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CLIMATE OF NORTH AND CENTRAL COAST.

CLIMATOLOGY OF EUREKA, AND WEATHER CONDITIONS ALONG THE COAST OF NORTH. ERN CALIFORNIA.

By Mr. A. H. BELL, Observer, Weather Bureau.

The city of Eureka stands on the south shore of Humboldt Bay about 7 miles from the entrance and some 215 miles from San Francisco, latitude north 40° 48′ and longitude west 124° 11'. A few miles east of the city we have the forest-covered foothills of the coast range, while on the west the shore is washed by the Pacific Ocean.

Equable and apparently health-giving is Eureka's climate. Since establishment of the sta tion the highest recorded temperature is 84 and the lowest 20° above. Fogs and overcast skies prevail at all seasons along the coast. They preserve a uniform temperature and a humid atmosphere, and, to a large extent, determine the character of our industries and productions. In summer, however, cloudless skies and a high temperature are characteristics of the higher latitudes and of the region east of the redwood belt. From October until April is the rainy season, but the wet period is by no means a season of continuous precipitation. Sometimes a rainy season will embrace much pleasant weather. While the prevailing winds are in summer northerly, seldom indeed do they attain the velocity of a gale, usually rising before noon and subsiding before nightfall. These winds are extremely liable to ensue on two or three consecutive days. In winter, on the other hand, the prevailing winds are southeasterly.

Humboldt Bay has a varying width of from half a mile to 4 miles and a length of 14 miles, and possesses a tidal area of about 28 square miles. It lies nearly parallel with the coast, and between it and the ocean there intervenes a sand peninsula with a width of from one-fourth mile to 1 miles. So narrow is the entrance and so peculiar are its relations to the body of water within-in other words so completely landlocked is our harbor-that tempestuous weather outside affects it very little.

1887.

1888.

1889.

1890.

1891.

1892.

1893.

1894.

1895.

1896.

1897.

1898.

1899.

1900.

Year.

Mean...

MEAN MONTHLY AND ANNUAL TEMPERATURE (DEGREES FAHRENHEIT).

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June. July. Aug.

Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

48.5

51.9

52.4

52.5

54.7

46.9 48.2
42.2 44.4
45.4

48.0

48.0

47.8

44.7

45.2

45.6

46.6 41.0 49.3
54.0 53.0 50.5 47.7
44.6 48.4 47.7 50.9 53.5 59.4 58.0 57.4 57.4 54.6 51.2 52.2
52.2 53.2 54.8
55.0 55.6 55.4 56.0 56.2 53.2 46.6
46.9 49.0 54.0 55.2 56.7 55.8 53.2 51.6 50.0 48.4
49.0 50.9 53.2 56.4 56.0 59.4 56.7 54.1 52.4 45.4
48.6 49.0 52.8 53.6 55.4 56.2
56.2 53.6 49.6 46.6
47.8 47.8. 51.4 53.7 55.9 55.2 56.0 51.4 50.9 47.4
46.4 48.6 51.0 54.4 54.4 57.3 56.0 53.9 50.7 46.0
53.7 52.0 48.8 46.8
50.0 48.3
51.5 54.0
57.2 59.9
55.6 52.6 49.1
51.0
47.2
45.2 51.0 52.8 55.8 55.8 56.5 55.2 53.8 49.4 48.6
44.0 50.0 45.6 48.8
50.4 56.3 54.6 55.9 56.0 53.9 48.3 46.2
47.5
44.4 48.0 48.2 49.6 52.0 54.8 55.9 54.8 52.0 55.9 48.0
50.4 48.6 50.5 50.5 54.4 56.2 56.4 57.0 56.6 53.8 53.3 50.8
46.6 46.6 48.2 49.6 52.4 54.8 55.7 56.5 55.5 53.3 51.0 48.0

43.6

46.4

49.4 47.9 49.8 53.0 52.8 56.0 54.0

50.0

48.4

48.1

I

1

Annual.

50.2 52.9

52.8 50.6 52.2 51.4 50.6

50.7

50.9

52.3 51.6 50.8

50.9 53.2 51.5

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1887.. 1888.

1889.

1890.

1891.

1892.

1893.

1894.

1895.

1896.

1897.

1898.

1899. 1900.

Year.

