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county can accomplish! Water, had stood forth to defend the ford owed it to Clare to imitate it, victim, and more than once he had and Waterford should imitate it- beheld him trampled on, and stainnor should the scions of Knocklof- ed with Orange pollution. What tiness and the paltry Prittieness of man would not view with suspicion another county [Messrs. Hutchin- the administration of justice, who son and Prittie, members for Tip- had witnessed the late trials in perary] be suffered to prevent the their county ?" just representation of its feelings We are the more particular in —no, the men of that county were detailing these expressions, both too brave to be intimidated. How- because they form an admirable ever pure the intentions of the duke commentary on the assurances of of Wellington might be, the de- grateful affection and profound signs of his ministry betrayed no tranquillity, with which the emansymptom of improving the internal cipationists had assured Parliacon on of Ireland; whom had ment the boon would be received, they, for instance, selected for the and because it would be an anomaly administration of justice? Sergeant to have found harmony or good Lefroy, reeking with expressions will returning to a country, of with which he would not pollute whose popular leader these were his lips (for they savoured too the doctrines and feelings—docclosely of high treason), was sent trines and feelings drunk in with to decide whether Catholics are greedy ears and noisy applause by always in the wrong and Protes- the listening crowds. They were tants always in the right. The expressly told, that what had been government of Ireland had made gained, so far from being any cause another change-Saurin. They of peace and repose, was only to had heard of Con of the hundred be a new source of universal exbattles, but there was Saurin of citement and more ardent activity: the hundred prosecutions. Sau- they were told that many great rin, the great enemy of the li- changes were still to be effected; berty of the press, and the virulent among others, nothing less than a enemy to toleration—his ancestors legislative separation from Great were refugees from persecution, Britain, their connection with they had suffered persecution, but which was pictured to them as “a they had not learned mercy. A cursed union," the source of deson of Mr. Saurin had been ap- gradation and impoverishment : pointed to a high situation there they were taught, that, while so was another change. In Ireland much remained to be effected, it Catholics had learned a double dis- was to be gained by strenuously trust-a distrust of closed investi- following out the same measures gation or open trial. They had seen which had gained emancipation ; on the jury Orangemen arrayed that is, by assuming an attitude of against them in judgment; and, like organized defiance, which, by its the wretch who is drawn to the threatening complexion, would gambling table, where loaded dice compel concession. The adminisawait to decide his doom, he had tration of justice was held out to seen the Catholic stand before them them as an object of distrust and in the inauspicious hope of obtain- detestation; their opponents were ing justice. More than once he still denounced as blood-thirsty
oppressors: the “Tipperary men” tween them the country was armed were told that they were “ too for civil war; its condition was brave to be intimidated" – and much more alarming than that could the Tipperary men, or any
which was to have been cured by other Irishmen, under the influence the Relief bill. Emancipation of such exciting representations, might be Ireland's ark—but it was do any thing else than have their sent abroad to float over noisy applauded bravery at hand, ready and troubled waters. The spirit for use?
of mutual exaggeration and reIt is not wonderful, then, that crimination which prevailed, renIreland very soon presented scenes dered it difficult to arrive at the of as much violence as those from truth, where every account bore the which the Emancipation bill was colouring of one party or the other; for ever to relieve her. The hos- but though each party blamed the tile feelings of parties continued, other, both agreed that heart and and manifested themselves in the hand were ready for an appeal to same way.
To the great body arms. Thus, in the county of of the Catholics, emancipation had Clare, the Orangemen, according brought no change, except the de- to the Catholic account, had struction of their freeholds-a erected a triumphal-arch across the source of discontent rather than of street of a country town, and satisfaction. The Protestants felt would not allow the Catholics that they had been deceived, and coming from mass to pass under knew that they were in danger; it. The police interfered and cut it could not be expected that they it down. Both parties then rewould remain unmoved, when their tired apparently satisfied; but the adversaries were 'openly threaten- Orangemen sent notice to their ing a renewal of their organized friends in the neighbourhood, to activity: they, too, had recourse repair to their assistance. The Cato organization; and the heads of tholics, having heard of this, were the Orange lodges were officially not idle on their parts ; a portion inculcating firmness and union. of them were well provided with The slightest accident, the most arms and ammunition, but through casual collisions, produced con
the influence of some respectable tention, and ended almost uniformly persons they were soon prevailed in bloodshed.
