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AVERAGE DAILY WIND MOVEMENT (MILES PER HOUR).

141

193

128

159

139

161

189

135

143

189

121

86

85

117

78

95

100

81

87

125

92

107

92

124

5.6

6.0

7.9

5.0

3.6 1

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Mar.

3.5

4.9

3.2

4.0

4.2

3.4

3.6

5.2

3.9

4.5

3.81

4.5

119

104

117

136

143

124

183

115

147

123

149

96

100

98

92

102

101

86

90

128

121

121

90

116

4.8

6.1

5.1

Apr.

6.2

4.0

4.2

4.1

3.8

4.2 i

4.2

3.6

3.8

5.3

5.1

5.1

3.8

4.6

114

127

136

126

93

171

150

144

151

136

138

88

83

91

98

101

101

91

111

110

113

113

120

118

6.0

6.3

5.6

5.8

3.6

3.4

3.8

4.1

4.2

4.2

3.8

4.6

4.6

4.7

4.7

5.01

4.6

May. June. July. Aug.

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88 !

91

91

93

88

105

89

83

112

104

107

113

111

104

106

106

109

137

134

5.2

5.3

6.2

5.7

3.7

3.8

3.8

3.9

3.7

4.4

3.7

3.4

4.7

4.3

4.5

4.7

4.4

131

102

AVERAGE HOURLY WIND VELOCITY (MILES PER HOUR).

102

130

128

133 j

83

85

77

88

106

107

102

120

106

4.2

5.4

5.3

5.6

3.4

3.4

3.5

3.4

3.7

3.5

3.2

3.6

4.4

4.5

4.3

5.0

4.1

94

98

99

102

128

131

127

119

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Sept.

4.1

5.1

5.4

5.2

3.4

3.5

3.5

3.3

3.6

3.6

2.8

3.6

4.3

4.2

4.2

4.7

4.0

108

101

92

90

131

130

126

119

85

112

125

117

87

77

84

73

90

83

79

97

101

91 84

111 100

3.6

4.7

5.2

4.9

3.6

3.2

3.5

3.0

3.7

3.5

3.3

4.0

4.2

3.8

3.5

4.6

3.9

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MONTHLY, SEASONAL, AND ANNUAL SUMMARIES.

688

Mean.

Year.

1885

1883

1891 1885

74 1888

1890

66 1900

61 1890

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Absolute minimum.

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Year

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28 1883

31 1893

38 1896

1883 2.80 7.83 1890 0.20 1887 4.17 1890 13.37 1884 T. 1896 3.94 1887 12.36 1884 0.01 1885 3.18 1884 5.06 1880 0.02 1897 2.20 1884 40 1883 2.06 1892 0.00 1886 1.76 1892 46 1894 1.39 1884 0.00 0.87 1884 49 1888 0.24 1886 0.00 0.24 1886 50 1883 0.61 1889 0.00 0.61 1889 44 1880 0.04 0.73 1894 0.00 0.71 1894 40 1892 0.81 6.95 1889 0.00 3.62 1889 34 1886 1.47 6.53 1900 0.00 3.79 1900 30 1897 3.28 15.80 1889 0.05 1897 4.34 1879 15.71

2.82 2.72. 1.10 0.51 0.10 0.02 0.04

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39

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Mean monthly.

W.

W.

N. E.

W.
N. E.
W.
W.

W.

Greatest monthly.

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Precipitation.

48
40
46

N. E.
W.

42

30

S.W. W. N.W. 24 W. 22 N. 22 W. 28 W. 34 W. 43 N. E. 37 E.

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SAN DIEGO, CAL.

By Mr. FORD A. CARPENTER, Observer, Weather Bureau.

