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throne of his brother ; ? he had foreign minister, Rio Pardo, and laughed at promises made, and procuring the appointment of count oaths sworn in the face of Europe. St. Lourenco, a minion of her own. As if all that might still expose. To infuse her spirit into the him to the degrading suspicion of police was a still more desirable being capable of a virtuous or object. The department of Justice kindly sentiment, he had now at- (for so it was still named) under tempted to assassinate his sister. Furtado Rio, and the ministry of
If a system directed to gratify the Interior, under the count de the passions of such a man were Bastos, were already as bad as even susceptible of any aggravation, it she could have wished. Barata was found in the interference of was at the head of the police, under the queen mother. Atrocious as which Portugal was enjoying the were the proceedings of the governo present reign of lawless bloodshed ment, that worst of women and of and plunder ; but the queen carried wives was still unsatisfied, unless the appointment of the dezembarshe could place them under the gador Belfort, who had shewn direction of her own creatures, for himself, in the proceedings of the whose abhorrence of every thing preparatory judicial commission at like mercy and justice she might Oporto, of which he was a member, have the security of her own per- an officer after her own heart. sonal knowledge. The confinement She went further, and placed the of Miguel, in consequence of an accident which had happened to
they conspire against the throne and him in the end of the preceding
the altar, and against us individually,
“Now, royalists! let us not sheathe year, gave her room forintriguing.* our swords till our country is saved from She succeeded in displacing the the worst of enemies ! Let us, for the
present, withdraw the reins of governIn the beginning of the year the ment from the hands of our bero, the following treasonable proclamation was king, Don Miguel, which, though at openly circulated by the queen's ad. other times powerful, are now become herents :-_"Royalists ! To preserve the feeble from his infirmities, and from the throne and the altar is and always has machinations of the vile set now sur. been the object of our endeavours, and rounding him: and let us call her mathe thonght nearest and dearest 10 jesty, the beloved queen-mother, to our hearts. But the throne and the govern in his royal name ; for which act altar are now tottering on the brink of we have laws and precedents. We can ruin. The king, from his severe ill- re-assume the royal power, and confer ness, and the constant restraint under it upon whom we please, and whom we which he has been kept, has been com- consider best qualified to govern and pelled, by his fears, to temporize with preserve the kingdom, as our ancestors that impious masonic faction, which, for declared on the assemblage of the Cortes a length of time, has surrounded and in 1641. And on what better occasion still surrounds bis royal person. With than the present can we exercise this pain and indignation we see the faithful most sacred right? Let, then, the queen vassals of the king, who sacrificed their Donna Carlotta de Bourbon govern! li res, their honours, and their propers and death at one blow to the republican ties. who left their country, and have monster of free-masonry; the gallows sullered a painful emigration, still suf- and the triangles must work conjointly, fered to exist, and pine in want, in and with energy; and fires must be misery, and in oblivion, whilst the in- kindled in every quarter of Portugal to fernal free-masons still hold the most reduce to ashes the bodies and prohonourable and lucrative places. The perties of these vile monsters !--then, prisons are converted into so many ma- and then only, may we raise our voices sonic lodges, where, without danger, safely and triumphantly."
intendant himself under the in- were cited to appear before the tendancy of a certain Luzuriaga, commission at the end of two whom she had selected as a new months, to take their trial for reconfidential agent; and this Lu- bellion. The greater number of zuriaga was an exiled Spanish thief. them were officers of rank in the He had originally made his name army; but the list included likewise known by certain atrocious achieve- several judges, and some merchants ments in the Spanish army of the of Oporto. As none of them apFaith. He had then turned robber, peared, they were declared guilty and been condemned to the gallies. of treason in the highest degree, He made his escape ; and, in con- and their estates were confiscated. sideration of his former services, In the mean time, the preparatory was recommended to the protection inquiries, necessary for the trial of of the queen mother of Portugal the constitutionalists who were in by the apostolics of Madrid. He custody, had been going on. Twentywas now her prime minister, and three of them were brought before took the intendants of the police the commission; of these, eleven under his own especial charge. He were sent, for different periods, to set himself to intrigue against different places of banishment; the Camposano the Spanish ambassador remaining twelve were condemned at Lisbon. By the influence of to death. The sentence was imthe queen over her royal relations mediately ratified, but its execuin Spain, he succeeded in having tion was delayed some weeks, till Camposano recalled ; but the same arrangements should be made for messenger, who brought to the carrying it into effect with security. latter Ferdinand's order for his The number, too, and the respectreturn, brought also an order from ability of the victims, produced the Spanish foreign minister to much intercession, and obtained claim the run-away galley-slave. some respite. Only two of the Luzariaga, however, safe in the number, however, were saved; the protection of his mistress, and of one, formerly a corregidor, whose the ministers of whom he was the sentence was commuted into one worthy colleague, laughed the de- of hard labour for life, and the mand to scorn.
