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Mineral Springs.

In eastern Riverside county is Palm Springs, a health resort of peculiar attractions. It is situated in a sheltered valley and surrounded by giant palms of natural growth. The dry air gives great relief to sufferers from lung and throat troubles. And indeed, scattered all through the mountains of these south counties, as well as through the mountain regions mentioned elsewhere in this volume, are resorts peculiarly fitted for bringing back health to humanity. The dry air, mineral springs, the atmosphere of pine forests and above all sunshine, are climatic assets of these resorts that give health to all who seek it in time.

To the north of Riverside county is San Bernardino, one of the largest counties in the United States, a small empire of wondrous possibilities, noted not only for the fruit growing possibilities of its southern part, but for the rich mines and mining prospects of its northern section. Through the county runs the main line of the Santa Fe railroad, a great factor in the rapid development of this mining store-house. In San Bernardino and Los Angeles counties are large government forest reserves, where forethought of prudent men is checking the destruction of the trees on mountain ranges which shelter the source of water supply for the fertile valleys below.

The most southern county is San Diego, noted for many things, but above all for its famous wiuter resort hotel at Coronado, for its wonderful harbor at San Diego, for its fruit growing and for its health-giving climate, which last element alone is gaining for its population thousands yearly.

Northerly from Los Angeles is Ventura, and beyond, Santa Barbara. These two counties are noted, as are all others of the south counties, for their climate and for their soil possibilities. Olives, English walnuts and oranges are the chief orchard products, while there are opportunities for returns from other lines of industry in their valleys and foothills.

A peculiar educational institution that means health for growing boys is located near Nordhoff in Ventura county, where the son of a Yale professor las established

Famous Winter Resorts.



an outdoor school where boys are prepared for college. Half of their day is devoted to horseback riding or exercising out of doors, and the output of this school is sure to form timber for football teams or 'varsity crews.

At Santa Barbara recently there has been constructed The Potter. the new Potter Hotel, a modern establishment that attracts each winter a vast number of health-seeking tourists. The recent completion of the Southern Pacific coast line bas given new life to Ventura, Santa Barbara and other coast towns. At Santa Barbara is one of the best preserved California missions, the building, garden and surroundings being kept in excellent condition and forming an attractive visiting point for tourists.

All through these south counties are mines, especially in Riverside and San Bernardino counties, mines of gold and silver chiefly. The recent development of the mines of the Mexican peninsula of Lower California is a good thing for these south counties, as Los Angeles and San Diego are the outfitting points for many expeditions, and there is a growing trade in mining machinery and supplies with the Lower California mines.

A recent writer on Southern California and its varied resources, thus summarizes its manifold charms:

“It is a country of eternal snow-on mountain peaks A Land of 12,000 feet high; it is a country of eternal summer-in the Contrasts. smiling valleys radiant with perennial beauty. It is a land of roses, fragrant, beautiful; it is, too, a land of unbaked Boston beans. It is a land of ostriches, and, still more, a land of humming birds. Meadow larks unnumbered hail

he morning from the upland grain fields; and at night in the fastnesses of the mountains yet may be heard the mountain lion. In the late winter and the early spring the valleys are a carpet of baby blue-eyes; and up on the higher mountain ridges, usually over the summits to the desert sides, majestic pines, too large for the saw-mill, lift their heads so high that their vesper songs, when the evening sea breeze comes, are lost. Southern California is a land of celery, for celery flourishes in the lowlands south of Los Angeles, and it is a land of salt to season that celery with, for out of the California desert broad acres




glisten in the sun at a lower level still—200 feet below
the surging tide of the ocean. It is pre-eminently a land
of magnificent sandy beaches, with gentle surf; it is not
less pre-eminently a country of mountain resorts, with

sparkling trout streams and pine needle carpets. Where Evory

“It is a land of long ocean piers and high oil derricks. Pleases. It is a land of many pumpkins to the acre and of many

magnificent resort hotels. It possesses the most modern
and active of cities and some quaint and sleepy Spanish
pueblos. It has many mineral hot springs and hundreds
of cool artesian wells, some of 400 inches flow. There are
broad fields of waving grain and feets of fishing boats.
There is a vast network of irrigating canals and another
network of many well-kept country highways. It is a land
of sweetness, with many thousand acres of sugar beets and
three large factories; and with every valley iringed with
honey, for along the foothills and in the mouths of
canyons, the hum of industry is apparent around many
a hive. Large vineyards and grain fields neighbor amicably.
Yes, it is a land of many things-of gold and silver, small
fruits, vegetables, flowers, wool, wheat, hay, cattle, cran-
berries, walnuts, almonds, melons, wine, of tourists and
of climate. It is above all a land of horticulture; of
oranges, lemons, grape-fruit, apricots, peaches, pears,
olives, prunes, quinces, guavas, bananas, loquats, nectar-
ines, pomegranates, cherries and plums.