Four elements enter into a consideration of the climate of San Diego. Named according to their importance, they are as follows: (1) Distance from the northern storm tracks, and the southern storms of the lower California coast; (2) proximity to the ocean on the west; (3) the mountains in the east; and (4) the great Colorado Desert still farther east. The number of the northern areas of low pressure sufficiently great and moving far enough south to exert an influence at the latitude of San Diego are comparatively few; not one-tenth of these "lows" have an appreciable effect on the climate. The storms from the south (Sonoras," as they are locally known) have but little energy, and probably average two a year. As is the case in all marine climates, the ocean exerts by far the most powerful effect. This is noticed in the slight daily variation in temperature and the absence of either cold or hot weather. The average daily change in temperature from day to day is 2 degrees, and the extremes in temperature from a record of thirty years are 101 and 329. The temperature has exceeded 90° nineteen times in thirty years, or on an average of about twice every three years. Four times in the history of the station has the temperature touched 32, but has never fallen lower. Four killing frosts have occurred in San Diego since the establishment of the station, but aside from blackening tender shoots and killing delicate flowers, no damage was done.

The desert winds are responsible for temperatures above 90°, and they are therefore accompanied by extremely low humidity. Records of humidity below 10 per cent are not uncommon during the two or three hours' duration of the desert wind. Three per cent is the lowest relative humidity ever recorded at this station. As the sea breeze is stronger than the desert wind, the highest point reached, whenever the temperature is above 90°, usually occurs about 11 a. m. At this time the sea breeze overcomes the land breeze and the temperature drops to the normal.

Nothing so clearly illustrates the strictly local character of the climate of San Diego as the humidity. While the mean annual relative humidity is 78 per cent at the Weather Bureau station, 2 miles north and at an increase of 200 feet in elevation, the humidity decreases 15 per cent. Five miles away, and at an elevation of 300 feet, there is a further decrease of 5 per cent. The temperature is of course proportionately higher.

The maximum amount of sunshine occurs in November and the minimum in May and June, the winters being usually bright and warm and the summers cloudy and cool. The photographic sunshine recorder was installed in 1890, and this ten years' record shows an average of four days each year without sunshine.

There is a difference of about 1 mile an hour in the average hourly velocity of the wind between the summer and the winter months; the mean annual hourly velocity is 5 miles. While the wind blows from every point of the compass during a normal day, the land breeze is very light, averaging about 3 miles per hour, reaching its lowest velocity just before the sea breeze starts in. The records show that there is an average velocity of from 6 to 9 miles from 10 a. m. to 6 p. m. During the summer a velocity of 6 miles is attained at 9 a. m., increasing to 10 miles at 2 p. m., reaching 6 miles at 7 p. m. miles, beginning shortly after noon. the average annual number being two. one a year. The highest velocity ever attained was 40 miles from the northwest, in February, 1878.

The winter months have about five hours of wind over 6
Winds from 25 to 30 miles per hour occur infrequently,
Winds of from 31 to 40 miles have an average of less than

The record of meteorological observations began in July, 1849, and was made entirely by officials of the Government. The Army and Coast Survey kept up the record until the establishment of this station by the Signal Service, November 1, 1871. Since this date the location of the observing office has been changed a number of times, but the different places have all been within a radius of a few blocks. The office is now in the Keating building, corner Fifth and F streets. The instruments have elevations as follows: Thermometer, 94 feet; rain gauge, 86 feet: anemometer, 102 feet.

1176-Bull. L—03——6

1852.

1853.

1854.

1855.

1856.

1857.

1858.

1859.

1860.

1861.

1862.

18C3.

1864.

1865....

1866.

1867.

1368.

1869.

1870..

1871..

1872.

1873.

1874.

1875.

1876.

1877.

1878.

1879.

1880.

1881.

1882.

1883.

1884.

1885.

1886.

1887.

1888.

1889.

1890.

1891.

1892.

1893.

1894..

1895.

1896.

1897.

MEAN MONTHLY AND ANNUAL TEMPERATURE (DEGREES FAHRENHEIT).

Jan.

Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Annual.

