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been made in the neighbourhood of Algiers, and two villages have been established at Kouba and Dely-Ibrahim, under the immediate auspices of the ruling aathority. The inhabitants, who have been hitherto supported by the state, have received a species of civic organization, and present at least a model of the improved condition to which the whole region may yet attain.

The climate is much more constant than that of France ; not being exposed to those sudden changes of temperature which render the latter so variable. When the warm season sets in, the heat continues to increase without interruption ; and, at the end of summer, it diminishes in the same gradual

This favourable state of the atmosphere, which is enjoyed in the plains eight months of the year, and the moderate warmth of the mountain-districts, render Northern Africa fit for the culture of a greater number of vegetables than can be raised in France or any other European country. In fact, in the less-heated parts, they can rear the same plants as are cultivated on the opposite shores of the Mediterranean, while there is reason to believe that all the productions of more southern, and even of tropical climates, might, in the low grounds near Algiers, be naturalized to the greatest advantage. For the various methods of improvement suggested in the little work from which we quote, and more particularly the scheme for draining the marshes in the great plain of the Metijah, we must refer the reader to an examination of its pages, which he will find full of intelligence and statistical knowledge.*

M. Rozet concludes his work with a statement addressed to all civilized nations, reminding them, that in the year 1830 a French army took Algiers, destroyed the piracy which, during three centuries, had desolated the world, and laid the first foundations of civilization in Northern Africa ; that in order to continue this great work, France requires the aid and concurrence of the other European powers; but that hitherto she has made the appeal in vain, their ears being closed to her voice as well as to that of humanity.t

The sentiments of this writer, in regard to the point now stated, have not been generally approved by his countrymen, who see in the plan he has proposed the seeds of misunder

* Annuaire, p. 40–48.

+ Voyage, tome iii., p. 432.

standing among the occupants of the soil, if drawn from different kingdoms, and the source of a long-continued misery to the unhappy natives. No doubt, the civilization of Northern Africa, undertaken at the common expense of enlightened Europe, is a grand and generous idea ; but, if attempted, it would soon be found impracticable ; for, whatever may be the mask which philanthropy assumes, self-interest is always at the bottom of such undertakings; and this feeling, which 80 universally influences individuals, is seldom absent in the calculations even of the most liberal cabinets. The task would no sooner be completed, than the apparent benevolence from which it took its rise would resolve itself into the desire of aggrandizement; and the Barbary States, redeemed from ignorance and despotism by the arms of Christendom, would become the prey of ambition, jealousy, and intrigue.*

Perhaps there might be established with perfect safety at present, and without the hazard of ultimate contention, two great centres of civilization, the rays of which would in due time extend over the contiguous provinces; one in the Algerine territory, as now occupied by the French, and the other in the Cyrenaica, at Derna or Ptolemeta. The Great Syrtis would supply the line of demarcation, and mark out the respective scenes in which the policy and arts of an instructed people should again form the basis of knowledge, freedom,

* Nouvelles Annales des Voyages, Dec., 1833. In an able article by Laurenaudière, in the form of a review of M. Rozet's work, there are some good observations on the expediency and advantages of colonizing Northern Africa. He says,-“Il ne s'agit point de civiliser la Barbarie, mais de former un établissement agricole, industriel, et commercial dans l'ancienne régence d'Alger.-Soyons assurés qu'avec la perseverance, Arabes et Berbères finiront par se fatiguer d'attaques inutiles, et qu'un jour l'amour du gain les appellera vers nous ; s'ils preferent à la paix une guerre prolongée, leur perte est certaine.-Comme position militaire, l'occupation d'Alger, de Bonne, de Bougie, et surtout d'Oran, est d'une haute importance pour la France. Oran, par ses forts magnifiques, travaux des Espagnols, que nous n'avons rien de mieux à faire que de reparer, par sa belle rade de Mers el Kebir, où cent vaisseaux peuvent être en sûreté, est le seul point maritime important que nous puissions avoir depuis le cap Matifou, jusqu'au détroit de Gibraltar. En cas de guerre maritime, il n'est pas besoin d'insister sur les avantages d'une sem. Qlable position.”

and social happiness. The soil and climate in this portion of the globe afford the means of maintaining a vast population, which, for many ages, could not exhaust the sources of affluence and comfort. A growing trade with the regions of the East and the South, would by degrees compensate the sacrifices which might be necessary in the commencement of a colonization so comprehensive, and exposed, at the same time, to the numerous difficulties inseparable from the depravity and ignorance of the actual possessors. To America, as well as to other nations which contemplate the advantages of commerce and of a large maritime force, a commanding position on the shores of the Mediterranean might seem not too dearly purchased at the expense of that protection which all infant settlements require. Every traveller in the eastern section of Northern Africa, struck with the beauty of the scenery, the productive qualities of the land, the agreeable atmosphere, and the numerous local conveniences for intercourse with the wealthiest kingdoms of the European continent, has recommended the project of establishing colo nies within the bounds of the ancient Pentapolis.