Average for 14 years

7.42

Jan. Feb. Mar.

6.44 6.35 4.29

2.92 1.26 0.09 0.16 1.17

2.92

5.53

Apr. May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

1887-88
1888-89

8.86 9.07 2.28 5.55 3.51 1.92 0.06 0.07 0.21 0.55 2.66 5.43
12.95 1.98 4.09 1.05 0.76 4.66 0.44 T. 0.06 1.15 3.41 5.93
4.25 1.93 5.91 3.49 7.20 0.37 0.15 0.13 0.32 8.36 3.71 12.88
18.26 13.88 11.57 2.26 1.71
3.33 9.81 5.83 6.37
1.55
3.29 2.53 5.32 5.54 3.63

2.72 10.97

1890-91
1891-92

0.87 0.08 0.02 0.79 0.44 0.18 5.48 1889-90
1.53 0.29 0.31 1.45 1.64
0.45 0.00 0.09 0.99 2.90 8.19 6.55
3.65 6.27 10.59 7.16 2.43 0.33 0.00 0.00 2.39 4.33 9.87 6.69 1892-93
12.38 6.13 7.46 2.97 1.31 1.67 0.02 0.04 1.84 3.12 2.03 12.31 1893-94
9.37 3.60 5.31 2.88 5.39 0.06 0.23 0.11 3.14 0.05
3.88 7.50 1894-95
8.14 4.61 6.93 11.13 6.22 0.51 0.00 0.70 1.60 2.37 8.00 9.41 1895-96
3.04 11.23 9.85 2.55 0.75 1.60 0.03 0.15 1.05 2.63 5.44 6.18 1896-97
3.23
8.00 1.80 2.78 2.62 1.21 T. 0.06 1.48 2.13 4.43 3.17 1897-98
6.50 5.03 8.53 1.91 1.73 0.75 0.00 0.42 0.88 4.28 14.80 7.05 1898-99
6.63 6.04 3.42 4.43 2.08 1.70 T. 0.07 0.21 7.07 8.06 5. 27 1899-1900

7.49

MONTHLY, ANNUAL, AND SEASONAL PRECIPITATION (INCHES AND HUNDREDTHS).

[The capital letter "T" indicates the rainfall was but a trace and was too small to measure. The total rainfall for the seasons are the totals from July 1 of one year to June 30 of the next year.]

Season
of-

34.78
33.98

73.92

35.91

37.63

49.06

55.26

46.25
52.81

50.58

35.00
36.08

51.33

45.59

Seasonal. Annual.

40.17

36.48

48.70

55.54

45.80

39.48

53.71

51.28

41.52

59.62

44.50

30.91

51.88

44.98

46.04

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FIG. 4.-Seasonal rainfall at Eureka, Cal., from 1887 to 1901.

50.58 1896-1997

35.00

1897-1898

35.72

37.73

7898-1899

1899-1900

37.63

55.26

1891 1892

49.06 1892-1993

1893-1894

46.25 1894 1895

52.81 1895 1896

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1887-88.

1888-89..

1889-90..

1890-91..

1891-92..

1892-93..

1893-94..

1894-95.

1895-96..

1896-97.

1897-98.

1898-99.

1899-1900.

1900-1901..

Month.

January
February..
March

April

May June..

Year.

1888.

1889

1890.

1891

1892.

1893.

1894.

1895.

1896.

1897.

1898.

1899.

1900.

DATES OF FIRST AND LAST LIGHT AND KILLING FROSTS, WITH LOWEST TEMPERATURE.

[Record began January 1, 1887.]

First light frost of sea

son.

Average.

Date.

Nov. 4, 1888

Sept. 13, 1889

Oct. 3, 1890

Sept. 30, 1891

Oct. 17, 1892

Oct. 17, 1893

In.

18.26 1890
13.88 1890
11.57 1890
11.13 1896
7.20 1889
4.66 1888

Nov. 13, 1894

Aug. 8, 1895

Sept. 13, 1896

Oct. 15, 1897

Oct. 24, 1898
Oct. 14, 1899
Oct. 6,1900

Greatest monthly Least monthly
precipitation.

precipitation.

Minimum
tempera-
ture.

In

Amount. Date. Amount. Date. first 7

years.

In.