on to go home. On their way, In different parts of the coun- the Orangemen, who had assemtry, the Protestants celebrated, or bled on the neighbouring hills, prepared to celebrate, the 12th called upon the “cowardly Papist of July with the usual rejoicings. scoundrels,” to return and meet This the Catholics resolved to
them. The Catholics did so: one. oppose by force, wherever they side was armed with muskets and could. Wherever the police or fixed bayonets--and the others yeomanry interfered, the Catho- principally with scythes, pitchlies viewed them as oppressors, let forks, spades, &c. One Orangeloose upon them by the partiality man was almost instantly killed, of the laws, and formed them- seven dangerously wounded. The selves into armed bands for resist- slaughter of the Catholics was as ance. Each party blamed the great. other for all this mischief ; but be. “Armagh again furnished acVol. LXXI.
counts like these: “While a party only the presence of the military of Orangemen were passing a Ca- that prevented open war. The Catholic chapel, the assembled Catho- tholics seemed to believe, to the full, lics attacked them, and the contest the representation which O'Conended in the death of ten men.” nell had given them of the admiThe county of Fermanagh assumed nistration of justice. In several inthe aspect of open war. “ A crowd stances where death had occurred of Catholics having assembled in from the interference of the police, the neighbourhood of Fermanagh, or from their resistance when atlord Enniskillen repaired to the tacked, trials ensued.
But an spot, but his solicitations that they acquittal, though proceeding on should disperse were ineffectual; the clearest evidence that life had and a false alarm being given to an been justly taken from an armed Orange-lodge, which happened to be aggressor, was uniformly ascribed assembled, that the police had been by the mass of the Catholics to attacked, some of the Orangemen partiality. Still retaining the idea sallied forth to assist them. When that the law existed only to be they approached the crowd, they used against them, they took the requested a person, who seemed to task of retribution for imagined inbe a leader, to make them disperse. juries into their own hands, and This he promised ; but instead of assumed arms to gratify revenge, doing so, he beckoned the multi- in defiance of the law. Julges, tude on, when a body of about juries, and the government, were eight hundred Catholics, armed equally laughed at by criminals, with pikes, scythes poles, against whom no witness could pitchforks, &c. attacked the Pro- dare to communicate what he might testant party, killed one man know. the spot, who had advanced to In the county of Tipperary make peace, and wounded seven matters went to such a length, that others mortally, three of whom a numerous meeting of the magisafterwards died. The Catholics, tracy, assembled in the beginning of to the amount of some thousands September, expressed an unanihave formed an encampment on mous opinion, that nothing but the Benauglen mountain, and rein- Insurrection-act would restore or forcements are pouring in from the secure the peace of the country, counties of Leitrim and Cavan. The meeting was not composed of The whole country is in a state of jealous Orangemen; the greater alarm. The Roman Catholic number were of a very different houses are left desolate ; the milch way of thinking. Lord Landaft, cattle are going wild with the pain the chairman, had been a strenuous of their milk, and no person to supporter of emancipation. In the milk them; the military and the resolutions which they adopted, to police are out continually; the be communicated to government, country people are afraid to stir out, they stated that a large proportion and the markets have not been of the community were in possessupplied with potatoes for the last sion of arms—that bodies of armed two days."
men appeared at noon-day, for the Similar was the state of Leitrim, purpose of obstructing the execuCavan, and Monaghan ; over a tion of the laws, and threatening great part of the country, it was the lives and properties of all who
attempted to oppose their illegal mutilated them. The webs in proceedings—that it was impossible thirty or forty looms were someto obtain information to convict the times thus destroyed in the course offenders, owing to a league of of a single night. The very perfalse honour, which pecuniary sons, to whom the property of their temptation could not conquer, or a masters had thus been intrusted, system of terror, which served the were suspected of being accessory same purpose, by the dread of a to its destruction.
