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SPRAYING.

After frost, or rather just before a frost has ended, a spraying device can be used to advantage. Its chief function is to prevent a too rapid warming of the chilled fruit. It is said by horticulturists that even the light coating of ice formed in this way does not seriously damage the fruit. It is very likely that the latent heat of solidification set free by the change from water to ice may play a helpful part; but the chief effect is to prevent a too rapid thawing. In other words, both heat and water should be supplied to the chilled plant slowly and according to the plant's ability to make good use of the same. At the A. J. Everest Ranch at Riverside, Cal., a portion of the grove is protected by sprinklers at the top of 50-foot masts.

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PROTECTIVE METHODS BASED UPON SCREENING OR COVERING.

All screening or covering devices are in effect modified hothouses, and there is no question but that a thorough protection can be accomplished. The expense is the one objection. Screens are made of light materials, namely, canvas, muslin, or light wood work, and have been used with considerable success. At the A. J. Everest Ranch an elaborate structure of lath screens is in use, illustrations of which are given herewith (see figs. 18 and 19). There is no question as to the value of the protection, but the expense is considerable, averaging perhaps $400 to the acre. This lath covering may be considered as forming a well-ventilated hothouse.

Acton

Agnew

KILLING FROSTS.

The following table gives the dates on which occurred killing frosts during the year 1899the last in spring and first in autumn-at stations recording and reporting frosts. The blank spaces in the table indicate that there were no killing frosts at those stations for the period shown, or, in some few cases, that the record is incomplete.

Station.

Alhambra.

Alvarado..

Alviso...

Anada

Anaheim.

Anderson

Angiola

Aptos

Auburn

Banning

Bayles...

Ben Lomond
Berkeley

Biggs....

Boca

Boulder Creek
Bowman's Dam

Buena Park.

Burlingame.
Byron...

Cahto

Calistoga..

Campbell

Capitola...
Castroville
Cedarville...
Chico.

Claremont

Colfax...

Colton..

Corning

Coyote

Craftonville.

Crescent City.
Cuyamaca

Danville

Davisville

Dinuba..

Duarte

Dunnigan

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June 19 Oct. 14
Mar. 23 Dec. 9
May 20 Dec. 1
Feb. 7 Dec. 19
May 2 Nov. 27
Feb. 7
....do
Dec. 19
Mar. 13 Dec. 9
Apr. 29 Oct. 15
Oct. 11
Dec. 10

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Lodi

Los Gatos
Madera
Manzana
Menlo Park
Merced.
Milbrae

Mills College..
Milo....
Mokelumne Hill
Monterey
Moreno Dam..
Mount Eden
Mount Tamalpais.
Napa.
Needles
Nevada City
New Almaden.
Niles.

Killing frost.

Last in First in
spring. autumn.

Mar. 12 Dec. 10
Feb. 8 Dec. 18
Mar. 18 Oct. 15
Dec. 18

Mar. 21
Feb. 7
Mar. 9 Nov. 23
May 1 Oct. 15
Mar. 11 Dec. 6
Feb. 7
Apr. 29 Oct. 1
Mar. 18 Oct. 15
May 1 Dec. 9
Apr. 29
Mar. 13

I

I

Apr. 17
Feb. 5

Oct. 15

Feb. 7
Feb. 6 Dec. 18
Mar. 11 Dec. 10
Feb. 7 Dec. 17
Dec. 1
Dec. 20
Nov. 30
Dec. 20

Apr. 10
Apr. 28

Red Bluff
Dec. 9 Redding
Oct. 13 Redlands
Dec. 6 Reedley.

I

Mar. 18 Oct. 12. Repressa

1

Mar. 17. Dec. 9 Riverside

I

Rocklin

Apr. 28 Oct. 15
Apr. 23 Dec. 1
Mar. 19 Oct. 15
May 11 Oct. 7
Apr. 28

Feb. 5 Dec. 9
Apr. 23 Sept. 6
Mar. 12 Oct. 24
Mar. 18 Nov. 22
Feb. 22
Mar. 11
May 25
Mar. 7
Mar. 10 Dec. 9
Mar. 8 Do.
Dec. 10

Romie.
Rosewood..
Sacramento
Salinas
San Ardo..
San Francisco..
Sanger..
San Leandro
San Luis Obispo...
San Mateo
San Miguel..
Santa Clara
Santa Cruz.
Santa Margarita
Santa Paula..
Santa Rosa..
Sargent
Selma
Shasta.
Soledad
Suisun
Summerdale
Susanville.
Thermalito
Traver

Station.

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Durham..

Edgewood..
Edmanton

El Cajon
El Casco...
El Dorado
Elk Grove..
Elmira

Elsinore..
Escondido...
Eureka..

