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Army from Cuba lands in Mexico, and takes Tampico, and Tamaulipas. The Spaniards fortify themselves awaiting re-inforcements—The Mexicans, under Santana, march to Tampico-The Spaniards take Altamira—Tamaulipas is attacked by a Detachment of Mexicans, who are repulsed--The Spaniards are shut up in Tamaulipas and surrender.-GUATEMALA.-Siege and Capture of Guatemala by the troops of San Salvador--Meeting of Congress -Proceedings against the Members of the late Government.
LTHOUGH the violent op- sovereignty on the part of the go
and without the Congress of the over the soil in question, would United States, against the Tariff have a tendency to support the bill of the preceding session, which position which it had assumed in raised the duties on all imported its negotiations with respect to articles, had seemed to threaten a that territory, and would show dissolution of the Union, the pre- that it had no intention of weakensent session passed over without ing or abandoning that claim. In any attempt to obtain a repeal of opposition to this, it was asserted the obnoxious measure. There that it would be inconsistent with seemed to be an understanding the spirit of the agreement with between its adversaries and its Great Britain, and could have no friends, that it would be improper effect in strengthening the title. for the existing Congress to make Evident as this seemed to be, and any alteration, as another Presi- plain as was the impertinence and dent had already been chosen, and chicanery of the motion, the quesanother Congress would be elected tion was carried in the House. before the end of the year, when it The most objectionable part, howwould be seen whether a new legis- ever, was afterwards got rid of by lature and executive would pursue an amendment, declaring that the the policy of their predecessors. road should be made only if the
The boundary line betwen the President “shall deem it necessary United States and the Canadlas had for maintaining the rights, and long been a subject of dispute be- not inconsistent with the engagetween the two governments, and ments, of the United States.' was still pending; but, pending
On the 4th of March, general though it was, Congress showed a Jackson, the newly-celected Presistrong inclination to treat it as dent, was installed in his office. being already decided in their own Mr. John C. Calhoun was the favour. The representatives for Vice-President. The President's the state of Maine desired a vote of cabinet was composed of Mr. Van money, for the purpose of constructá. Buren as Secretary of State; Mr. ing a military road from Mars-hill, Ingham, as Secretary of the Treain the state of Maine, through the sury ; Mr. Eaton, as Secretary of territory on the northern frontier. War; Mr. Branch, as Secretary of The proposal was advocated on the the Navy; and Mr. Berrier, as ground that such an exercise of Attorney General. The inaugural
speech of general Jackson was ex- cilitate the extinguishment of the pressed with much moderation, and national debt, -the unnecessary gave no countenance to the accusa- duration of which is incompatible tions regarding his despotic temper with real independence, and beand exaggerated opinions, which cause it will counteract that tendhad been busily propagated during ency to public and private proflithe excitement of the election. gacy, which a profuse expenditure After detailing the different duties of money by the government is but which devolved on him as the head
too apt to engender. Powerful of the executive, he explained as auxiliaries to the attainment of this follows the principles by which he desirable end are to be found in was resolved to be guided in dis- the regulations provided by the charging them: "In
administering wisdom of Congress, for the specific the laws of Congress, I shall keep appropriation of public money, and steadily in view the limitations, as the prompt accountability of public well as the extent, of the executive officers. power, trusting thereby to discharge “With regard to a proper seleethe functions of my office, without tion of the subjects of impost, with transcending its authority. With a view to revenue, it would seem foreign nations it will be my study to me that the spirit of equity, to preserve peace, and to cultivate caution, and compromise, in which friendship on fair and honourable the constitution was formed, reterms; and, in the adjustment of quires that the great interests of any difference that may exist or agriculture, commerce, and manuarise, to exhibit the forbearance factures, should be equally favoured; becoming a powerful nation, rather and that the only exception to this than the sensibility belonging to a rule should consist in the peculiar gallant people.