Their tale, violent death. They resolved to however, when examined before call on government for a renewal the magistrates, always was, that of the Insurrection-act ; that the a number of people had come to Arms-act should be amended, in their shops during the night, and order to facilitate the discovery of by threats had compelled admishidden arms; that the possession sion. The mischief done had not of arms should be made a transport- been equalled for sixty years. In able offence; and that the number former times, the leaders of such of military posts throughout the depredators had been convicted and country should be increased. The executed : but, on the present ocCommander-in-chief, who attended casion, the connivance of the men, the meeting, declined to accede tu in whose hands they destroyed the this last suggestion, on the ground property, saved them from detecthat he could not prudently break tion. The masters, seeing their up his force into small parties; property ruined without any means however, it was afterwards adopt- of protection or redress, entered ed, to a certain extent, on being ap- into a negociation with a deputaproved of by the Lord-lieutenant. tion of the work-people. When The Insurrection-act could not be the latter were asked, what was revived; for it had not been sus- the cause of such a destruction of pended, but had expired, and par- property, they frankly answered, liament was not sitting,
“the destruction now going forward England, too, presented its scenes is produced by the very low wages of lawlessness, produced, however, paid by certain manufacturers, and by very different causes. The de- the weavers so destroying property pression in every branch of trade have in view revenge towards their had greatly reduced the wages of employers, and the ultimate attainthe artisans employed in it. They, ment of such a price as will fairly again, ascribed the reduction, not compensate them for their labour;" to the necessities of trade, but the and that price was the price that avarice of their employers; and had had been paid in 1824. The masrecourse to their usual correctives, ters informed them, that it was imvoluntary idleness, and the de- possible to give that rate as a perstruction of property. The example manent price ; but, placed as they was set by the silk weavers of were at the mercy of men who Spitalfields and Bethnal Green. had in their powers property to the They refused to work, except at amount of nearly 150,0001., they an increased rate of wages; they acceded to their demands in the made their way by night into the mean time ; and the fury of the deshops of workmen possessed of stroyers was appeased. materials belonging to the refrac- The same spirit next shewed tory masters, and destroyed and itself at Macclesfield, the industry
of which had for some time been they could find revenge or redress extensively employed in the silk only by expensive legal proceedmanufacture. The majority of the ings.
The manufacturers, upon workmen resisted a proposed re- seeing this London reinforcement, duction of prices, and compelled struck their colours, resolving to the hands employed in a large give the prices demanded for a factory to leave their occupa- short time, and then to cease, rather tion. The latter felt the hardship than incur the destruction of their of their situation, and wished to property by holding out for prices accept of the reduced rates of at which they could continue. working, with the prospect of At Coventry,' too, Nuneaton, constant employment.
But the and Bedworth, similar scenes were committees would not permit their exhibited. In these places, enginebrethren to continue to labour on looms had been introduced, which such conditions. They insisted on enabled a man to produce four times their leaving their work and starv- as much as a hand-weaver with a ing on charity. Where three or single loom. The consequence of four thousand persons, however, that was, a great reduction in the are concerned, patience on 5d. a value of the hand-weaver's labour; week, could not long be preferred and the consequence of that again to constant work at something like was, that the hand-weavers refused adequate remuneration. But just either to work themselves, or allow as hopes began to be entertained other people to work. Occupying that the resistance of the weavers the bridges, by which journeymen was about to terminate, two dele- carrying home the work of their gates arrived from Spitalfields, employers must of necessity pass charged with a mission of violence. into Coventry, they stopped their One of them harangued the work- march, and seized the property in men and the members of the com- their keeping. At nightfall they mittees; advising them to stand entered the city itself, and, by out, as the only security against de- force, or by intimidation, extingradation. He assured them, that guished all the lights in all the
the destroying angel was the best manufactories, and put an entire ally they had.” He pressed upon stop to business. Having framed them the necessity of bringing their a list of the prices which they demasters to terms by a continued manded, they marched through the attack on their pockets,—he de- streets, presenting it to the masters scribed the mode of cutting the for signature. They procured silk out of the looms,—and ad- many signatures ; for it was the vised them to adopt that means of easiest mode of saving property, damage and destruction, he de- for which there seemed to be no precated any public or riotous pro- other protection. On those of their ceeding, the consequences of which own class, who shewed a disposition would be visited on the hundred of to work, rather than starve, the which they composed a part, and ribband-weavers of Nuncaton and pointed out to them the peculiar Bedworth inflicted a new punishadvantages of injuring their mas- ment, which they termed “donkeyters, either by permitting their ing.” They mounted the unfortusilk to be cut, or by cutting it nate artisan upon an ass, and themselves--an injury for which paraded him through the streets,