53.1
53.8

54.2 55.0

52.6

56.2

51.0

52.4

51.2

56.0

54.5

55.9 55.0 57.6 61.2 67.1 73.2 72.5 73.6 65.0 57.3 51.9
53.0 57.7 62.6 63.3 68.4 72.8 72.9 70.7 68.8 60.4
56.2
56.4 63.3 60.7 64.1 73.1 72.1 66.7 64.0 58.7 55.5
58.4 62.3 64.0 68.8 70.9 72.0 68.3 66.6
56.4 52.4
53.5
56.2 60.0
61.0 68.6 72.3 72.5 68.8 61.6
56.2 50.0
53.6 58.8
62.6 64.4 69.1 67.3 72.8 68.4 63.9 57.2 51.8
55.1
57.8
62.8
66.5 69.2 69.8
69.6 63.5 58.6 53.1
54.8 55.3 56.2 60.1 67.0 69.7 68.4 66.6 65.1 60.1 55.3
53.9 59.0 60.4
61.9
64.5 68.8 70.8 69.1
63.6
56.9
56.5 57.7 63.8 65.7 67.6 73.1 72.3
69.3 64.6 59.8
66.8 59.4
68.2 71.2 72.9 69.4 65.8 60.4
62.6 64.6 68.0 68.1 68.9 65.7 59.0
65.2 69.0
69.7 75.1 69.2 64.6
64.3 65.7
60.5 66.6
63.6 69.1

51.4

55.2

51.4

58.1

55.6

51.8

62.7

55.4

52.8

52.8

59.9 61.0

55.8

56.0

56.2

59.1 56.5

55.6

54.7

67.7

71.8

68.2

65.2

62.1

52.2

69.7

73.1

69.6

65.0

60.4

58.6

54.5 57.0
55.2 53.2
54.5
56.5

70.5

74.5

71.7

64.0

63.2

63.3

62.3

65.7

69.4

74.1

62.1

62.2

64.4

68.8

56.6 55.6
57.5

55.6

!

i

54.7

53.4

51.9

57.4

55.6

52.3

52.5

50.8

52.8

55.7
51.2

50.4

53.4 53.9

58.5 61.8
57.8 59.8
57.9 62.7
55.4 61.7
57.4
61.3
72.2 66.1 62.1 55.4
59.8
70.3 68.3 66.3 61.1 50.6
56.3 58.8 61.4 64.6 68.3 70.5 66.9 63.6 59.4 51.4
53.5 52.2 56.7 57.7 63.6
65.1 71.4 72.1 68.3 65.6 58.3 56.8
52.7 55.2 56.4 56.0
60.4 64.9 66.6 68.9
66.0 62.5 59.4 55.4
56.7 53.3 56.7 58.0 60.0 62.7 67.0 69.0 67.7 62.0 60.3 54.3
52.6 52.6 56.2 60.5 63.2
68.3 68.1
65.7
63.2 56.7 53.3
54.6 55.0 57.8 62.6
64.6 68.3 71.2 67.7
67.2 60.3 56.9
55.9
54.9 59.0 60.9 65.2 68.3 68.8 66.3 64.6 59.4 56.8
57.9 58.9 58.3 60.3 66.3 68.4 68.4 68.0 63.9
60.6 56.8
¦
56.0 56.7 58.1
61.5 64. 1 66.8 68.3 67.3
62.0 57.5 53.5
54.8 57.9 53.1 60.1 64.1 65.7 68.6 66.6 62.6 56.2 53.9
52.1 56.5 60.6 63.0
63.4 65.8 63.1
61.2
56.2 56.9
54.3 60.8 62.3 64.1 67.2 68.2 66.7 61.5 56.8 55.0
55.1 56.6 61.9 64.3 66.7 70.2 66.8 62.0 57.0 55.7
57.4 57.4
60.6
66.6 i
68.7 68.9 69.7 61.7
58.7
57.5
56.5 57.6 61.4 64.4 684 69.5 65.1 61.3 58.6 54.4
59.6 62.0 63.3 64 3
67.6
71.8 68.0 63.9 59.6 57.1
55.0 57.2
60.4
63.1 67.1 70.5 66.6 59.7 56.0 56.0
52.9 57.2 59.0 62.1 64.6 66.5 66.2 65.7 64.5 59.2 54.6
54.9 55.8
60.8 61.2 66.0 68.4 69.2 69.7 65.0 59.9 58.2
58.0
59.2 60.4 60.8 64.0 67.6 70.8 70.2 65.4 62.0 57.4
56.4 58.6 60.4 64.1 68.5 69.8 69.1 64.6 63.8 60.8
56.9
58.2 60.8 65.6 69.0 72.4
70.2 63.8 59.2
61.5
55.0
56.0 57.8 61.0 62.0 64.9 67.8 65.4 62.7 60.9 54.2
54.4
54.2
57.5 61.0 63.4 67.4 70.0 64.6 62.7
57.6 57.4
49.5 50.5 52.6 56.4 58.6 61.4 64.8 67.0 65.9 62.8
57.1 54.8
53.2 55.8 55.4 57.8 61.9 65.0 65.6
61.7
67.4 64.4 59.4 55.0
55.5
57.7 58.2 56.5 62.0 64.8 68.6 69.4 66.7 64.2
59.7 59.0
55.8 54.7 54.2 59.8 60.9 63.4 67.0 69.9 68.1 62.4 60.2 55.0
50.8 55.2 54.5 59.1 58.8 63.8 66.7 70.6 68.5 62.3 59.4 56.6
55.5
53.4 56.4 58.2 57.7 61.4 65.6 65.8 65.5 62.7 60.8 58.7
57.8 57.6 59.2 56.8 60.9 64.4 67.6 66.2 65.6 63.1 64.6 60.4
56.2 57.5 60.0 57.4 60.0 62.5 65.8 68.2 64.8
54.8 56.51
65.11 67.2 70.0 68.0 63.9 59.2

