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with such impetuosity, that they penetrated the enemy's line at several points; nor was it until after a very obstinate conflict that they began their retrcat, which, as usual, ended in a complete rout.

But, though repulsed, they had no intention to abandon their country to the Christians without a farther struggle. They accordingly renewed their assault upon the French camp, day after day, until some severe checks, and a conviction of their inferiority as soldiers, compelled them to fall back towards the Desert. Bourmont now advanced to the city, which, after a smart bombardment, yielded at discretion. Twelve ships of war, 1,500 brass cannon, with a large sum of money, came into the hands of the conquerors ; and on the 5th of July, their flag waved on all the forts. The Turkish troops were permitted to go wherever they pleased, provided they should leave Algiers ; most of whom desired to be landed in Asia Minor. The dey, in the first instance, chose Naples for the place of his retirement ; and, it is well known, he enjoyed repose, and even some degree of consideration, till the day of his death.

The success of this bold measure has, in the meantime, relieved the Mediterranean from the dread of piracy, and the European shores from the horrors which always accompanied the inroads of the merciless Moors. But it must be doubtful whether the conquest, in any other respect, will gratify the nation whose arms achieved it. The climate is indeed good, the soil rich, and the situation at once romantic and delightful; but the inhabitants of the adjacent country are destitute of honour, regardless of treaties, strangers to the refined enjoyments of social life, addicted to plunder, and accustomed to consider war as their profession. M. Rozet acknowledges, that in their hostilities with the Bedouins, the regular troops of France, so far from gaining any ultimate advantage, must be content with a temporary triumph; for, as soon as the Arab horsemen attain the border of the Sahara, they can set at defiance the best hussars of Europe. Hence we cannot be surprised to learn, that the conquerors of Algiers are confined to the walls of most of the towns which they occupy ; that they cannot venture to take possession of the lands; and that the hope of a prosperous colonization of Northern Africa becomes daily less encouraging. The great expense, moreover, incident to the military establishment still neces



sary for the primary object of the expedition, presses upon the government of Louis Philippe, who, it would appear, has already listened to several proposals for withdrawing his troops.

The actual state of Algiers is well illustrated by the officer just named, who made part of the expedition, and afterward resided sixteen months in the regency. His account of the town, both as to its external appearance and its interior arrangements, agrees in substance with those already given; confirming, in every particular, the striking contrast between the view obtained of it from the sea, and the entire want of architectural ornament and even of convenience within. The brilliant aspect which it exhibits at a distance, with its whitewashed roofs, reminded him of an open chalkquarry on the side of a hill; but when he entered the gates, he found that the breadth of its main street did not exceed nine feet, one half of which was occupied by the projection of the houses. This alley opens into another called Bab el Ouad, which penetrates the whole length of the city from south to north, and is in some places so narrow that a loaded mule fills it from side to side. It is, however, remarkable for one of those fountains or public wells which are seen in every lane of Algiers, and prove the source of much comfort as well as health to the inhabitants. The following cut affords a good representation of the one which adorns the street we are now describing. *

From the same account, we find that the strength of the Mole-Battery has not been overrated by former writers. When the French entered the bay, they observed on that fortification alone not fewer than 237 pieces of cannon, forming five tiers, one above another, the first of which carried guns varying from thirty-six to ninety-six pounders. They were placed in vaulted casements, bomb-proof, the walls of which, constructed of hewn stone, were about ten feet thick.

Speaking of Algiers as it was before the reduction of it by General Bourmont, we may remark that the government was

* “ Dans chaque rue on trouve plusieurs fontaines alimen tées par des aquéducs : ses fontaines sont formées par un enfoncement dans le mur, que termine un cintre ou une ogive composée de la réunion de deux arcs de cercle, et toujours or nées de desseins arabesque parfaitement sculptés."--Rozet, vol üi., p. 17.