Exeter

Fall Brook

Farmington..

May 2
Feb. 7
Apr. 26 Dec. 6
....do ...
Dec. 20
Mar. 10

Oct. 26
Mar. 12 Dec. 10
Mar. 18 Dec. 7

Feb. 7 Dec. 13
Feb. 6

Feb. 8

Mar. 13 Dec. 6

Oakland
Oleta.....

North Bloomfield
North Hill Vineyard..
North Ontario..
North San Juan.

Tulare (near).
Ukiah.
Upper Mattole
Vacaville
Valley Springs
Watsonville.
West Point.
West Saticoy
Wheatland..
Willows...
Woodland...

May 16
Mar. 10 Dec. 10
Feb. 6 Dec. 17
Mar. 13 Dec. 19
Feb. 5
May 1 Oct. 15
Mar. 10 Dec. 18
Apr. 29
May 2
Mar. 13
Mar. 18
May 2 Oct. 30
Feb. 5

Oct. 24
Dec. 9

Apr. 20 Oct. 15 Yreka.....

Feb. 9
Apr. 28

Dec. 9
Dec. 19
Dec. 18

Dec. 19
Oct. 12

Dec. 19

May 29
Feb. 3
Apr. 1

Apr. 26 Dec. 13

Apr. 2 Dec. 4
May 20 Sept. 6

NOTE. Killing frosts occurred in every month of the year at Bodie, Mono County. The observer at Los Angeles reports that there were no killing frosts at that station during the year; the first heavy frost occurred December 11, damaging vegetables in exposed places. At San Diego the most severe frost for five years occurred February 6, but did not damage orchards or fruit in citrus region.

Anaheim

Angiola

Arroyo Grande.

Bear Valley

Bellevue

Berkeley

Bodie....

Bowman's Dam

Campbell..

Campo....

Cedarville.

Chico.....

Cottonwood

Craftonville

Crescent City

Cuddeback

Cuyamaca.
Delta..

Drytown

Durham

Edmanton

Eldorado

Elmdale..

Elmira

Elsinore.

Farmington

Folsom

Fort Tejon.. Fresno...

Garberville

Georgetown

Gilroy

Grand Island.
Greenville..

Hanford.

Healdsburg

Hollister....

Independence..

Ione

Iowa Hill.... Jackson (near) Jolon.

Kernville..

Kono Tayee

Laporte

Stations.

Le Grand..

Lick Observatory.

Lodi.

Manton.

Merced

Mokelumne Hill

Moreno Dam

Napa

Nevada City..

Niles (near).

North Bloomfield

Elevation.

Feet.

134

208

Last in spring.

Mar. 13
Feb. 10
Feb. 8

4,600 May 15 Apr. 23 320 Feb. 19

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Dec. 29
Dec. 27
Dec. 31
Oct. 12
Sept. 26
Dec. 30
Aug. 7
Sept. 20
Dec. 28
Sept. 26
Sept. 18

5,500

8,248 June 2
May 25
Apr. 8

194

Apr. 10

4,675

Apr. 27 193 Apr. 10 Dec. 28 423 Mar. 28 Nov. 27 1,759 Feb. 4 Dec. 29 50 Apr. 26 Nov. 20 Apr. 6 Dec. 4 4,543 Apr. 30 Sept. 26 1,138 Feb. 9 Sept. 6 790 Feb. 6 Dec. 28 180 Mar. 28 Dec. 23 Apr. 24 Oct. 29

4,750

1,609

Apr. 9 126 Jan. 9 75 Feb. 1,271 Apr. 8 111 Apr. 4

182 7,650 293

May 1

2,750 Apr. 8

193 Apr. 9
65 Jan. 25
3,600 May 28

249 Feb. 26
100

Dec. 27
8 Nov. 30
Dec. 29
Oct. 29
Dec. 30
Apr. 10 Oct. 24
Dec. 31
Dec. 28
Nov. 19
Dec. 23
Dec. 30
Oct. 1
Oct. 25
Oct. 29
284 Apr. 10 Dec. 4
3,907
Mar. 7 Oct. 30
287 Feb. 8 Dec. 28
2,825 Mar. 5 Dec. 31
Oct. 29
Oct. 23
Sept. 27
Dec. 28
Sept. 6
Dec. 27
Oct. 2
Dec. 29
Nov. 15
Dec. 30
Dec. 2
Oct. 30
Dec. 30

1,975 Apr. 8

..do

2,600 May 9 1,325 5,000 May 28 Apr. 4

255

4,209

35

1900.