“The climate possesses an annual mean temperature Balmy Air. of about 62 degrees, and there is nothing very mean about

it, either; indeed, it is about right; in the dry air of the
summer (but not at the coast) it wanders up to a hundred
degrees, with a much lower sensible teniperature; in
winter it draws the line at frosts as a whole, though
in a few localities the welcome is not so warm as to forbid
Jack Frost from tarrying a few hours. The climate rejoices
in 300 sunshiny days every year; it invites you to mid-
summer nights beneath clear stars, and open windows in
the longer stretches of January darkness when the rose-
scented air aids to pleasant dreams. It has a fraternal
feeling for porches, swinging on the gate, long walks,
bicycling, automobiling and coaching."

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[graphic][merged small]

COUNTIES OF CALIFORNIA Their Area, County Seats, and Population (according to revised U. S. Census,

1900, figures).

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Area (in Sq.









I Alameda


130,197 Oakland

66,960 2 Alpine

1863 575
509 Mark leeville

149 3 Amador

568 11,116 Jackson

1,645 4 Butte



2,000 5 Calaveras. 1850 990 11,200 San Andreas.

600 6 Colusa

1,080 7,364 Colusa.....

1,441 7 Contra Costa 1850 750 18,046 Martinez.....

1,380 8 Del Norte 1856 1,546 2,408 Crescent City.

699 9 El Dorado. 1849 1,891 8,986 Placerville

1,748. 10 Fresno 1856 5,940 37,862 Fresno

12,470 II Glenn

1,248 5,150 Willows..

893 12 Humboldt 1854 3,507 27,104 Eureka...

7,327 13 Inyo

4,377 Independence..

500 14 Kern...

16,480 Bakersfield

4,836 15 Kings. 1893 1,257 9,871 Hanford....

2,929, 16 Lake.. 1861 1,332 6,017 Lakeport

726 17 Lassen 1864 4,750 4,511 Susanville

882 18 Los Angeles, includ. ing Catalina Island 1850 3,95772 170,298 Los Angeles

102,479 19 Madera....... 1893 2,140 6,364 Madera

1,600 20 Marin....

15,702 San Rafael...

3,879 21 Mariposa.

4,720 Mariposa..

366 22 Mendocino

20,465 Ukiah..

1,950 23 Merced...

1,750 9,215 Merced..

1,969 24 Modoc 1854 4,087 5,076 Alturas...

800 25 Mono

2,796 2,167 Bridgeport.

700 26 Monterey

3,450 19.380 Salinas...

3,304 27 Napa

16,451 Napa......

4,036 28 Nevada. 1850 958 17,789 Nevada...

3.250 29 Orange..

*19,696 Santa Ana.

4.933 30 Placer. 1850 1,484 15,786 Auburn...

2,050 31 Plumas.

1854 2,361 4,657 Quincy... 32 Riverside


17,897 Riverside...

7,973 33 Sacramento.. 1850 1,007 45,915 Sacramento.

29,282 34 San Benito 1874 1,476 6,633 Holiister .....

1.315 35 San Bernardino.... 1854 20,055 27,929 San Bernardino.. 6,150 36 San Diego....... 1850 8,400

35,090 San Diego......

17,700 37 San Francisco 1850 42 342,7821 San Francisco

342,782 38 San Joaquin 1850 1,370 35,452 Stockton

17,506 39 San Luis Obispo 1850 3,500 16,637 San Luis Obispo

3,021 40 San Mateo...

470 12,094 Redwood City

1.653 41 Santa Barbara 1850 2,450 18,934 Santa Barbaaa

6,587 42 Santa Clara.... 1850 1,355 60,216 San Jose..

21,500 43 Santa Cruz 1850 425 21,512 Santa Cruz....

5,659 44 Shasta 1850 4,050 17,318 Redding.....

2,946 45 Sierra,

910 4,017 Downieville.

500 46 Siskiyou

6,078 16,962 Yreka....

1,263 47 Solano 1850 911 24.143 Fairfield

505 48 Sonoma. 1850 1,540 38,480 Santa Rosa.

6,673 49 Stanislaus 1856 1,486 9,550 Modesto..

2,024 50 Sutter. 1850 611 5,886 Yuba City....

800 51 Tehama 1850 3,200 10,996 Red Bluff..

2,750 52 Trinity.

3 276

4,383 Weaverville. 53 Tulare

1854 4,935

18,375 Visalia 54 Tuolumne 1853 2,232 11,166 Sonora...

1,922 55 Ventura

1872 1,850
14,367 Ventura,

2,470 56 Yolo 1850 1,017 13,618 Woodland

2,886 57 Yuba..... 1850 625 8.620 Marysville..

3,497 * Los Angeles School Census figures (July, 1902), show population of over 150,000. † The population of San Francisco is reckoned, January, 1903, at fully 425,000.


968 3,528

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