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To make the fraud practicable, the a new debt, of which Europe had Spanish government and its agents never heard. To Spain herself had committed something very like the advantage was, that, by fraud, forgery, and what, in every civil- she had succeeded in raising money ized country, is clearly punishable which those, whom she cheated, as swindling. Every one of the would never have lent, if they had inscriptions of rente making up thought she was borrowing. The these six millions, although truly evils were, the utter annihilation made under the clandestine decree of any fragments of character or of 1824, and creating a new debt, credit which might still linger bore, on its face, that it was issued about her—the burthening herself in virtue of the decree of December, with a new debt, instead of being 1825, authorizing the conversion relieved by the merging of an of the loan of 1823. In short, the already existing debt in one of a Spanish government said to itself, lighter kind-an increased neces

our credit is so utterly gone, that sity of obtaining new dupes, and we cannot effect an ostensible loan, cheating more extensively, with the either in London, Amsterdam, or impossibility of any longer duping Paris. We even find it difficult to even the veriest of simpletons. keep up, however feebly, the royal The Spanish treasury did not loan. Let it be announced, then, blush to assert that the minimum that the rentes perpetuelles about of its revenues exceeded its annual to be issued are nothing more than expenditure ;" and as, apparently, the counter value of the bonds of no new debt was contracted, the the royal loan ; let that be even regular payment of the interest on specified on the inscriptions them- the royal loan gave countenance selves. The public will fancy, to the representation. This, too, that, far from burthening our credit had been mere deception. The with the weight of a new debt, we Spanish government had never sent merely take away from circulation a sous to Paris for the payment of an onerous currency, to replace interest, sinking fund, or redempit by a more convenient one. The tion of the unconverted bonds. To French ministry will believe in fulfil these engagements it had the utility of the operation, and just borrowed more money from will most certainly permit the the Parisians by creating a new prices of the new security to be debt, the obligations for which exinserted in the Cours Authentique. pressly bore that it was not a new When once this is obtained, the debt at all. In this way, a new business is done." No more direct debt of 130,000,000 of francs had fraud, no more shameless raising of been secretly created, while the money on false pretences, could former, and only known debt, well be conceived. It was

still remained to the extent of insult to the French government; 65,000,000. for the French government had authorized the quotation only of a ITALY. His Holiness Pope rente proceeding from the conver- Leo. XII., Hannibal della Genga, sion of a known and specific loan; died at Rome on the 10th of Febwhile Spain, under that denomina- ruary, at the age of sixty-nine, tion and disguise, had thrown into after an illness of five days. He the market a new loan, and created had filled the papal chair for only


five years and a half, having been On the 23rd of February, the elected in September, 1823,and the conclave assembled to elect a sucbrief period of his pontificate had cessor. After it had sat nominally not been characterized by any for thirty-six days, its choice fell striking display of ability, or mark- on Cardinal Francis Xavier Cased by any interesting occurrence. tiglione, who was elected on the He had headed the ceremonies of Sist of March, by forty-eight votes a jubilee; he had increased the staff out of fifty. He was a native of of the church by creating many Cingoli; he was already sixtybishops with real or with nominal eight years old, and assumed the sees, and had made a considerable pontifical title of Pius VIII. number of cardinals. In his trans- From the indemnity ordinarily actions with foreign powers, he published by a new Pope on his had shewn a disposition to main- election, he excepted political oftain and exalt the rights of his fenders, who were compared to triple crown, but had always assassins, undeserving of the cleyielded to their firmness and reso- mency of even the compassionate lution. In the Netherlands a church ; and one of the first acts Protestant king had successfully of his power was laying the town asserted against him his right to of Imola under a sentence of exregulate the ecclesiastic seminaries communication, on account of a of his Catholic subjects ; in France tumultuous attack made on the the power of the Jesuits had been house of the archbishop of that curtailed by the force of public place, the perpetrators of which the opinion, contrary to his own ex- citizens had shewn no anxiety to pressed wishes, and the inclinations detect. They took the sentence, of a court, willing, in this respect, however, very easily; it excited to support him; and in South little of the alarm which would America he had listened to the have accompanied its announcement demands of the new republics to two centuries earlier ; and they consecrate their bishops, although patiently waited, without seeming he thereby incurred the displeasure to feel much horror or privation, of Ferdinand, the best-beloved son till it should please the holy father of the Catholic church.

to remove it.

C H A P. X.

The NETHERLANDS. Dissensions between the Ministry and the

States General---Progress of the War in Batavia.-GERMANYBRUNSWICK.-Decision of the Diet in the Quarrel between the Duke of Brunswick and the King of Hanover.

THE Session of the States nority of forty-three to fifty-six.