encouragement of any products of “In such measures as I may be either of them that may be found called on to pursue in regard to the essential to our national independrights of the separate States, I hope ence. to be animated by a proper respect Considering standing armies as for those sovereign members of our dangerous to free governments in union ; taking care not to confound time of peace, I shall not seek to the powers they have reserved to enlarge our present establishment, themselves, with those they have nor disregard that salutary lesson granted to the confederacy. of political experience which teaches
“ The management of the public that the military should be held revenue, the searching operation in subordinate to the civil
. power. all governments, is among the most The gradual increase of our navy, delicate and important trusts in whose flag has displayed in distant ours; and it will of course demand climes our skill in navigation and no inconsiderable share of my offi- our fame in arms; the preservation cial solicitude. Under every re- of our forts, arsenals, and dockspect in which it can be considered, yards; and the introduction of it would appear that advantage progressive improvements in the must result from the observance of discipline and science of both a strict and faithful economy. branches of our military service, This I shall aim at the more are so plainly prescribed by pruanxiously, both because it will fax dence, that I should be excused for
omitting their mention, sooner The government of Brazil, have than for enlarging upon their im, ing concluded a peace with Buenos portance. But the bulwark of our Ayres, directed its attention to its defence is the national militia, internal concerns, which had suf which, in the present state of our fered severely during the continuintelligence and population, must ance of the war. On the 2nd of render us invincible. As long as April, the Emperor called an exour government is administered for traordinary meeting of the Legisthe good of the people, and is re- lative Assembly. He convoked gulated by their will, -as long as them, he said, for two reasons ; it secures to us the rights of per- first, foreign troops, consisting son and of property, liberty of con- of Portuguese emigrants, were science and of the press, -it will coming to seek an asylum in Brabe worth defending; and so long zil; secondly, the general conas it is worth defending, a patriotic dition of the finances, and more militia will cover it with an impe- especially the state of the Brazil netrable ægis. Partial injuries and Bank, which required legislative occasional mortifications we may interference. The first had ceased, be subjected to; but a million of “ but the second,” said the Emarmed freemen, possessed of the peror, “continues, and I lament means of war, can never be con- the necessity of recommending it, quered by a foreign foe. To any for the fourth time, to the notice just system, therefore, calculated to of this assembly. The miserable strengthen this natural safeguard state, to which the public treasury of the country, I shall cheerfully has been reduced, is notorious to lend all the aid in my power. all; and it is greatly to be appre
" It will be my sincere and con- hended, that, if, during this extrastant desire to observe towards the ordinary session, in spite of my Indian tribes within our limits, a repeated recommendations, it does just and liberal policy; and to give not provide an adequate remedy, that humane and considerate atten- the future fate which awaits us is tion to their rights and their wants very disastrous." which are consistent with the The speech of the Emperor was habits of our government, and the followed up by a proposal of feelings of our people.
M. Calmon, the minister of Fi“ The recent demonstration of nance, for the better regulation of public sentiment inscribes on the the Bank, as a preliminary step list of executive duties, in cha- towards placing the currency of racters too legible to be overlooked, the country on a secure basis. The the task of reform, which will re- management of its affairs was to quire particularly the correction of be vested in a directing commission those abuses that have brought the of seven members, four of whom patronage of the federal govern- were to be named by government, ment into conflict with the freedom and the other three elected by a of elections, and the counteraction majority of the share-holders. The of those causes which have dis- Bank was thus to be under the turbed the rightful course of ap- management of the government, pointment, and have placed or con- and to become, in truth, an institinued power in unfaithful or in- tution whose operations would
be guided solely by the views and
the necessities of the government. share-holders; and, with a view to This direct commission was to its liquidation, government was to be employed first, in withdrawing be authorized to contract a loan in from circulation all notes which specie equal to three-fifths of its were payable at the Bank; secondly, amount. The produce of this loan in ascertaining the exact number was to be exclusively applied to of notes in circulation, and substi- the purcliase of notes of the Bank, tuting for them new ones, to be according to their value in the signed by two members: thirdly, market; and all the notes thus in winding up all the accounts of bought up, were to have no longer the Bank, and especially those re- any value, excepting as payment lating to the debt of government; to the directing commission on acfourthly, in liquidating all the re- count of the debt to the Bank. gular transactions of the Bank still The