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women degrade the service in the eyes of both the public and the policemen. They are a bad influence with clients in the community and a menace to police service in general.

The police problem is at best seriously complicated. In many communities it is burdened by politicians who subvert the power of this agency to their own uses and cause corruption and the breakdown of morale in police ranks. There are those police departments that are a law unto themselves, where it is believed that the policies and practices are none of the public's business. In some departments the executive heads are most susceptible to public opinion as reflected in the press and to general criticism because of which their policies and functions are subjected to many changes, not always for the good of the service nor the achievement of law enforcement and justice, but always reflecting the power of public opinion whichever way expressed. In addition it must be remembered that the police are a part of the whole system of criminal justice steeped in false tradition which obliges them to consider crime instead of criminals. It is therefore not strange that they have lagged behind other public services and that improvements have been made only after long and bitter experience. But the police are now gradually assuming a broader responsibility in the prevention of delinquency and crime.

There are fortunately many police departments where the administrators are courageous, upright

men who would render intelligent service tending to prevent and control modern problems if the public were sincerely interested in their aims and in the welfare of the community. These officials are looking to the people for support and in this the public has a grave responsibility. As Colonel Arthur Woods, former Police Commissioner of New York City, states: "The duty of the public toward its police force is to provide it with sound leadership; to keep informed as to how the work is being done; to insist that the policeman's welfare, physical, mental, and moral, is well looked after; to demand from the force a high grade of duty; to despise and condemn dishonesty or any unworthy conduct in a policeman, or one who tempts him; to be quick, cordial and generous in perceiving good police work and in giving it whole-hearted approbation. With this sort of public attitude our police forces would be regenerated; the service rendered to the community would rise higher and higher and the policemen, besides doing their work better in the old, tried conventional paths, would reach out to new methods, would find and carry into operation means of preventing crime and to save those who are attempting to commit crime so that besides apprehending criminals they would go a step farther and prevent crime and then, again, another long splendid step forward and prevent people from becoming criminals."

Where there is progressive leadership it is a simple matter to secure the appointment of policewomen. In order to achieve this, no new machinery

need be erected. Very little new equipment is essential. Telephone, telegraph, stationery, record forms, and postage appropriation are all at hand. The employment of one or more policewomen in many cases entails no extra appropriation because these cities have found it difficult to maintain a full corps of policemen, and there are no obstacles in their law preventing the appointment of women to existing vacancies. Often the groups which make the demand for policewomen do not realize the necessity for selecting trained, educated women and of fixing standards for their functions, until too late and they find that incapable women have been appointed. It is the duty of both the police department and of the public to see that policewomen are not only well trained and educated, and especially where they are to serve singly or in small groups that they be thoroughly experienced in social service. They should realize too that while the personnel of Bureaus in urban centers may have various kinds of training, the administrators must be women of broad education and experience in social work. When trained women are not available, the department must select good, well-educated women and provide them with training in social work and police procedure, which will give them a background for their important duties. Such training could be given either in schools organized for this purpose in the Police Departments or in Universities having facilities for giving courses similar to the one outlined in this volume.

The same ideals underlie the establishment of the service of policewomen everywhere. How strongly this standard affects the proper functioning of policewomen is evidenced by the successes and failures in the work. Where women of the right type have been employed the ideal of preventive- Į protective work by the police has prevailed. Their functions both here and abroad have, in general, been similar. In cold print the differences in policewomen's standards and functions seem more strongly emphasized and greater than they are in practice. Having seen numerous policewomen at work in their own communities, I am convinced that the work is more alike than it is different. Everywhere, excepting in those cities where women have been denied the power of arrest or where police officials under orders from others deliberately obstruct the service of women by diverting it from proper channels and fixing handicaps that cannot be overcome by subordinates, I find policewomen are doing preventive-protective work whether prescribed for them or not. Their attitude results from necessity in their day's work. Observation of the work of London policewomen indicates that they serve as do good policewomen in the United States. On paper you find rules and regulations and in personal contact with superiors instructions that seem to be in conflict with their practice. In England there is an unwritten law in police departments which is perhaps the strongest tradition in their police work, namely, to do everything possible in order to prevent

the necessity of arrest although yet they do not acknowledge as preventive work their service of warning and their provisions for proper attention to and care of persons not chargeable with breaking the law. We possess sufficient proof that preventive-protective work as a natural outgrowth of community needs is carried on in degrees of effectiveness according to the ability and worthwhileness of the policewomen.

In one of the largest American cities it is claimed that a preventive-protective program is in operation. Here it means merely that every circuitous route is tried to prevent the necessity of going to Court with a case even when this amounts to compounding the offense. In still another large American center, the policewomen frankly state that they are not permitted to do preventive-protective work, but inquiry reveals that they are doing it unofficially and at their own expense. In the near future, there will be general official responsibility for this work, the police are merely the machinery through which this necessary public service is rendered and the official agency, established with legal authority for such purpose. While private organizations with quasi-police power volunteering to perform public functions cannot be held responsible for their acts nor for the acts of their members, the police are individually liable to the community, through civil procedure in the courts or by means of official discipline, suspension, fine or dismissal. The fact that the private agency seeks police power in order to do

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