character of their an. pleasure to repeat their declara- tagonists. They never alluded to tion), that, if they have the major-them, but as revolutionists—eneity, they will save the throne by mies to the king—republicans it; and that, if they have not the traitors-jacobins — attacking the majority, they will save the throne throne with seditious clamours— without it. Relying upon the à language foolish in the extreme, support of the king, and the as- considering that the persons, to sistance of the royalists, who whom these epithets were applied, only wait for a signal, the minis- formed the great majority of the ters will find in the charter itself nation. Amid this excitement, the means of wresting it from the and these mutual recriminations, hands of the factious, who would the year closed; ministers keeping wish to destroy it, because it is their places until the convocation the work and the support of the of the legislature should deterinonarchy. What is this pre- imine, whether the Chambers were tended deliberating majority, to decide the fate of the Cabinet, or which not only presumes to treat the Cabinet that of the Chambers. with the throne as one power with The foreign relations of France another, but to dictate conditions remained peaceful and unaltered. to the living law,—the source of She was a tranquil, though not all laws,-that is royalty? Of an uninterested spectator of the what is it composed ?' of rheto- march of Russia to the overthrow ricians without a conscience, of of the Ottoman Empire; and her demagogues without people, and ministers, with those of the other of generals without soldiers; and European powers, bore a share in yet they dare to call themselves the negotiations which followed. the representatives of public The result of the campaign havopinion, and the organs of the ing secured the independence of nation. France recognizes only Greece, on the terms which the the king as its immortal repre- allies had originally proposed, the sentative; the word of the king is French troops in the Morea were the expression of the sentiments, recalled. They had fulfilled the object of their mission, in reducing with a Jew, named Bacry, for a supthe Turkish fortresses; they had ply of corn. The Jew wasconnected suffered little in the field, but had with the dey; the money due for sustained severe losses from disease. the corn amounted to 7,000,000 Besides sending that expedition, francs, and payment of it had France, in conjunction with Rus- been voted in 1824; but the dey sia, had made considerable ad- had not touched a farthing of it. vances of money to the Greek Four millions were said to have government, in the shape of a been paid to his agent ; but monthly subsidy. On the acces- report alleged that the greater sion of Prince Polignac's ministry, 'portion of it had never gone farthis subsidy ceased. A Greek ther than the hands of French agent proceeded to Paris, to urge officials. At all events, the other the necessity, in the present cir- three millions had been retained, cumstances of Greece, of making on the pretext that they fell to be another and last advance ; he was divided among French subjects, unsuccessful. He offered to sup- who had suffered loss by Algerine ply one half of the sum from his captures. Thence arose law-suits own pocket, if the French govern- which threatened to have no end. ment would make up the other; An Algerine dey is accustomed to he met with a refusal. He re- a much more summary administraquested the use of a king's ship to tion of justice than is allowed by convey from Toulon to Egina, the tardy forms of European judiwhat he could advance from his cial investigation. His highness own funds; that request was wrote a letter to the French Cagranted. This occurrence was, binet, requesting that the money to the constitutional party in should be sent to him, reserving France, a fresh proof of the illi- to himself the power of doing beral and anti-national spirit of justice to the claimants. If the the new ministry. For the mi- claimants had failed on their side, nistry again, it was alleged, that, such an appeal was for them abunby the Turkish recognition of the dantly unpromising; but the independence of Greece, as pro- Foreign minister, who was then posed by the allies, the period, the baron de Damas, did not even during which the subsidy had answer the letter. Again his been promised, had expired, and highness wrote, and again his they could not be considered as letter remained unanswered. now holding funds which they While affairs stood thus, M. might legally apply to such a pur. Deval, the French consul at Alposema constitutional delicacy in giers, having waited on the dey money matters for which their


respects at the feast of opponents were not inclined to Bairam, in 1827, a lively convergive them credit.

sation took place between him and For several years France had the dey regarding the conduct of had a standing quarrel with the the French government. In the Dey of Algiers, the remote origin course of the dialogue, the Dey of which went very far back., struck the consul with his fly-flap; During a period of scarcity, in the and thereupon ensued the negotime of the republic, the French go- tiations, and declaration of war, vernment had entered into contracts recorded in our volume for 1827.

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