application of the loan, or of pending; fifthly, in receiving the the notes bought up with it, to debts due to, and liquidating those any other purposes than these was due by, the Bank forth with; and prohibited under the penalties desixthly, in examining the state of the nounced by the law against the Bahia Orphans' Fund, and that of embezzlers and dissipators of the St. Paul. It was to renderan account public property. The relation of of its labours to the government debtor, in which the government monthly, and to lay before the Legis- thus stood to the Bank, was an lative Assembly every year a state of additional reason against lodging the affairs of the Bank. The current the management of the affairs of value of the notes in circulation, the latter in a body of directors, or of those which might be sub- 'the majority of whom were to be stituted for them, was to be recog- named by the former, and who, nized, and “the primitive funds” it was further provided, were to of the Bank were assigned as se- take their instructions from the curity for them. These funds government in all cases of doubtwere described as being “its funds à quality which the government of reserve, or the metallic funds majority could, at its pleasure, affix existing in its coffers, the debt of to any proposed operation. the government, the debts of pri- On the 3rd of May, the ordivate individuals to the Bank, and nary session of the Legislative Asevery thing else which may con- sembly was opened. The Emstitute the credits of the Bank: peror, to quiet their apprehensions the deposits in the Bank are also of being involved in an European assigned as security to the public.” quarrel, assured them, that, alSo that the security spoken of though resolved to enter into no amounted to this, that, if the Bank compromise with the usurper of should become insolvent, its cre- his daughter's throne, he was ditors would be allowed to take equally determined not to endanger in payment whatever it might be on that account, the interests and found to possess. It was further tranquillity of Brazil. He reconiproposed, that the debt due to the mended to them to take measures Bank by the government should for restraining the abuse of the continue to pay one per cent in- liberty of the press, “which unterest, to be distributed as a happily had been propagated over dividend half-yearly among the the whole empire, "and, in a short time, unless repressed, would be of the last six months of 1828, productive of the most fatal re- and those of the year 1829, been sults ;” and he again specially yet discharged ? If they have called their attention to the state not, where is the money? If the of the finances. The accounts of commission can lend its ear to pubthe intended expenditure, and an- lic report, there has been no inticipated income, for the following terest paid on that loan, the payyear, were accordingly remitted to ment being suspended by the oma committee, which, by its report, nipotence of the London legation. proposed considerable reductions If this be the case, how, without on all the estimates, bringing them some explanation, are the respectdown from nearly thirty millionsive sums advanced, which show an of milrees to about nineteen mil- uninterrupted continuance of the lions and a half, not quite five mil. transactions.”—M. Calmon, the lions sterling, even without mak- minister of finance answered, that ing allowance for the depreciation he was ready to lay before the of the Brazil currency below the Chamber all the documents which true value of the Portuguese coin. related to the subject. From these Besides the reductions, the language it would be seen, that, on the usurin which the committee proposed pation of the Portuguese crown, and justified them was by no means the payment of the Portuguese flattering to the government. They dividends had been suspended by had discovered that two judges of the Brazilian legation in London, the Supreme Court having ex- which gave notice, at the same changed their judicial functions for time, to the Brazilian government places in the administration, still of the fact, and of the grounds on retained their judicial salaries; they which it had done so. The Braobserved that “the nation was too zilian government, on learning poor to support, by accumulative this, ordered the payments to be sinecures, idleness and vanity.” made as formerly. But its repreThe expenditure of the war de- sentative in England, conceiving partment, which they cut down that, by the success of Don Minearly one-half, they described as guel's usurpation, the treaty be“ enough to drive the blood back tween Brazil and Portugal was into the heart.”
broken, and seeing that there was One topic of inquiry related to no Portuguese ambassador in Lonthe conduct of the government don to receive and pay over the regarding the payment of the in- dividends to the Portuguese creterest on the Portuguese loan ne- ditors, delayed the execution of gotiated in London, which Brazil, the order, and wrote home for by the treaty of independence, had farther explanations-for, by the become bound to take upon itself. terms of the treaty, the funds to The committee reported that the pay the interest of the Portuguese Chambers had already voted money debt, transmitted in the first infor the discharge of this obligation, stance from Brazil, were to be and demanded to know what had handed over from the Brazilian to been done with that money." Have the Portuguese ambassador, and the interest and sinking fund on to be paid by the latter to the the Portuguese loan in London holders of the Portuguese bonds. been paid? Have the dividends To the demand for further instruc