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wah or Ammonium, Thebes, the regions of the Joliba, and even the borders of the western desert. No difficulties, however great, no dangers, however appalling, can check the avarice or damp the courage of man, when wealth, conquest, or revenge, becomes the motive of his actions. Gold, precious stones, drugs, spices, dates, salt, and slaves, were the objects upon which the Phænician colonists and their Libyan subjects placed the greatest value, and to obtain which they consented to undergo the most painful toils, and encounter the most frightful hazards that a wilderness, many hundred miles in extent, parched by the sun, disturbed by moving sands, and destitute of water, could present to the imagination. By these means, however--her colonies, her fleets, and her internal commerce--Carthage became one of the most powerful commonwealths of ancient times ; and by the fame which she acquired as the patron of discovery and navigation, by her gallant struggle with Rome, the victories of her generals, and their conquests in Italy, Gaul, and Spain, she has conferred upon the Barbary States a degree of renown which could not otherwise have fallen to their lot.
The rulers of Carthage have been blamed for yielding to the temptation of engaging in war. It has been imagined that, had they followed the example of Tyre, their greatness would never have been impaired, nor their stability menaced ; inasmuch as all nations would have shown a readiness to trade with her, if she had not avowed an intention to conquer a settlement in every country where her crews were permitted to land. Experience has proved, however, that an extensive foreign commerce cannot be maintained without territorial possessions. The colonies of England, Holland, and France, in the remotest parts of the globe, seem to establish the fact, that the soldier, if he do not precede, will ever follow closely in the footsteps of the merchant.
The fate of this celebrated republic, however, was hastened, not so much by her warlike propensities and desire of conquest, as by the necessity which was imposed upon her of employing foreign mercenaries to fight her battles. She enlisted, in Africa, Spain, and Gaul, troops who could have no sincere interest in her prosperity or reputation, and who, upon the slightest reverse of fortune, were ready to take part with her enemies, and even to draw the sword under their banners. The expense, too, incident to protracted wars, by exhausting her ordinary resources, compelled her to lay oppressive taxes on her subjects, and more especially on her African dependances; who, it is said, were on some occasions obliged to surrender, in the form of tribute, not less than half the produce of their lands. Again, by employing in the field her Numidian allies, the fearless horsemen of the Sahara, she taught them to render their courage formidable, by adding to it the valuable qualities of discipline and subordination; and accordingly, when the final contest arose, the Romans found most sufficient auxiliaries in the squadrons of Masinissa, Syphax, and Juba, who were eager to avenge on the proud republic the injuries which their countrymen had formerly sustained at the hands of the Phænician settlers. The fall of Carthage has, moreover, been ascribed to that neglect of her maritime forces which was manifested during the last Punic war. When Scipio crossed from Sicily to Af rica, there was not a fleet to oppose him. But the principal cause of her decline and ultimate overthrow was the fierce hostility of rival factions within her own walls. Two great parties, arrayed the one against the other, indulged their mutual enmity while the legions were at her gates : tyranny on the one hand was met by turbulence on the other; and each section of the commonwealth, with the language of patriotism in their mouths, were more, pleased to see their country perish than to behold the ascendency of their political antagonists. In the fate of Carthage was exemplified the usual result of a popular government and of civic contention : the voice of clamour is silenced only by the shouts of a triumphant foe, who puts an end to the rivalry of parties by treading all distinctions under foot.
The late Emperor of France was wont to compare the English people to the Carthaginians; both being distinguished by their success in commerce, their command of the sea, and their numerous colonies : And, for reasons which appeared satisfactory to his penetrating mind, he predicted that a similar fate, originating in similar causes, would at no distant period overtake his great rival. Let us hope that the voice of history will not be heard in vain ; and that the er, rors of past ages will impress modern states with the feelings of wisdom and caution.
