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Cabinet minister, count Munster, ed to prohibit, in their respective has but exercised the lawful right states, the printing or circulation of self-defence, the demand for a of all such unofficial controversial disapproval of that paper, and for writings, without any reference to recalling the offensive passages the number of pages; and also supposed to be contained in to take care that in the public it, cannot be complied with. journals nothing shall be admitted Seventhly, as little attention is calculated to excite or to recall a to be paid to the proposition made quarrel now disposed of according upon the part of Brunswick, to the laws of the Germanic Fedtouching the security of his serene eration. highness the duke ; and touching Such was the finding of the the supposed illegal passage of Diet; but the duke paid no respect royal Hanoverian troops through to its authority. He did not withthe ducal jurisdiction of Theding- draw his offensive notification; he hausen. Eighthly, as this mis- sent no special envoy to apologize understanding has been the occa- to his Hanoverian Majesty, he sion of several opprobrious public took no steps to prosecute and cations, the members of the Fe- punish M. Praun. deration have unanimously resolva
C H A P. XI.
Russia.-Opening of the Campaign between Russia and Turkey –
The Russian Fleet takes Sizeboli--The Turks are defeated in an attempt to retake it-The Russian Army, under General Diebitsch, crosses the Danube, and marches against Silistria-Skirmishes as it advances—The Russians invest Silistria—The Grand Vizier moves from Shumla to attack General Roth-Battle of Eski-Arnautlar The Russians retire, and the Grand Vizier besieges Pravadi—Count Diebitsch marches from Silistria with part of the besieging Army to support General Roth, and relieve Pravadi—He joins General Roth, and they occupy the Defiles in the rear of the Vizier, without his being aware of it— Battle of Kulertscha—The Vizier forces open the Road to Shumla, and takes up a new position—The Russians renew the attack, and the Turks take to Flight~The Vizier regains Shumla—The Russians offer to open Negotiations-Silistria surrenders, and the besieging Army joins Count Diebitsch before Shumla~The Russians prepare to cross the Bolkan, leaving a Corps to watch Shumla~They effect the Passage of the Kamtschick, and reach the summit of the Mountain, before the Vizier is aware of their Movements—They descend the Southern Side of the BalkanThey take Mesembri, Bourgas, and Aidos, defeating, at the latter, a large body of Turks—They take Karnabut and Sambol, and push their advanced Guards towards Adrianople--The Vizier leaves Shumla by a circuitous route, and reaches Selimno on the Road to Adrianople—The Russians attack the Turks at Selimno, defeat them, and carry the Town--They advance to Adrianople, which capitulates, the Turkish Garrison dispersing-The Fleet takes Vassilico, Agathopolis, and Ainada on the Euxine, and a detachment of the Army occupies Enos on the Mediterranean-Opening of the Campaign in Asia-The Turks form the Siege of Akhalzik, but are compelled by the Russians to raise it-The Pacha of Trebizond is driven from his Camp-Count Paskewitsch succeeds in crossing the Mountains, to advance on Erzeroum, and defeats the Turks in two separate Actions—Erzeroum surrenders to the Russians--Return of the English and French Ambassadors to Constantinople--The Sultan refuses to accept their Mediation on the terms proposed regarding Grecce—State of the Capital as the Russians advanceCommissioners sent to Adrianople to treat-A suspension of Hostilities takes place—Peace is concluded between Russia and TurkeyTerms of the Treaty.-PERSIA.-- Massacre of the Russian Ambassador and his Suite at Tehran.-_Greece.—Progress of the Greek Army in Western Greece ; they take Vonizza, Carvassara, Lepanto, Anatolico, Missolonghi--Protocol of the three Powers regarding
the Boundaries and Settlement of Greece--They request from the Greek Government a suspension of Hostilities, which is refused Dissensions among the Military-General Church resigns the Command of the Army-Meeting and Proceedings of the National Assembly-Negotiations at Constantinople for the Settlement of GreeceThe Sultan, in the Russian Treaty, accedes to the Protocol of the Allies—Conferences at London to carry the Protocol into effect—The three Powers resolve that the Sovereignty reserved to Turkey, by the Protocol and the Russian Treaty, shall be abo
lished—They fix the Limits of the new Greek State. TH CHE campaign of last year, victory, so far as it could be se
between the Russians and cured by numbers and equipment. the Turks, had been honourable The first operations of the camboth to the conduct and the paign were performed by the fleet, valour of the Ottomans. They and took place on the coast of the had made good a resistance which Euxine. In the end of March, a Europe had not expected from detachment of the Russian fleet, them; Russia had been compelled under admiral Kumany, having to close the campaign, after suf- taken on board a large body of fering most grievous losses, by troops, made a descent on Sizehurrying back her armies to the boli, a Turkish sea-port, situated north bank of the Danube, re- at the eastern extremity of the taining possession of no place of gulph of Bourgas, the possession importance on the Turkish side, of which increased the means of except Varna and Pravadi. She keeping up with any army, which opened the campaign of the pre- might march into the interior, sent year with greater caution; those communications on which intending, before she should ven- the safety of such an army would tare her troops deep into the in- necessarily depend. The place terior, to reduce the strong fortress was neither strongly fortified nor of Silistria, on the right bank of garrisoned; the descent was unthe Danube, which had defeated expected; and the enterprise sucand disgraced her arms in the ceeded. The Russians made themprevious campaign. To the bad selves masters of the town, and success, too, of that campaign proceeded to strengthen it by ad. was probably to be ascribed the ditional works, before the Turks change which took place in the from Bourgas could march to its command of the invading army. assistance. Hussein Pacha, howCount Wittgenstein, who had ever, having collected in the neighgathered no laurels by his opera- bourhood of the latter place about tions, was graciously allowed by 5000 infantry, and 1500 cavalry, the emperor to retire from his attempted to re-takeit. On the 9th burthensome post; and general of April, he attacked an intrenched count Diebitsch was placed at hill in the immediate vicinity. The the head of the Russian troops. assault was acknowledged by the Every exertion had been made, Russians themselves to be dreadduring the winter, to repair the ful. Though the guns of their losses of last year, and to secure batteries were pouring cannister
