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charge of one of his eunuchs, in unjustifiable conduct on the part order that they might be question of the ambassador rather than ed as to the fact. The ambassador risk a rupture, and by doing so refused to question them in the had provoked the people to take presence of the eunuch; he mal- the task of retribution into their ireated the eunuch himself; and, own hands, immediately took every contrary to the king's order, he step which seemed necessary to detained the women all night in appease the dreaded vengeance of his house by force,--where they its imperious neighbour. They were most barbarously used by went into mourning for the Rusthe Russians. They made their sians who had fallen; the king escape in the morning, crying offered every indemnity which loudly through the streets for could be required to expiate an revenge. The indignation of the offence which he could not conpopulace was roused; they col- trol, and in which he and his lected, with threats, round the government had no share. A residence of the ambassador, which confidential agent of the crown was protected by about 100 of prince was despatched to general the king'sguards, and from twenty Paskewitsch, that the first bearer to thirty cossacks. The cossacks of the intelligence might bear likefired upon the populace, and wise the expression of the regret killed six men. This exasperated which was felt, and offer every · the mob to the utmost. The reasonable satisfaction, No less bodies of these men were exposed distinguished a messenger than in six different mosques, and the a prince of the blood-royal, a moolahs excited the people to grandson of the Schah, was sent fury, calling upon them to take to St. Petersburgh to propitiate revenge on the murderers. The the emperor, who, expressing mob had now increased to about himself satisfied with the steps 30,000, inflamed by a strong religi- which the Persian government had ous feeling of the sacrifice of six taken to disconnect itself with the Mussulmans by the Muscovite crime, took no farther notice of infidels ; and they rushed again an occurrence, which, however una to the house of the ambassador, justifiable, had been provoked by vowing death to all whom it con- the lawless conduct of his own tained. The king, in the mean officer, and was the sudden act of time, hearing of the tumult, order- an exasperated mob, of which the ed out two thousand of the troops, government could not have been to the rescue of the Russians, and aware, and which it had done all sent his son, Alli Shah to their in its power to repress. assistance. The prince, at the risk The French expedition to Greece of his life, succeeded in saving during the last year had expelled one of the ambassador's secretaries every armed Turk from the Morea. and two cossacks : but M. Gry- The French troops were about to bydoff himself, and all the rest of march, if not with the knowledge, his suite, to the number of about at least with the connivance of thirty, were massacred,

their government, beyond the IsthThe court of Tehran, which had mus of Corinth, and deliver northsubmitted to much provoking and ern Greece, as they had done the Peloponnesus, when they were preferred the latter alternative, ordered to undertake no farther laid down their arms, and disoperations : for it was still unde- persed to return to their respective termined by the allies, whether the countries. On the 24th of April, new Greek state, which was to be the town and citadel of Lepanto created by their interference, surrendered.

The Turkish powould contain any territory further pulation was to be conveyed north than the Morea. if, there- partly to Albania, and partly to fore, the Turkish fortresses in Smyrna. A greater success fol. northern Greece were to be re- lowed. Anatolico, and Missolonduced, that object was to be ghi, the scene of so much devoted effected by the arms of the Greeks bravery in resisting the arms of themselves. They set about the Ibrahim, gave themselves up to taskwith the greater eagerness,that, the Greeks by capitulation on the whatever they should make their 16th of May; the Turkish families, own by their own arms, they and the troops, with their arms and would have a strong claim for baggage, being conveyed to Preretaining it in any subsequent vesa. The siege of Prevesa itself negotiations with their allied