Modern History of the Barbary States. Time when the Barbary States assumed an independent Exist
ence-The Libyans first inhabited Northern Africa-Influence of Phænician Colonies-Ancient and Modern Divisions of the Country--Extent of Roman Conquests-Revival of Carthage -Rebuilt from its own Ruins-Site and description of itRemains of former Magnificence-Mercenary Conduct of Romanus, Count of Africa-Sufferings of the Tripolitans–Usur. pation of Firmus- Victories of Theodosius-Death of Firmus --Insurrection under Gildo—Wisdom and Bravery of Stilicho -Death of Gildo-Rebellion of Heraclian-Error of Bonifa. cius--He invites the Vandals-Progress of Genseric, their General-- Death of Bonifacius--Continued success of the Vandals-Fall of Carthage-Severe Sufferings of the Inhabitants-Policy of Genseric—He creates a Navy-Sacks Rome -Prosecutes a Maritime War-Marjorian meditates the Invasion of Africa--His Fleet is destroyed by Fire-Attempt of Basilicus-Loss of his Ships—Death of Genseric--Accession of Justinian-Usurpation of Gelimer in Africa-Belisarius takes the Command there-Victory over Gelimer-He reduces Car thage-Conquest of Africa-Surrender of Gelimer-Decay of the Vandal Power-Africa gradually relapses into Barbarism -Commerce and Agriculture languish-Arrival of the Sara. cens—Conduct of the Prefect Gregory-Valour of AkbahDissension among the Caliphs-Akbah is slain-Conduct and Fate of Zobeir--Foundation of Kairwan-Hassan retakes Carthage-The Greek Imperialists defeated, and finally leave the Country-The Moors contend for the Sovereignty-Queen Cahina--Her Success and Defeat-Union of the Moors and Mohaminedan Arabs-Revolt of Ibrahim-Dynasty of the Age labites-Other Dynasties founded by Rostam and Edris-Rise of the Fatimites-of the Zeirites-Emigration of Arabs from the Red Sea-The Almohades and Almoravides.
As it was not till about the time when the ascendency of the Turks was established in the Eastern Empire, that the modern kingdoms of Tripoli, Tunis, Algiers, and Morocco, claimed the notice of the geographer or historian as separate, and in some degree independent governments, the annals of Northern Africa. dowr. to the end of the fifteenth century,
will be most conveniently presented under one head, and as applicable to the whole country which stretches from Cyrene to the Western Ocean. It has been already remarked, that this region, if we follow the line of the coast, may be estimated at not less than 2,000 miles ; though its breadth, confined between the Mediterranean and the Sahara, does not exceed 150, even where the sandy border is farthest removed.
Berbers. Till the arrival of the Phænicians, that fertile colony was inhabited by the Libyans, accounted by ancient writers among the most savage of mankind—a race of wandering shepherds, who, in our times, are more familiarly known by the appellation of Berbers, from which the whole maritime district has taken its name. The proximity of the Tyrian settlement produced, to some extent, on their character and habits, those changes which a civilized people hardly ever fail to accomplish among rude tribes, strangers to reflection, and to all the artificial enjoyments of life. But, even at the present day, the descendants of those simple Nomades occupy a prominent station in the land of their fathers; and are, it is thought, easily distinguishable from the Moors, as well as from those other families of later origin, whose lineage belongs to the central parts of Asia or even of Europe. The preceding representation exhibits the features and dress of these children of the Desert, who, it will be observed, bear no slight resemblance to the inhabitants of Southern Arabia, with whom their oldest tradition connects them.
It has appeared that, under the immediate jurisdiction of Carthage, the neighbouring land became the centre of commerce and of empire ; though the remains of that renowned commonwealth must now be sought in the disorderly states of Tripoli and Tunis. The Numidia, which was the object of contention between Jugurtha and Masinissa, is at present subject to the military government of Algiers ; though a large portion of that kingdom was withdrawn in the reign of Augustus, and erected into a proconsular province, under the title of Mauritania Cæsariensis. The true country of the Moors, which, from the ancient city of Tingi, or Tangier, was denominated Tingitana, is placed in our maps as the sovereignty of Fez. The Romans extended their sway as far as the ocean, comprehending Sallee, once so infamous for its piracies ; and Mequinez, a residence of the Emperor of Morocco, may still be identified as one of their foundations.
Under the fostering care of the imperial government, more especially as administered by Augustus, the first of its sovereigns, Carthage emerged from its ruins, and became once more the capital of Africa Propria, the territory to which the senate thought it meet to restrict this designation. In truth, if a judgment may be formed from the relics which still remain, it must be admitted that the principal grandeur of the new city was bestowed upon it, at a period subsequent to the age of the beneficent ruler just named, and when architectural taste had already somewhat declined. Several of the mutilated statues, we are told, are in the worst style of the Lower Empire. There are, notwithstanding, many proofs that the birthplace of Hannibal must have been occupied soon after its first and violent destruction; several of the walls and even of the towers being composed of ancient fragments con