shot among the assailants, and tria; general Diebitsch, although were supported by a heavy fire of in so infirm a state of health that musketry and grenades, some of he required to be borne about in the Turks climbed the breastwork a litter, having hastened forward and entered the trenches. Their his head quarters to direct the main body had made their way operations in person. On the 13th to the gate of the trench, when of May, he advanced towards the Russians, who had formed Silistria, at the head of twentywithin the place, sallied at dif- one battalions, sixteen squadrons ferent points, and the Turks, of cavalry, and some regiments of attacked on every side, besides Cossacks. The advance was slow being exposed to the fire of the and difficult, owing to the badworks, were compelled to give ness of the ways along which the way, and fall back upon Bourgas. troops were compelled to march, Alarmed at this new establish- as the great road was under water, ment of the enemy on the shores in consequence of an inundation of the Black Sea, the Sultan of the Danube. By the 17th he ordered his feet, consisting of had arrived within five versts from twenty-one sail, to proceed into Silistria, withoutencountering any that sea from the Bosphorus, with opposition; but, next day, his first the intention, it may be presumed, division fell in with the enemy, of fighting the Russian squadron. posted along a ridge of rising It entered the Black Sea on the ground, and in some intrench20th of May, the Sultan hiniself ments which the Russians had accompanying it as far as the last thrown up during the siege of the port in the Bosphorus. Shortly preceding year. An attack by a afterwards it fell in with four Rus- regiment of Cossacks upon a mass sian frigates and a brig. A brief of Turkish cavalry posted upon action ensued, which ended in one the heights, was the signal for a of the frigates being taken, the general battle. The Russian inother three, and the brig, making fantry charged; the enemy was their escape. The Turks, instead broken, and, in less than a quarter of assuming courage from this of an hour, driven from all the first success, put about so soon as works which he occupied on that they learned that the Russian point. The left column, under fleet had sailed to meet them, and general Krassoffsky, met with returned with their prize in great greater resistance. The general, triumph to Constantinople, only a having given his troops an hour's few days after they had quitted it. rest, led them against two strong
In the mean time, the divisions, redoubts, which, though very composing the principal Russian advantageously situated, were army, had broken up from their soon taken; and the Turks, driven cantonments in the middle of back at every point, sought refuge April, and, crossing the Danube within the walls of the fortress. at different points, were collected The result of these operations was, in their camp at Czernowody, in that Silistria was completely inthe beginning of May. Prepara- vested. The works were immeditions were immediately made for ately begun; and, by May 26, undertaking the siege of Silis- the first parallel was completed.
The grand Vizier, Redschid two other regiments, and four field Pacha, was posted at Shumla with pieces. In an instant the two rean army said to amount to 35,000 giments were surrounded by the men; and to him the governor of Si. Turkish horse; the whole of the listria applied for assistance,so soon Turkish infantry advanced, supas it was seen that the investment ported by the fire of ten pieces of of that place was as yet the seri- artillery, attacked the square into ous and principal object of the in- which the Russians had formed vading army. The vizier deter- themselves, and would have annimined, in the first place, to cut off hilated great part of it, had not a the communication between the fresh body of Russians attacked besieging army and the Russian them in front, while one of the troops, which occupied, under regiments, already engaged, took general Roth, Varna and Pravadi, them in flank. The combat was and which, moreover, he could kept up with unexampled fury, not prudently leave behind him till at length, about eight in the in marching to Silistria. General evening, the grand Vizier, having Roth had been for some time con- been engaged from three in the centrating his forces; and a village morning, retired into the valley of called Eski-Arnautlar, five versts Neutsha. The Russians admitted from Pravadi, was occupied by six that they lost, in this close and battalions, and some Cossacks, obstinate engagement, 1000 men; with twelve field pieces. That they estimated that of the enemy position was attacked early on the at 2000. The Turks, on the other 17th of May, by the grand vizier, hand, stated the loss of the Rusat the head, according to the Rus- sians at 3000 men, and claimed sian account, of 15,000 men. The the victory. eneral Roth, inRussians, though so inferior in stead of advancing after the battle, numbers, baffled every attempt of fell back; and the Vizier immethe Turks to break through their diately formed the siege of Pralines, and strong reinforcements vadi. More important than any were soon brought to their assist immediate results of the conflict ance. On the arrival of these was the fact, that, for seventeen fresh troops, the Turks appeared hours, the Turkish infantry had to make preparations for retiring, sustained an obstinate and bloody and the affair seemed to be at an combat with regular Russian end; but the Vizier, having like- troops. wise been joined by another corps General Diebitsch, at all events, of his army, renewed the attack, felt, that the results of this action With 4000 cavalry he advanced rendered his position under the towards the heights, situated be- walls of Silistria unsafe, and
genetween the Russians and Pravadi, ral Roth was now confessedly too with the intention of turning the weak to prevent the Vizier from left flank of general Roth. The advancing. Having learned, therelatter, to oppose this movement, fore, on the 4th of June, that the advanced against the Turkish ca- Vizier, for ten days, had been invalry, at the head of two regi- vesting Pravadi, he marched from ments, and six pieces of artillery, Silistria on the 5th, with the corps supported by two battalions of of count Pahlen, to reinforce Roth