was then formed; but its strength, tectors. The army in the west, and more numerous garrison, under general Church, compelled threatened a longer resistance. Vonizza, one of the strongest of While the Greeks were thus the Turkish fortresses, to surrender' preparing to extend their permaon the 17th of March, after a nent territory by shewing that siege of some duration, in the they were able to conquer it, so course of which Turkish forces, long as the Turks were cut off greatly superior in number, had from all reinforcements, the ambeen unable to drive the besieging bassadors of France and England army from its positions. The were about to renew, at Constangarrison were allowed to retire to tinople, the attempt to arrange Prevesa. Having garrisoned Vo- their interests by negotiation. They nizza, and received a supply of had quitted the Turkish capital, provisions, the general, by a rapid because the Sultan had refused to march, took possession of the accede to their terms; they now reheights of Macrin-Osos, surpris- turned to try again the very same ing a body of three hundred Turks, thing, the rejection of which bewho were all made prisoners. The fore had been thought sufficient Turks immediately abandoned all to justify their departure. After their posts in the neighbourhood, the French expedition had cleared and retired, to the number of fif- the Morea, the ministers of the teen hundred men, to Carvassara. three powers at London had come The Greeks followed them, and to a determination regarding the took up a position which compelled territory, which, in the mean time the enemny, who were without at least, should form the subject provisions, either to attempt a of their negotiations on behalf of retreat to Missolonghi, or to sur- Greece. At a conference held on render. Having learned the good the 16th November, 1828, they treatment which the garrison of bad resolved upon a declaration, Vonizza had experienced, they that the allied powers took under

their provisional guarantee the “which are parties to the treaty Morea and the Cyclades, without

“ of July 6. prejudicing the question of the A copy of this protocol was future boundaries of Greece. This communicated to the president of protocol was communicated to the Greece by Mr. Dawkins, the BriSultan, but no notice of it was tish resident accredited to the given to the President of Greece. Greek government, on the 18th of The Sultan consented that the May. The communication was negotiations should be renewed; accompanied by a note stating, he had never been willing that the that, as the President would perministers should leave Constanti- ceive the determination of the nople. The bases of the intended three powers to exact from the negotiation were finally arranged Ottoman Porte the maintenance among the allies at a conference of the armistice announced by the on the 22nd of March in the present Reis Effendi on the 10th Septemyear, and were as follows : “1. ber, 1828, as existing de facto on • The continental boundary line the part of the Turks, he had no “of the Greek State is to be doubt but his excellency would “ drawn from the gulph of Volo justify the expectation of the " to the gulph of Arta. All allied courts " to see immediately “ countries south of this line to " adopted by the Greek govern“ be included in the Greek State, "ment measures conformable to “to which the adjacent islands,“ their wishes, either by declaring “comprehending Eubæa and the “a suspension of hostilities on all

Cyclades, are likewise to be- “points on which the contest is

long. 2. An annual tribute of "at present carried on, or by re"1,500,000 Turkish piastres to calling its troops within the “ be paid by this Greek State. " limits of the territory placed

Only a third part to be paid “under the grarantee of the “ during the first year, and to be “three powers by the act of the

gradually increased tillit reaches " 16th November, 1828 ;" which “ the maximum in the fourth. 3. territory, as already stated, in“ 'Turkish subjects, who may be cluded only the Morea and the "forced to depart from the Greek Cyclades. To this request of the “territory, to be indemnified. 4. allies Capo d'Istria returned a “Greece is to remain under the long answer, containing a great “ suzeraintè of the Porte, with deal of unbusiness-like declama" the form of government best tion and unnecessary indignation. “calculated to secure its religious He took it up, as if he had been “and commercial liberty. The required absolutely to recall the “government is to approach as Greek troops within the isthmus “nearly as possible to a monarch- of Corinth, abandoning all their “ical form, and to be hereditary conquests in northern Greece. “ in the family of a christian He assured the allies that it was “prince, to be chosen for the not, and never would be, in the “ first time by the three powers, power of the Greek government, "in concert with the Porte. He « to transport,” as he rhetorically “is not to be a member of the expressed it, “into the heart of “ families reigning in the States the Peloponnesus, and the adja-. Vol. LXXI.

[Q] ] :


cent islands, the miserable popu- positions which they have occulation of the provinces situated pied latterly, are Vonizza, Lebeyond the isthmus of Corinth. panto, Missolonghi, and AnatoThese provinces, as well as those of lico. The Mussulmen, who cointhe Peloponnesus and the islands, pose the garrisons of these places, contracted, in the hour of trial and being completely left to themmisfortune, a solemn engagement selves by their government, and never to separate their cause. deprived of external resources by These engagements are confirmed the blockade of their coasts, have by public acts under a double themselves demanded to return to sanction--the sanction of national their own country. This retreat, congresses, and the still more in

far from giving occasion to bloodviolable sanction of oaths. Cau shed and other miseries, has been the Greek government, whose effected under the safeguard of only power is founded on these conventions, which demonstrate

