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of which they had the absolute as their proceedings were, a great possession, amid hootings, blows, deal of deplorable want lay at the and revilings.
bottom. The wages, which they Neither did the manufacturing received, were, in many branches districts of Yorkshire escape the of manufacture, miserably low. contagion. In the end of May, In a report drawn up by a comthe weavers of Barnsley followed mittee of masters, who had inthe example which had been set stituted an inquiry into the conshortly before by the silk weavers dition of the work-people in Hudof Bethnal Green and Macclesfield, dersfield, and the neighbourhood and forced upon their employers (where no acts of insubordination a list of prices. By August and Sep- had occurred), it was stated, “it tember, however, the masters found appears that, in the several townit impossible to keep up to these ships occupied in fancy business, prices. "A reduction was proposed. there are 13,000 individuals, who The workmen immediately left have not more than 2įd. per day their employment, and rioting be- to live upon, and find wear and gan. They attacked the dwelling- tear for looms, &c. Whatever be houses of the manufacturers, in the the cause of such distress, it is neighbourhood ; and, not satisfied feared that the agonizing condition with breaking the windows, in one of families so circumstanced, caninstance they deliberately piled the not long be endured. The diffifurniture into heaps in the rooms, culty of obtaining relief by the and then set the piles and the house ordinary course, and the aggraon fire. The warehouses in the vating circumstances often attendtown were converted into a spe- ing applications for it, have a powcies of garrisons, being occupied erful tendency to drive the applinight and day by armed men, for cants ultimately to desperation. the necessary protection of the In laying these painful statements property which they contained. before the members of his majesty's The houses of such weavers, as government, and other influential had taken out work at the reduced gentlemen, the master-manufacprices, were openly and repeatedly turers wish to do it respectfully, attacked; in some instances the impelled by a sense of duty which assailants were repelled only by they owe to the government and the use of fire-arms; but in all the public, and especially to their the workman found himself com- workmen, who have hitherto borne pelled by this "reign of terror,” their sufferings with extreme pato return the materials of the work tience.” in which he had been so daring as The only political occurrence to employ himself. The influx of which varied these scenes of outmilitary, and the apprehension of rage and distress, was a very pea number of the most active rioters, culiar Court-martial, arising out of at length restored tranquillity. the battle of Navarino. It was
The frequent recurrence of peculiar from the time at which it scenes like these checked the course was brought forward, the motives of that sympathy which would in which it was supposed to have otherwise have flowed freely to- originated, and the backwardness wards the suffering artisans. Yet, of the prosecutor, who, having lawless, mischievous, and foolish made the charge, was ordered to
support it. The present ministry Dickinson had done no better than were generally understood to think his brother officers; though no very differently from their prede- opinion at all on the captain's cessors regarding the battle of Na- conduct was required. He went varino. While they admitted that farther, and voluntarily stated, that admiral Codrington had done the he “had no reason to approve of country honour by the way in the conduct of the Genoa from the which the battle had been fought, time of the command having dethey were far from thinking that volved on captain Dickinson.” The it ought ever to have been fought Admiralty immediately informed at all. In this unsatisfactory state sir Edward, that they had refused of feeling between the Admiralty their consent to captain Dickinson's and sir Edward, the emperor of wearing the new order, being conRussia transmitted a second order vinced it had been sent by mistake. to be worn by captain Dickinson, They added, however, “ Their who had fought the Genoa, after lordships sanctioned captain Dickher captain (Bathurst) fell in the inson's receiving the first order action, and had since been promoted (like the other officers commanding to the command of that ship. As ships in the action at Navarino), captain Dickinson had already re- because he had succeeded to the ceived an order from the same command of the Genoa after the quarter, in common with the other captain had been carried below; officers engaged in the battle, the but, observing in your letter that sending of this second order was captain Dickinson's conduct in supposed to originate in some mis- those circumstances was not satistake. When captain Dickinson factory to you, they desire you will applied to the Admiralty for per- state the particulars in which you mission to wear the order, the saw reason to disapprove the consingularity of two being sent to duct of captain Dickinson, in him was observed ; and the secre- order that their lordships may tary of the Board wrote to sir judge whether it may be necessary Edward Codrington, requesting him to take any further proceedings to state, if he could give any ex- with regard to him.” Sir Edward planation why this second order Codrington, in reply to this re(of St. Vladimir) had been sent to quest, stated a variety of particucaptain Dickinson, in addition to lars in which he considered capthat of St. Anne, which he had