The experience of France, it is true, has not hitherto proved very encouraging to others who might meditate a similar adventure. But colonization, it must be remembered, was in her case only a secondary motive, and dictated by the necessity of completing the objects for which the great expedition was formed—the protection of her flag, and the permanent suppression of piracy. The occupation of Algiers resulted as a consequence obviously arising from the triumph of her arms; and the settlements which she now attempts to form are meant, not only to secure the possessions already gained, but also to render them less burdensome to the na tional revenue.

From the facts now mentioned, it will not appear surprising that the proceedings of the French government in Africa have not been marked by any regard to system, and have consequently given offence both to the natives and to the European settlers. Law has not yet acquired any dominion in their new conquests ; every thing being regulated by proclamations issued from the headquarters of the general, which, it is complained, do not always recognise the same principles, nor contribute to the attainment of the same ends. We have alluded to rumours, occasionally revived, that Louis

Philippe has determined to relieve his exchequer of the buiden entailed by this colony ; but, as some of the most formidable obstacles to complete success have been already removed, it may be presumed that the enterprising spirit of his subjects will encourage and enable him to persevere in an undertaking so essential to the security of all Christian states. *

* The following notice, forwarded to London by the proper authority at Paris, may perhaps be regarded as an indication that there is no serious intention of abandoning their conquest:

Notice is hereby given, that, since the 18th November, 1834, a Revolving Light has been substituted for the old Fixed Light on the Mole of Algiers, continuing throughout the night, and the light disappearing regularly every half minute."

On the subject of the French expedition, we may refer to the following books recently published :-“ Appel en faveur d'Alger, et de l'Afrique du Nord.” “Aperçu Historique et Statistique sur se Régence d'Alger, &c., par Sidi Hamadan Ben Othman Khoja,” and the various numbers of the Annales des Voyages. There is much information, too, in the works of Shaler, Poiret, Hoest, Norberg, Bruns, Langier de Tassy, Renaudot, and Des. fontaines

CHAPTER IX.

Empire of Morocco. Boundaries of Morocco-Extent-Divisions — Fertility-Productions - Not fully cultivated -Metallic Treasures, Iron, Copper, Gold, and Silver - Population-History-Aglabiteś

- Edrisites — Fatimites — Zuhites— Hamadians -Abn-Has. sians-Abdallah-ben-Jasin-Almoravides -Almohades-Merinites-Oatazi--Shereef Hassan-Various Races of Men-, Administration of Justice-Rude Government-OppressionCourt-dress-Arrogance of the Moors—Their patient Endurance-Equality of Rank-Mode of eating—Ceremony of Marriage-Religion-Treatment of Christians and Jews-Reve. nue-Melilla-Velez-Tetuan-Ceuta-Tangier-ArzillahEl Haratch-Meheduma-Sallee-Rabat-Schella --Mazagan-Mogadore-Agadeer-Morocco- Population-PalaceFez - Edifices - Decayed State-Terodant - MequinezRoyal Residence-Manners of Inhabitants.

The geographical position of Morocco is bounded on the north and west by the Mediterranean and the Atlantic respectively ; on the south by the Sahara, or Great Desert; and on the east by the river Moulouia, which separates it from the Algerine province of Tlemsan, and coincides with the ancient division of Numidia and Mauritania Proper. From the ocean to the stream now specified, the diorance is not less than 200 miles : while the length of the empire, from Cape Spartel to Cape Nun, is about 550, comprehending nearly eight degrees of latitude. It has been observed, however, that the Arabs beyond the southern bank of the Suz, though they nominally acknowledge the sovereignty of Morocco, yet, availing themselves of their great distance from the seat of government, and other local advantages, pay very little attention to the imperial mandates.*

* Malte Brun, vol. iv., p. 187. Conder's Geographical Dic tionary, article Morocco. In the latter work, as well as in the Modern Traveller, there is a misprint-Lat. 28° 30' N. for lat. 28° 36' N.

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