other, a clerk in a mercantile house, The scenes of bloodshed and who, after being flogged, was to confiscation at Lisbon were not be sent for life to the gallies of more extensive or ruinous than Angola. It was made part of the those which were exhibited at commuted sentence of the correOporto. A special commission had gidor, that he should perform, been sent to that city from the when required, the duties of a capital, to take proceedings against public executioner. The other ten the persons who had been involved, were executed on the 9th of May.*
were suspected of having been involved, in the fruitless en
The following were the persons who
suffered. terprise of the constitutional party “ Francisco Manoel Gravito da Veiga in 1828. It first proceeded against e Lima, ex Dezembargador of Appeals those who, knowing the mper of in the Court of Supplication. the government, had fled from the
6. Victorio Telles de Medeiros e Vascountry. On the 23rd of Decem- ment of Militia of Louzan.
concellos, ex-lieut.-colonel of the regiber, twenty-two of these individuals
“Francisco Silveiro de Caryalho,
The inhabitants of Oporto mani- whose jurisdiction alone our counfested their sentiments, on the trymen are subject. By that tri. day of execution, by shutting bunal he was acquitted; but the up the shops, and abandoning the government immediately cancelled streets and public places, as if the this sentence, and ordained him to city had been in mourning. The be removed from Portugal and its authorities, offended at the express
dominions. The British consul, ive silence which reigned through- however, immediately interfered to out the town, sent patroles of assert the rights of his countrycavalry through the streets, and men, secured by treaty and long compelled the citizens to open possession; the sentence was retheir shops. The apprehensions called; the condemned was reof soine public commotion had been admitted to Portugal, and re-inso strong, that the intelligence of stated in his property. the execution having been car- The rage of the usurper was ried tranquilly into effect, was well backed by the bigotry of the thought worthy of being commu- priesthood. In their sermons and nicated to the capital by telegraph; publications they applauded the and in Lisbon the creatures of the work of death and devastation, as court were publicly congratulating an acceptable offering on the part each other on the event, as on the of a pure and pious government. occurrence of some national tri- Jose Agostinho, a monk, who was umph. Among the prisoners at a court preacher, and the confessor Oporto, was a British merchant, of Cadoval, the prime minister, accused of having encouraged the published, in the beginning of military of Oporto who began the May, a pamphlet, called “ The insurrection on the 16th of May. Beast Flayed," for the express pur. As the privilege of British resi- pose of urging the necessity of dents required, he was tried before multiplying sacrifices. “ The Cona particular judge, the Judge Con- stitutionalists,” said he, “must be servator of the British nation, to hung up by the feet. May God
send that the executions begin in Fiscal of the Tobacco Contract in the
these long days of May, which city of Aveiro. 6. Jose Antonio de Oliveira Silva
give full time for them. As this Barros, First Book-keeper of the Royal year threatens scarcity, let the Snuti and Soap Contract.
people be joyfully treated daily “Manoel Luiz Nogueira, Barrister. with fresh meat from the gallows." at-law, and Registered Advocate of the
To follow out these infernal adcity of Oporto.
“ Antonio Bernardo de Brito e Cunha, vices, a new commission was named Comptroller of Finances.
to try, that is, to condemn, between « Clemente da Silva Mello Soares de forty and fifty new prisoners ; but Freitas, ex-Juiz de Fora (Magistrate) of a partial respite was obtained, in Villa da Feira. “ Bernardo Francisco Pinheiro, ex
consequence of Furtado Rio ceasing Captain of Ordinanças (Local Militia)
to be minister of Justice. His of the district of Villa da Feira,
removal was said to have been Joaquim Manuel da Fonseca Lobo, efiected partly by the influence of ex-lient.-colonel of the lith Battalion
the foreign consuls, partly by that of Riflemen. 66 Jose Maria Martiniano da Fonseca,
of the Spanish ambassador. Barrister-at-law, from and domiciliated
He was succeeded by Mattos, in, the island of Madeira.”
who seemed inclined to be less san.