tain Dickinson to have fallen short already obtained, and had received of his duty. The Admiralty the king's permission to wear. In deemed them so grave, that they reply, sir Edward stated, that he immediately ordered captain Dicksupposed the mistake to have arisen inson to be tried by a Court-martial; from one order having been sent to and sir Edward Codrington was the Mediterranean through the Rus- called on to prove his charges. sian admiral, without its having Sir Edward protested against what been known that another had been ho deemed so irregular a demand. conferred in England through He had made the charges, he said, prince Lieven. This secmed to be only to prevent the Admiralty from enough, -- but sir Edward did not being misled, by ignorance of facts, stop here. He did not even satisfy in the distribution of honorary himself with saying that captain distinctions; but that he had never
reckoned on being required to prove at Portsmouth, on charges bearing them by evidence before a Court- that, from not making proper use martial. He declined, therefore, of the springs, ordered by the adhaving any thing to do with the miral, on the day of the battle of inquiry, as one which he neither Navarino, to be placed on the andesired nor had instigated. This chors, the broadside of the Genoa seemed to mean, that he was entitled was not directed to her regular to make, behind a man's back, pri- opponent in the Ottoman line; and vate charges, ruinous to his profes- that, in such a position, she could sional reputation and hopes, but not fire any of her guns, except that he was in no respect bound to those of the stern and quarters, prove them to be true. The Ad- without endangering the Asia and miralty of course could see neither others of the allied squadrons on the fairness nor the expediency of her larboard side, and the Albion such a course. By ordering the and others on her starboard side ;Court-martial themselves, they had that shot, which injured the Asia, saved sir Edward from the ungra- and which came in that direction, cious situation of being formally were apparently fired by the Gethe prosecutor ; but as the charges noa ; and that the Genoa did had come from him, in an official positively fire into the Albion, letter to the Board, they justly although the Albion had an Engheld him bound to substantiate lish ensign at her mast-head to these charges, by his own evidence, prevent mistakes ;-that, captain or that of others who might be Dickinson having been reproved able to support them,—the more by the admiral for not using the especially as captain Dickinson Genoa's springs, and having acdenied every one of the imputa- counted for it by his inability to tions. After a great deal of back- get the men from their guns for wardness on the part of sir Ed- that purpose, it was nevertheless ward, in which he still maintained, asserted in the ship's log-book that though he had made these that the springs were used ;-that injurious statements to the Board, the account of the battle given in he could not be called on to take the Genoa's log-book erroneously any farther part in the transaction, implied, that she had three Ottothe Board requested him to state man ships of the line opposed to distinctly, whether he was willing her on her starboard side, three that the trial should proceed, on sixty-gun frigates on her larboard the understanding that he was side and ahead, and a doublebound to prove his allegations ; anked frigate astern ;--that capand if he was not willing that it tain Dickinson returned captain should so proceed, they informed Bathurst as killed, and procured him that they would hold them- the surgeon's signature to that reselves left at liberty to consider turn, knowing that he did not die captain Dickinson's conduct as free till many hours after the battle from all imputation, and would was over, and that he retained his treat him accordingly. Sir Ed- faculties to give orders during the ward consented to proceed.
whole time of the battle ;-and that, Captain Dickinson was accord- by this mis-statement, he gained an ingly arraigned before a Court- honorary distinction, which might martial, held on board the Victory, not otherwise have been conferred on him—that the refittal of the ward himself, of the little confia Genoa for leaving Navarino, and dence that can be placed in a man's engaging the batteries if requisite, recollection of what he hears or was unjustifiably tardy, and that sees, not merely during the hurry the same slackness prevailed on her and confusion of actual battle, but way to Malta ;—that the Genoa's even after it has ceased. One mizen-mast was suffered to go by charge was, that captain Dickinson the board on the 21st, the day had returned his predecessor, capafter the battle, for want of being tain Bathurst, as having been killed properly secured ;—that the Genoa in action, whereas he had lived till continued firing after the battle next morning. Sir Edward stated was over, at the risk and to the positively that he had gone on probable injury of the allied ships, board the Genoa in the evening, until hailed from the Asia to cease to see captain Bathurst ; that —that Captain Dickinson himself captain Dickinson had conducted presented to the admiral a letter, him down to the cockpit, and had in the nature of what is called a been present at his conversation round-robin, purporting to come with captain Bathurst ; and sir from the crew of the Genoa, and Edward stated it as a great gravadesiring the admiral to appointmen of the charge, that captain him, in preference to any other Dickinson, having done this after officer, to succeed captain Bathurst the action, should nevertheless as captain of the Genoa.