3.04 1897
1.93 1889
1.80 1898
1.05 1888

0.75 1897
0.06 1895

• F.

Jan.

6.8

5.1

7.7

5.0

5.2

4.5

7.0

7.4

7.3

4.7

5.4

5.8

4.1

5.8

38

40

40

43

40

38

46

46

43

39

41

39 43

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Number of times
precipitation
has exceeded
normal in 14
years.

3

First killing frost of sea-
son.

In. In.

3

4

2

4

3

Nov. 27, 1888

Dec. 11, 1889

Nov. 7, 1890

Dec. 5, 1891

Nov. 17, 1892

Nov. 17, 1893

Dec. 10, 1894

Nov. 23, 1895

Nov. 27, 1896

Dec. 19, 1897

Nov. 25, 1898
Dec. 13, 1899
None

In

sec

ond 7 years.

6.0

4.8

7.5

7.0

4.1

7.6

6.5

5.0

6.1

5.9

6.7

6.6

5.7

6.1

324

Date.

2

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In the table below will be found the greatest monthly precipitation and date; least monthly precipitation and date; number of times monthly precipitation has exceeded the normal in fourteen years:

Total.

In.

Feb. Mar.

9.4

6.3

6.3

7.8

6.5

6.7

7.4

7.3

8.3

8.4

7.2

6.8

6.0

6

6

6

6

7.3

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Minimum
tempera-
ture.

Month.

July

• F.

5.9

7.5

8.3

8.6

7.5

8.0

8.2

7.1

8.3

7.1

8.9

7.8

9.6

August
September..
October....
November..
December

7.9

32
34

35

Last light frost of sea

son.

AVERAGE HOURLY WIND VELOCITY [IN MILES PER HOUR].

[Record began January 1, 1888.]

6.7

7.9

7.8

8.2

7.6

9.1

7.5

9.1

9.8

7.3

7.2

8.6

7.6

May 11, 1888

35

Mar. 21, 1889

34

Apr. 14, 1890

35

Apr. 11, 1891

34

Apr. 26, 1892

37

Apr. 18, 1893

35 May 16, 1894

36

Apr. 18, 1895

32

May 12, 1896

27

Apr. 7, 1897

May 7, 1898

June 6, 1899

8.0

Date.

May 27, 1900
June 12, 1901

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In.

0.44 1888

0.70 1896 3.14 1895 8.36 1889 9.87 1893 12.88 1889

Minimum
tempera-
ture.

6.3
6.4

8.6

8.0

8.4

8.5

7.8

8.2

8.3

6.7

8.7

8.6

7.3

7.8

Greatest monthly Least monthly
precipitation. precipitation.

In Amount. Date. Amount. Date. first 7 years.

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6.4

OF.
44

39
35

40

38 Apr. 4, 1892

36

38

36 Apr. 8, 1893
Mar. 22, 1894
Apr. 5, 1895
Mar. 31, 1896
Mar. 30, 1897
Mar. 22, 1898
Feb. 7, 1899

38

36
39

40
43

None

42 April 7, 1901

In.

Last killing frost of sea

son.

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5.1

0.00

Apr. May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct.

Date.

Mar. 27, 1888

Feb. 19, 1889

Mar. 11, 1890

Mar. 29, 1891

1892

1893

1896

0.00 1893
0.06 1888
0.05 1895
0.18 1890
3.17 1898

7.3 4.6! 4.8
5.3
5.1: 5.2

6.9

5.3

3.9

6.0

4.9

4.6

7.5

5.0

4.0

6.0

4.9

6.3

5.5

5.1

6.6

6.4

4.9

4.2

5.4

5.8

4.4

8.2

4.8

5.2

6.4

5.0

4.8

6.3

5.4

4.0

6.3

5.8

6.3

4.9

4.3

4.6

5.1

4.2

4.3

4.9

5.0

4.2

4.6

5.1

4.5

5.4

6.0

Minimum temperature.

4.8

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Number of times precipitation has exceeded normal in 14 years.

In second 7 years.

1

223 22

+41 2

Nov.

In. In. In.

4

4

• F.

5

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3.9
4.1

4.0

4.5

5.4

6.2

4.0

5.2

6.4

4.7

4.7

6.4

4.0

4.9

32

30

33

34

Total.

[blocks in formation]
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