guinary, and, at all events, less This letter being shown to Miguel, indiscriminating, in his punish- he said, “Well, we must not opments. One of his first acts was pose the wishes of our beloved to free the police from the queen mother ;” and Mr. Veiga ceased, mother's agent Luzuriaga; he gave and caused the judicial commission up the felon to the Spanish au- to cease, from acquitting and lithorities. The trials of the pri- berating prisoners, as they were soners, who had been intended to much safer in prison, than when supply “fresh meat” to the people, exposed to the anarchical persecuwas postponed. A proclamation tions of the Royal Volunteers. was issued, censuring the course What was gained, therefore, by which had hitherto been pursued, this change of officers was only a in imprisoning and punishing every very limited mitigation; but even person against whom 'even the smallest relaxation was treated anonymous charge had been made, as a blessing. Prosecutions, unjust and expressing his majesty's great and oppressive prosecutions, contianxiety that the innocent should nued ; but they did not end in not be confounded with the guilty. blood. To relieve the prisons, and Barata, the intendant of police, make room for a new succession of was dismissed, and was succeeded miserable inmates, the most reby a M. da Veiga. But the slight spectable political convicts, of all efforts of these men to mitigate, in ages and classes, were shipped off some measure, the horrors of the to Africa ; and, that its pestilential reign of terror were neutralized by climate might do surely the work the influence of the queen. While of the executioner, neither unconthe new intendant was setting at firmed youth, nor feeble old age, liberty many innocent prisoners, nor the infirmities of disease, nor who ought never to have been the disabled trunk, maimed in the incarcerated, the queen issued in- service of the country, could exstructions to the Royal Volunteers cite compassion in this crowned to oppose theexecution of his orders; monster, and his atrocious sateland these instructions were obey- lites. On the 10th of July, sixed. Veiga prepared an ordinance, teen prisoners were sent from directing that all, who counteract- Lisbon to Oporto to' take their ed the measures of his department, trial. Among them was a widow should be immediately imprisoned. lady, who had the misfortune to Miguel, before signing it, commu- be one of the wealthiest persons nicated it to his mother, who im- in the kingdom. To get possession mediately wrote to the intendant of her fortune, she was accused of in the following terms:-—“In- having abetted, by her wealth and formed that, by an ordinance which credit, every revolution that had is to appear, power is given to the taken place in Portugal since 1820. enemies of the altar to imprison The criminal tribunal of Oporto those who in their opinion may claimed her, after she had suffered insult them, I let you know that for a year all the misery and diswhatever you'll attempt against ease which the dungeons of the the character of those who are the Limoeiro could inflict. The phyonly true royalists, will bring upon sicians of Lisbon certified, that she you my indignation, and that could not be removed without exyou must dread my resentment.” treme danger to her life. But as
no anxiety that such or assist in, the bootless enterprise danger should be avoided, she was of Oporto. Fortunately they had immediately shipped off, in the com- all escaped. In their absence they pany of the other prisoners, with were condemned “to be degraded no more regard to her station and from their rank, to be executed on her sex, than would have been paid the Praça Nova, and afterwards to the meanest ruffian.
their heads to be cut off, the bodies About the same time, the Com- of some of them to be burned, and mission of Oporto having con- the ashes cast into the sea : their denined two more of the constitu- heads exposed on the road from tionalists, the one to death, and Malezurhos to the sea-coast where the other to banishment for life, they landed, and there remain till the former was pardoned, that he they decayed with time : the promight accompany the latter to perty of all of them to be conAfrica. Mercy was so new, that fiscated to the royal treasury.” the intelligence of this act of grace Miguel, while he thus proceeded excited loud rejoicings in Oporto. against the avowed or suspected These expressions of pleasure were enemies of his usurpation, naturally treated as proofs of a factious con- provided for the safety of those cern in the welfare of men who who had been the enemies of the were enemies to the state; and constitution which he overturned. thirty of the inhabitants of Oporto Many persons had been put in a were imprisoned, because they had state of accusation on account of dared to rejoice that Miguel could their participation in the rebellious pardon. Their satisfaction movements of 1826 and 1827. not long-lived; for, in a short There was no reason to apprehend time, two other military persons that, under Miguel, the investigawere executed at Oporto for their tions against them would be conpolitical offences, one of them hold- tinued; but he thought it right to ing no higher grade than that of secure them by a decree, putting a serjeant, a rank seldom included stop to all proceedings against in prosecutions for crimes of that “ individuals accused of opposing description. He was believed to the extinct and proscribed form of have fallen innocently, a victims of constitutional government, an opcertain underlings of office, who position which ought now to be owed him debts which they took considered as proving the loyalty this method to discharge. Four with which his majesty's faithful more were condemned at the same subjects detested such a monstrous time ; but their sentence was com- innovation on the fundamental muted into transportation for life laws of this monarchy." to Africa, after they had been The natural result of such a state compelled to witness the execution of political society, presenting only of their comrades. Sentence was oppression on the one side, and disa likewise pronounced, in the month trust on the other, was the total of August, against the marquis interruption of commercial business, Palmella, count Villa Flor, count and the cessation of manufacturing Sampayo, general Saldanha, and industry. The lower classes of the the other officers, twenty-one in people wanted food and employnumber, who had gone from Eng- ment; the rents of the landed proland in the preceding year to lead, prietors remained unpaid ;