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The writings of recent travellers have thrown a fascinating light over some parts of the ancient Cy. renaica,-a section of the Tripoline territory, which, paying enjoyed the benefit of Grecian learning at an early period, still displays the remains of architectural skill and elegance, botrowed from the inhabitants of Athens and Sparfa. The position of the several towns composing the celebrated Pentapolis, the beauty of the landscape, the fertility of the soil, and the magnificence of the principaledifices, have been, in the course of a few years, not only illustrated with much talent, but ascertained with a degree of accuracy that removes all reasonable doubt. The conjectures of Bruce are confirmed, or refuted, by the actual delineations 1 Beechey and Della Cella.
The modern history of Barbary is chiefly interest• ing from the relations which so long subsisted be
tween its rulers and the maritime states of Europe, who, in order to protect their commerce from violence, and their subjects from captivity, found it occasionally expedient to enter into treaty with the lieutenants of the Ottoman government. The wars which, from time to time, were waged against the rovers of Tunis, Sallee, and Algiers, from the days of the Emperor Charles the Fifth down to the late invasion by the French, are full of incident and adventure; presenting, in the most vivid colours, the triumph of educated mah over the rude strength of the barbarian, coupled with the inefficacy of all ne. gotiation which rested on national faith or honour The records of piracy, which, not many years ago, filled the whole of Christendom with terror and in. dignation, may now be perused with feelings of com
placency, arising from the conviction that the power of the marauders has been broken, and their ravages finally checked. Algiers, after striking its flag to the fleets of Britain, was compelled to obey the soldiers of France, an event that may be said to constitute a new era in the policy of the Moors and seems to hold forth a prospect, however indistinct, of civilization, industry, and the dominign of law over brutal force and passion, being again established throughout the fine provinces which extend from Cape Spartel to the Gulf of Bomba.
The Chapter on the Commerce of the Barbary States indicates, at least, the sources of wealth which, under an enlightened rule, might be rendered available, not only for the advantage of the natives, but also of the trading communities on the opposite shores of the Mediterranean. Everywhere, in the soil, in the climate, and in the situation of the country, are seen scattered, with a liberal hand, the elements of prosperity ; and it is manifest that the plains which were 'once esteemed the granary of Rome, might again, with the aid of modern science, be rendered extremely productive in the luxuries, as well as the necessaries, of human life.
The assiduity of French writers, since the con quest of Algiers, has afforded the means of becoming better acquainted than formerly with the geology of Northern Africa, as well as with several other branches of Natural History. From the same source have been derived materials for the embel. lishments introduced into this volume, and also for improving the Map, which the reader will find prefixed.
EDINBURGH, March 16, 1835.
Religion and Literature of the Barbary States.