55.0

55.9
55.4

54.0

55.9 58.5

54.3

51.6

54.8

51.0

54.3

54.6

53.3

55.1

57.4

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62.0

63.4 62.0

62.4

61.0

61.9

61.1

61.1

61.3

63.3

62.5

61.6

63.4

62.1

63.0

63.8

63.1

62.2

61.2

61.8 60.4

60.0

59.6

61.6 61.0 62.1 60.6 60.1 58.5 60.4 59.8 61.2

60.7

62.0

60.5

60.6 61.7

62.6 61.8 62.0 60.2 60.6 58.4 60.5 61.9 61.0 60.5 60.1

1898..

1899.

1900.

1901.

Mean (50 years)

59.1

61.6

53.9

55.6

62.0

61.4

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MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM TEMPERATURES.

Feb.

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35 70

40

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36 85 37

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Mar.

40 76 38

36 75 42

83 44

38 75 40 75

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Apr.

Maximum.

76 45 80 46

43 76 34 86 44 93

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Minimum.

Maximum.

Minimum.

Maximum.

Minimum.

Maximum.

Minimum.

Maximum.

Minimum.

Maximum.

Minimum.

Maximum.

Minimum.

Maximum.

Minimum.

Maximum.

Minimum.

May.

June.

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80 55 75

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77 53 79

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July.

72 56 84

79

78

86

77

75

73

84

79

79

88 58

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Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dee.

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85

55 82

59

80 56

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83

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82

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83

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84

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92

89

82

89

89

56 88

78

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83

76

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54

56

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55 100

62

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85 60

57

80 57

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58

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60 101

60

60 80 59

57

54 78

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78 54 90 46 75

88 57

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92

82 55 76 49 85 49 68 44

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82 54 80 48
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80 50

78

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54 87 45 81

83

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90 56

92

50

72

53 87

59

51

60

55 54 53

90 52

60

54

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5-4

92

81

56

81

80

88 53 78 50 75 38

87

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85

80

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88

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55 93

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[From 1875 to 1900, 9,496 days, there were 9,181 days of temperature not above 80° or below 40°.]

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47 78 46 78 40

47

44

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48

46 76 38 77 33

53

50

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79

50

78

83 46 84

77 40 79 35

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42

49 80 42 78 11

47 74 42 68 35

45 82 39

47 76 42 79 40

50 82 44

83 58 76 51 83

82 43 78 42

82

43

77 40 76

75 46

83

83 46

56 81 51 76

91 46

40 77 40

76

81

78 45

14

40

40

43

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45

43

53 72 50 89 51

71 32

50

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54 84 54 85 38: 79 34

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74 36

73 41

69 40

71

79 47

82

40

72 32

80

79

70 41

80

36

38

78 46

36

45

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