Apr. 9
Apr. 26

173 Mar. 28

1,550 Apr. 8

3,100

Apr. 29

2,580 87

20 Feb. 6 Apr. 27 Apr. 9

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3,000 Apr. 14

Dec. 30 Oct. 29

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Dec. 29
Oct. 29
Dec. 30
Dec. 1
Dec. 30
Dec. 23
Oct. 30
Dec. 28

Sept. 20
Nov. 28
Dec. 28
Dec. 17

Dec. 28
Sept. 6
Dec. 29
Dec. 3
Dec. 31
Dec. 23

Dec. 31
Dec. 22
Dec. 31
Dec. 30

I

Apr. 12 Oct. 28 Dec. 30 Dec. 29

Mar. 20

4,000 June 21 1,820 Feb. 7 1,200 ....do ... Feb. 12 Feb. 11 May 28

857

461

3,350

307

557 Feb. 9 1,335 Apr. 9 865 Apr. 10 35 236 Apr. 10

1,054

183

1,500
84
201 Apr. 8
616 Feb. 10
137

83 Apr. 9

Mar. 27
Apr. 10

30 Apr. 9 Apr. 10

70

33

20 Feb. 12 5,270 4, 195

May 28
Apr. 27
Apr. 10
Mar. 15

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18

220
286

181 Apr. 9 Oct. 29

1,148

Nov. 21

Dec. 30
Dec. 31
Do.
Dec. 23
Sept. 25

Sept. 24
Dec. 23
Oct. 1
Dec. 30
Oct. 30
Dec. 28
Dec. 29
Do.

236 274 Mar. 28 620 Apr. 9 175 Feb. 7

Dec. 28 Dec. 31 Dec. 23 Dec. 13

Dec. 30

673 213

Mar. 27 Apr. 2 334 Apr. 10 23 Apr. 8

2,326 Apr. 9 Oct. 7 84....do Dec. 28 565....do... Dec. 23 63 Mar. 5 Nov. 29 2,635 Mar. 29 Sept. 30 Jan. 24 Dec. 29

70

Dec. 28

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AVERAGE DATES OF KILLING FROSTS.

Elevation.

Average date.

Last in First in
spring. autumn.

Feet.

134 Apr. 4 320 Jan. 28 5,500 Apr. 26 194 Mar. 25 4,675 May 15 1,200 Mar. 17 50 May 10 180 Apr. 5 4,750 May 10

1,271

Mar. 23 64 Mar. 29 293 Mar. 1 100 Apr. 8 284. ..do 3,907 Mar. 23 2,825 Mar. 15 1,975 Apr. 15 35 Mar. 12 1,550 Mar. 21 20 Mar. 20 3,000 Apr. 17 660 Feb. 20

Dec. 20
Dec. 15
Oct. 25
Nov.25
Oct. 6
Dec. 5
Nov. 7
Do.
Oct. 22
Nov.26
Nov.29
Nov.15
Nov.16
Nov.21
Oct. 25
Dec. 16
Oct. 25
Nov.16
Dec. 15
Nov.15
Do.
Dec. 13

Stations.

Counties.

North Ontario
North San Juan.
Oakland
Oleta..

Paso Robles (near)... San Luis Obispo..
Peachland...
Pomona (near)
Quincy.....
Redbluff

Sonoma
Los Angeles.
Plumas..

Riverside
Rosewood..

Tehama
Riverside.
Tehama.....
Sacramento

Sacramento

San Francisco.
San Luis Obispo..
Santa Maria...
Summerdale.
Susanville

Ukiah.

Vacaville

Wheatland
Yreka.

San Bernardino...

Nevada.....
Alameda

Amador

1 San Francisco
San Luis Obispo..
Santa Barbara....
Mariposa.

Lassen....

Mendocino

Solano.....

Yuba
Siskiyou..

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Mar. 14

Dec. 14

Feet.
1,800
2,130
14 Jan. 7
1,510

Apr. 11

Oct. 15
Dec. 20

Mar. 20 Nov. 19

I

723 Apr. 1 Nov. 5 220 Apr. 14, Nov. 21 857 Apr. 2 Nov. 20 3,350 May 15 Sept. 14 307 Mar. 27 Dec. 16 1,000 Mar. 17 Dec. 20 865 Apr. 8 Nov. 7

1 Feb. 16

35

!

183

Jan. 25

Mar. 5

Nov. 15 Dec. 10 201 Nov. 18 220 Mar. 10 Nov. 25 5,270 May 7 Oct. 17 4,195 May 10 Sept. 22 620 Apr. 14 Nov. 1 175 Mar. 12 Dec. 21 84 Feb. 20 1 2,635 May 24

Nov. 26 Sept. 26

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