have returned captain Bathurst as From the meeting of the Court killed during the action. It was till its final judgment, twenty clearly proved that sir Edward's days elapsed. A detail of the evi- memory was playing him false in dence will be found in another all this. He had gone on board part of the volume. Captain the Genoa, and visited captain Dickinson was honourably acquit- Bathurst in the cockpit ; but it ted of all the charges, some of was not captain Dickinson who which were declared to be frivolous. received him; it was not captain The sending to the admiral the Dickinson who conducted him round-robin mentioned in the char- down; captain Dickinson was not ges, was the only act at all ques- in the cockpit, nor present at the tionable. Captain Dickinson, it conversation. It was the firstwas clearly shown, was not privy lieutenant of the Genoa whom sir to its concoction ; yet even to Edward had mistaken for the captransmit it was wrong. But it tain. As to the charge itself, conwas shown that he had very soon sidering that captain Bathurst was seen and acknowledged his error, mortally wounded, most —that the admiral had expressed found a sufficient answer in the himself satisfied, and, as a proof of fact, that thự London Gazette of it, had given up the document the battle of Trafalgar had anitself; and certainly it ought not nounced lord Nelson as being now to have been revived, at the killed in action, though he lived to distance of nearly two years. The order the fleet to anchor, after the evidence furnished some excellent victory had been achieved. examples, in the person of sir Ed.
CHA P. VIII.
FRANCE.--Embarrassed State of the Ministry-Attempt to introduce
Prince Polignac-Partial changes in the Ministry— Meeting of the Chambers, and Speech of the King----Superiority of the Liberals in the Chamber of Deputies—Bills introduced by the Ministry to regulate the formation of the Municipal Councils in the Communes and Departments---Speech of the Minister of the Interior-The Chamber resolves to proceed with the Departmental Bill first, in opposition to Ministers, who are left in a Minority-Proposed Amendments-Division of Opinion in the Ministry- Amendment to increase the Number of Electors of the Departmental Councils lost by a small Majority-The Ministry withdraw both Bills—Impeachment of M. de Villèle abandoned—The Chamber of Deputies order M. de Peyronnet to be prosecuted for expending a Sum of Money without a Vote of appropriation-Difference between the two Chambers on this Subject--- Bills for regulating the Customs, and continuing the Tobacco Monopoly-Distress among the Vine-growers, and Measures taken for their Relief-FinanceDiscussions regarding Foreign Affairs-State of the Ministry at the Close of the Session-Immediately on the Close of the Session, the King dismisses the Ministry, and forms an Ultra-royalist Cabinet-Character of the new Cabinet and its Members—Unpopularity of the Ministry-Prosecutions of the Press—Associations to resist the Payment of Taxes, if Ministers should attempt to rule without a Chamber-Prosecutions on account of them— Unpopular Proceedings of the Ministers—Divisions among them—M. de la Bourdonnaye retires, on Prince Polignac being made President of the Council—Continued unpopularity of the Ministry— Transactions between France and Greece-Quarrel with Algiers.
NHEministry, which, in France, of men hostile to popular institu
had succeeded to Villèle and tions. They did not place much his unpopular colleagues, had re- confidence in its intentions, but ceived the support of the liberal they trusted greatly to the control party, not because it was the mi- which they could exercise over its nistry which they would have de- hopes and fears. It was they who sired, but because it was the best had given it existence; on them which, as yet, they could obtain. depended its duration. They were They trusted moreover, that, with willing that the present ministers its co-operation, measures would should remain in office, because be carried, which, in future, would their dismissal would only introprevent power from coming into, duce an administration still less or remaining long in, the possession trust-worthy ; but they were in