Gate and Fountain of Bab el Ouad. entirely despotic, and that the dey had the power of life and death over all his subjects. There was no law but his own will, and this was executed with an astonishing degree of promptitude. In the year 1830, when the soldiers of Charles X. drove from his throne this deputy of the grand seignior, they discovered that the whole authority of the state was in his hands; that he rewarded and punished at his discretion ; disposed of all employments; and made peace or proclaimed war without being obliged to give an account of his conduct to any one. He had nothing to fear but the sanguinary ree volts of his janizaries, who, when they chose to become dissatisfied with their sovereign, flew to arms, surrounded his palace, put him to death, and nominated his successor from their own ranks.

We have already suggested that the regency was divided into four provinces, three of which were immediately gove erned by beys, namely, Constantina, Titteri, and Oran. Each of these local rulers had a guard, consisting of a few hundreds of Turkish soldiers, who had their headquarters in his capital, and accompanied him in all his expeditions.

As the administration had long assumed a military character, every man, on certain emergencies, was bound to be a soldier ; but the Ottoman militia, or janizaries, formed the regular army, to whom was added a corps of koulouglis—the offspring of Turks and Christian slaves-into which were sometimes admitted a contingent of Moors. This militia has oy some authors been rated as high as 15,000, by others at 8,000; but Rozet remarks, that when the French took Algiers, they found not more than from 2,000 to 3,000 capable of bearing arms. The cavalry, the strength of which varied according to circumstances, was composed of Berbers and Arabs, to whom were granted certain advantages, in order to secure a continuance of their services. It is allowed by the staff-officer, on whose authority we now proceed, that the Turks were brave and generous in battle ; and that, afte: victory, they never put their hands to plunder, but left the spoils of the field to be gathered by the Moors and their slaves. *

The navy of the dey, although the terror of Europe, was at no time very considerable. The French found only one large frigate on the stocks, two in the harbour, two corvettes, eight or ten brigs, and about thirty-two armed sloops. For some years the whole marine had belonged to his highness, the privilege of arming on their own account having been withdrawn from private individuals, except in the case of very small vessels, which were permitted to carry on a coastingtrade and use weapons for their own defence.

The revenue of Algiers, if restricted to the usual resources of the country, did not exceed 130,0001. When General Bourmont took possession of the dey's palace, certain records were discovered, which enabled M. Gerardin, appointed “ director of the domains,” and M. Fougeron, inspector of finances, to ascertain the precise sum which each province or government contributed to the expenses of the state. Oran

* Voyage dans la Regence d'Alger, vol. iij., p. 367.

and Constantina paid 1,401,213 francs annually, and it is supposed that the receipts from the other districts might increase the sum to three millions—a small return from a country 500 or 600 miles in length, and 150 in breadth. To these regular funds, however, must be added the occasional payments made by foreign crowns, the value of the numerous prizes taken by the corsairs, and the presents offered by a variety of functionaries which had long ceased to be voluntary, Still it cannot fail to appear surprising, that the treasury of the dey should have contained, when it fell into the hands of the captors, not less than fifty millions of francs in gold and silver.

Considering the immense fortifications which he erected, not only at the capital, but along a coast of more than thirty miles in extent, we naturally come to the conclusion formed by M. Rozet, that piracy must have furnished to him larger suins than he drew from all the lands under his acknowledged sway. *

The wars which have been occasionally waged between Algiers and Tunis, do not reflect much honour either upon the courage or fidelity of the native troops. In the spring of the year 1807, the armies of these neighbouring states, to decide some national quarrel, took the field, amounting on either side to about 30,000 men. The Tunisians, who advanced towards the west with the view of reducing Constantina, were, upon the first appearance of their enemies, seized with a sudden panic, and Aed with such precipitation that the Algerines, without trouble or danger, took entire possession of their camp, baggage, and 15,000 camels laden with provisions. Many of the fugitives reached their capital without once stopping or daring to look back; and numerous horsemen rode their animals with such speed, that they fell down dead under them.

In a few months the bey was ready to renew the campaign, eager to recover the reputation he had lost, and to accomplish the important object which had called him to arms. But his followers had not in the interval acquired any higher military qualities, nor greater confidence in their own prowess. A wa. tering-party, who happened to come in sight of a detachment from the opposite camp, fell back in such confusion that they carried terror into the main body, who, in their turn, prepared

* Rozet, vol. üi., p. 387.

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