acts, infringe them by the moderate and pacific views of establishing a line of separation the Greek government, and which between continental Greece and deserve the confidence which they the Peloponnesus, seeing that it is inspire in the Mussulmen them- . to the immense sacrifices of this selves. The letters, which the country that the Peninsula has

commandant of the castle of Romore than once owed its salva- melia and the Pacha of Lepanto tion? and should the government addressed to us at the time of the arbitrarily assume to itself this evacuation of these garrisons, furright, would it have the means of nish an irrefragable proof of this effecting this separation without fact. In this state of things, it is exposing to new calamities people not impossible that the feeble garwho are just beginning to regain rison of Athens, and of the two or their habitations, and to hope for three other places included in the that repose

which the Morea en. demarcation laid down in the projoys from the protection and ser

tocol of the 22nd of March, may vices of the allied powers? It is follow the example of the garrisons not in their power, either by per- of western Greece. By such resuasion or force, to obtain such a sults the Greek government would result.

have contributed, as far as its « The inhabitants of the pro- feeble means allow, to the success vinces would answer them, that of the negotiations with which, in the third article of the treaty of the names of the three courts, the the 6th of July, and the clause of Pienipotentiaries of England and the demarcation contained in the France, who are going to Conprotocol of the 22nd of March, stantinople, have been intrusted.” encourage them to hope, that the Now in all this the President, for justice and magnanimity of the the sake of writing oratory, quite august allies will not abandon forgot that the Greeks were not them, and that it would be an called on to “ quit the defensible abandonment without redemption, positions which they now occupy, ' to constrain them to quit the de- unless they preferred that course fensible positions which they now themselves. They had the alteroccupy. In the number of the native of doing that, or of submitting to a simple suspension of he first told them, that neither he hostilities, not giving up a single nor his government were persons post, nor withdrawing a single to be treated with at all, since man; and to this latter branch of they had no control over their the alternative the President gave ostensible subjects. And, in truth, no answer. The three powers had the very events, which were ocdeclared in the treaty of 6th July, curring, proved how incapable that, if the belligerents refused to what was styled the government consent to an armistice, they would was of maintaining subordination. enforce one upon them de facto. Whether from its general impoThe Greeks had accepted the con- tence, or from the misconduct of ditions of that treaty with appa- the President, dissatisfaction was rent gratitude, for the sword was widely spread among the military. then at their breast; but now that In some places in the north of the the three powers bad brought them isthmus the troops revolted. Pulo uppermost, and a French army had Pedro, a commander of a battalion, cleared the Morea, any suspension surprised Lepanto, expelled the of hostilities was contrary forsooth garrison, and dismissed all the to their “oaths,” and “ the public officers whom the President had acts of national congresses.” Even appointed. At Missolonghi the if the allies had demanded that troops fired on his own brother, the Greeks should abandon their count Augustin Capo d'Istria, conquests in northern Greece, and who had lately arrived in Greece, retire within the isthmus, it would and had been appointed comhave been unfair dealing in the mander in chief of all the proGreek government to have refused, vinces to the north of the isthmus. so long as they claimed and ob- This appointment itself seemed to tained the benefits of that inter- be one great cause of discontent; position which had alone enabled the man, who held it, not having them to make these conquests, or brought recommendation, either to retain the naine and attributes in temper or talent. General of a nation. If the consequences Church, who had commanded in of protection and salvation were western continental Greece to unpleasant, they ought to have such good purpose, resigned his declined the services of their commission, from disgust, either saviours and protectors. To say at being thus superseded, or at to the allies, you shall fight and the general debility, selfishness, negociate for us, but you shall do and divisions of the government. it on our own terms, and shall in communicating his resignation thereby acquire no right either to to the National Assembly, which bind or direct us; you are to de- was convoked in the end of July, stroy or disable our enemies, and he stated his opinion of that gothen leave us at liberty to do what vernment as frankly as could be we choose," - betokened neither expected, considering the persons modesty not wisdom. In so far, whom he was addressing.

“ Had again, 'as the President stated I consulted my feelings only, that the government had not the wounded as they have been on "power" of effecting in northern many occasions, I should have Greece what the allies requested, taken this step some time ago;

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