General of the kingdom of In the discussion, however, of the the Netherlands, in the present individual propositions which grew year, was less tranquil and satis- out of these petitions, its opposifactory, than any that had been tion was more successful. A new held since the Restoration. Though law was passed for the regulation the king himself continued to be of the press, more liberal than popular, his government had pro- the system which, during the duced very general dissatisfaction preceding year, had excited loud by some obnoxious measures, par- complaints; but it was still very ticularly by disńissing judges who far from being satisfactory to the were supposed to be too obstinate, public mind, inasmuch as the and by exercising a great degree government successfully resisted of severity against the press, the proposal, that cases of alleged when it happened to criticise the abuse of the liberty of the press policy of the administration should be tried by a jury. It When the States General assem- opposed itself likewise to a motion bled, the second Chamber was for the introduction of grand juries, immediately occupied in discussing and for the extension of jury trials the contents of petitions, recom- to the provincial courts, and other mending improvements in the criminal tribunals; and both of existing system of government. these motions were lost. On the These petitions amounted to 150 other hand, a numerous body in in number, and were subscribed by the Chamber censured every great bodies of people, calling for measure of the government, and the institution of juries, the inde- resisted every project of its minispendence of judges, the responsi- ters ; and the session closed, bility of ministers, freedom of having rather added to, than dipublic instruction, and the strict minished, the excitement and execution of the concordat. A dissatisfaction which, for some motion was made to refer all these time, had been growing up in the petitions to the government, back- public mind. ed with the sanction of the Cham- This dissatisfaction had partly ber, as to their urgency and arisen from the great expense inimportance. This proposition was curred in carrying on the war in resisted by the ministers, who, on Batavia, and the ill success with the division, were left in a mi- which, that war had hitherto been conducted. In the present year, quarrel' in which the duke of however, in consequence of rein Brunswick had thought fit to inforcements having arrived from volve himself with the king of Europe, which enabled the go- Hanover, who, as his guardian, vernment to act with vigour, the had conducted, during his micontest assumed a more favour- nority, the administration of his able appearance than it had states. The duke had complained borne during several preceding of various proceedings of the king campaigns. The troops moved of Hanover in that capacity; he in three columns, and attacked had complained still more loudly the insurgents at different points. of count Munster, who, as HanoA series of engagements followed, verian minister, had borne the which were not decisive in their principal share in these affairs, character, but which generally and had condescended to challenge terminated in favour of the Dutch, the count to fight a duel. Above and enabled them to hem their all, he had refused to recognize adversaries more closely in. On certain liberal alterations in the pothe 2nd of May an attack was litical constitution of Brunswick, made upon Pengasse, where the which had been introduced by his rebels had stationed themselves to royal guardian. He complained the number of six or seven þun- loudly, too, that the Hanoverian dred men. They waited the ap- government had protected, and proach of the Dutch troops with still refused to deliver up, a cerfirmness, and made a vigorous tain privy councillor, Schmidt Phiresistance, but gave way and fed, seldek, with whom the duke had when the Dutch charged with the a quarrel, and whom he wished, bayonet. Another body of them therefore, to punish. The king of was routed, about the same time, Hanover applied to the Diet to near Sepoerang, where they lost compel the duke to make satistwo hundred men, with all their faction for the insults which he horses and arms. The result of had publicly heaped upon his mathese operations was, that Diepo jesty; and the states of the duchy Negoro, the insurgent leader, found addressed themselves to the Diet, himself confined within a narrow to be maintained in the possession district, which supplied scarcely of that better constitution, and enough of land to raise rice for those greater and more useful his followers. He still continued, powers, which they had obhowever, to keep his men together; tained from the hand of the and, while he prudently avoided king of Hanover, the legal repreany regular action in the open sentative of their prince. The field, he made sudden attacks duke was willing to recognize the where they were least expected, states in their old and inefficient and cut off small detachments form, with all its accompaniments which might happen to be separa- of patrimonial jurisdictions, exted from the main body.

emption from taxes, and other In a former volume we have franchises of the privileged classes, given an account of the foolish every one of which had been

abolished, when the new constitu• Vol. LXIX. p. 288.

tion was introduced. The states

refused to except of this ruinous of its constitution, to put an end, boon, and insisted on the preser- promptly and decisively, to these vation of what had been already aberrations,—the Germanic body so solemnly and beneficially esa decided as follows:* His serene tablished. They founded their highness the duke of Brunswick demand on the thirteenth article of is in fault, and is bound, within a the Act of the Confederation, which, term of four weeks, publicly to as they thought, required, that withdraw the patent of the iOth a formal and actual representation May, 1827, and to make an apof the people, like that in England propriate written apology for his and France, should be introduced conduct, by the medium of a into all the German states, and special envoy. Secondly, in conwhich had been already carried sideration of the peculiar circuminto effect, in this sense, in Bavaria, stances of the challenge of the Wurtemberg, Baden, Hesse, and Hanoverian Cabinet minister, Weimar. It was just because the count Munster, by the Brunswick old constitution, though otherwise officer, M. Praun, his serene highgood, and one with which the ness the duke of Brunswick will people had been happy under their subject the said M. Praun to the dukes, was not founded on popular necessary examination, and will representation, that it had been cause him to be punished acchanged during the duke's minor- cording to the laws of his state. ity. The duke would neither Thirdly, the proposition for the satisfy his subjects, nor apologize delivery of the privy councillor to the king of Hanover. He Schmidt Phiseldek, resting upon maintained that neither his guar- the treaty of the 16th of Novemdian, nor any other power, was ber, 1535, and that of the 8th of entitled to alter or interfere with January, 1798, is wholly inadmisthe constitution of his states, and sible. Fourthly, and Fifthly, the that he had said and printed of complaints of Brunswick against the king of Hanover nothing Hanover, on account of the prowhich his majesty did not deserve. longation of the minority in the The Courts of Vienna and Berlin time of the supposed majority of interposed their mediation, to his serene highness, upon the part prevent the necessity of the Diet of his majesty the king, as regent pronouncing a formal and public of the duchy during the minority, sentence; but the duke would and on account of the introduction listen to no mediation or remon- of the new regulations of the 25th strance; and the Diet gave forth a of April, 1820, into the duchy of decree, deciding every part of the Brunswick, by his royal Hanocause against him. Having set verian majesty's government, as forth the errors of the duke—that regent during the minority, are both he had obstinately refused to listen alike inadmissible, there being to reason, or to the wise and be- no legal ground for the interfernevolent admonitions of friendly ence of the Federation. Sixthly, courts, and that his whole conduct as his majesty the king of Hanover, had made it imperative upon the in the state paper of the royal Federation, if it would not overlook one of the most important purposes • See Chronicle, p. 127.

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