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The writings of recent travellers have thrown a fascinating light over some parts of the ancient Cy. renaica,-a section of the Tripoline territory, which, paying enjoyed the benefit of Grecian learning at an early period, still displays the remains of architectural skill and elegance, botrowed from the inhabitants of Athens and Sparfa. The position of the several towns composing the celebrated Pentapolis, the beauty of the landscape, the fertility of the soil, and the magnificence of the principaledifices, have been, in the course of a few years, not only illustrated with much talent, but ascertained with a degree of accuracy that removes all reasonable doubt. The conjectures of Bruce are confirmed, or refuted, by the actual delineations 1 Beechey and Della Cella.

The modern history of Barbary is chiefly interest• ing from the relations which so long subsisted be

tween its rulers and the maritime states of Europe, who, in order to protect their commerce from violence, and their subjects from captivity, found it occasionally expedient to enter into treaty with the lieutenants of the Ottoman government. The wars which, from time to time, were waged against the rovers of Tunis, Sallee, and Algiers, from the days of the Emperor Charles the Fifth down to the late invasion by the French, are full of incident and adventure; presenting, in the most vivid colours, the triumph of educated mah over the rude strength of the barbarian, coupled with the inefficacy of all ne. gotiation which rested on national faith or honour The records of piracy, which, not many years ago, filled the whole of Christendom with terror and in. dignation, may now be perused with feelings of com


placency, arising from the conviction that the power of the marauders has been broken, and their ravages finally checked. Algiers, after striking its flag to the fleets of Britain, was compelled to obey the soldiers of France, an event that may be said to constitute a new era in the policy of the Moors and seems to hold forth a prospect, however indistinct, of civilization, industry, and the dominign of law over brutal force and passion, being again established throughout the fine provinces which extend from Cape Spartel to the Gulf of Bomba.

The Chapter on the Commerce of the Barbary States indicates, at least, the sources of wealth which, under an enlightened rule, might be rendered available, not only for the advantage of the natives, but also of the trading communities on the opposite shores of the Mediterranean. Everywhere, in the soil, in the climate, and in the situation of the country, are seen scattered, with a liberal hand, the elements of prosperity ; and it is manifest that the plains which were 'once esteemed the granary of Rome, might again, with the aid of modern science, be rendered extremely productive in the luxuries, as well as the necessaries, of human life.

The assiduity of French writers, since the con quest of Algiers, has afforded the means of becoming better acquainted than formerly with the geology of Northern Africa, as well as with several other branches of Natural History. From the same source have been derived materials for the embel. lishments introduced into this volume, and also for improving the Map, which the reader will find prefixed.

EDINBURGH, March 16, 1835.



Modern History of the Barbary States.

Time when the Barbary States assumed an independent Exist.

ence-The Libyans first inhabited Northern Africa-Influence

of Phænician Colonies-Ancient and Modern Divisions of the

Country-Extent of Roman Conquests—Revival of Carthage

--Rebuilt from its own Ruins-Site and description of it

Remains of former Magnificence-Mercenary Conduct of Ro-

manus, Count of Africa-Sufferings of the Tripolitans–Usur-

pation of Firmus-Victories of Theodosius-Death of Firmus

-Insurrection under Gildo-Wisdom and Bravery of Stilicho

-Death of Gildo-Rebellion of Heraclian-Error of Bonifa-

cius--He invites the Vandals-Progress of Genseric, their

General-Death of Bonifacius-Continued Success of the

Vandals-Fall of Carthage-Severe Sufferings of the Inhabi-

tants-Policy of Genseric—He creates a Navy-Sacks Rome

-Prosecutes a Maritime War–Marjorian meditates the Inva-

sion of Africa-His Fleet is destroyed by Fire-Attempt of Ba-

silicus-Loss of his Ships-Death of Genseric--Accession of

Justinian-Usurpation of Gelimer in Africa-Belisarius takes

the Command there-Victory over Gelimer-He reduces Car-

thage-Conquest of Africa-Surrender of Gelimer-Decay of

the Vandal Power-Africa gradually relapses into Barbarism

-Commerce and Agriculture languisli-Arrival of the Sara.

cens—Conduct of the Prefect Gregory-Valour of Akbah-

Dissension among the Caliphs-Akbah is slain-Conduct and

Fate of Zobeir-Foundation of Kairwan-Hassan retakes
Carthage--The Greek Imperialists defeated, and finally leave


Religion and Literature of the Barbary States.

The Religion and Literature vary with the successive Inhab-

itants—Superstition of the Natives—Human Sacrifices con-

tinued by the Carthaginians-Worship of Melcarth, Astarté,

and Baal-No sacred Caste or Priesthood-Religious Rites

performed by the Chief Magistrates-Introduction of Chris-

tianity-Accomplished by the Arms of Rome-Different Opin-

ions as to the Date of Conversion and the Persons by whom

it was effected-Statements of Salvian and Augustin-Learn-

ing and Eloquence of the African Clergy, Tertullian, Cyprian,

Lactantius, and the Bishop of Hippo-Works of these Divines

- Death of Cyprian and Augustin-The Writings of the Latin

Fathers chiefly valuable as a Record of Usages, Opinions, and

Discipline-Church revived under Justinian-Invasion of the

Moslem-Christian Congregations permitted to exist under

the Mohammedan Rulers-Conditions of Toleration-Afri.

cans gradually, yield to the Seducements of the New Faith,

and the Gospel is superseded by the Koran-Barbary States

the only Country where Christianity has been totally extin.

guished-Attempt made to restore it by the Patriarch of Alex.

andria-Five Bishops sent to Kairwan-Public Profession

of the Gospel cannot be traced after the Twelfth Century-

A few Christians found at Tunis in 1533-Learning of the

Arabs-Great Exertions of Almamoun-He collects Greek

Authors, and causes them to be translated He is imitated

by the Fatimites of Africa-Science cultivated by the Mo.

hammedans Five Hundred Years-Their chief Studies were

Mathematics, Astronomy, and Chymistry—Their Progress in

Chymical Researches Neglect Literature, properly so called

- Prospect of Improvement from the Settlement of European

Colonies in Northern Africa


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