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having fought you, now offers this bullock as a token of the peace, which he means to propose to the great White Chief when he arrives at his head-quarters among the Djour.' My reply, “ Afwat,” (good,) when said with a certain intonation, conveying the meaning of a whole sentence of approbation, charmed both guests and followers, who, in as short a time as it takes to relate it, had the poor bullock struggling under the knife.

Restraint had now been thrown off between my guests and myself, for although they would not join in the meal, the materials for which they had so bountifully supplied, they willingly joined in the general good humor, which a liberal allowance of " man," (a thick fluid of uninviting color, but better taste, which may be translated into beer, although in appearance resembling barm,) now began to produce in all parts of the camp; and mixing with the Arabs, several of whom they recognized, partook freely of the muddy beverage, until supper being announced, they withdrew, well pleased with the happy termination to the interview.

Jan. 222.-We were up and stirring with the sun, having the prospect of a five hours' march before us to reach my station at the Djour. We struck out lustily, following a winding pathway, which soon brought us into thick bush, and led us now and then across highly picturesque glades, studded with fine trees, the "tout ensemble" of which forcibly reminded me of many a noble park at home. Here we disturbed herds of giraffes and antelopes, the former browsing on the young shoots of a species of acacia, while the latter were attracted by some still green blades of grass, protected by the shade of thick bushes from the withering rays of the sun. Decoyed by the prospect of sport so alluring, I succeeded in shooting a giraffe, which my delighted negroes, scorning the operation of skinning, soon reduced into portable pieces for the noonday meal.

T'he huts of the village still threw their shadows westward as we entered Coetchangia, (where the panther was killed,) in which was my station, where we were received with a volley from my delighted garrison, and shouts of joy from the aborigines, both old and young. Among the first to bespatter me with his endearments was the old chief Akon Dit (Dit, a term of respect, as excellency is prefixed in Europe, and Akon, elephant-the old man having been an intrepid and successful hunter.) So many were the welcomes indicted upon me by my friends, to whom I had become endeared by the profits of trade, sundry gifts, and the recollection of many a carcase of buffalo and elephant, which had fallen to their lot, the proceeds of my rifle, that I felt myself blinded, and my face streaming from the effects of their kindness, which, however flattering to my vanity, I was but too glad to curtail by a more hasty than dignified retreat into my hut.

The style of dress of the young and unmarried of my lady visitors I have already described; the married ones wear hides of antelope and sheep-skins, two of which are worn attached to the waist; one in front, and the other behind, extending to near the ankles; the edges of the front one are neatly bordered with variously colored beads, while small iron rings and bells of their own manufacture, form the ornaments of that behind.

The tribes through which I have hitherto conducted you from the lake, are strictly pastoral, possessing large herds of cattle, and less numerous flocks of sheep and goats, upon which they mainly depend for support, rather than on agriculture, which, despising as an unmanly occupation, they leave entirely to

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the females, and is confined to the cultivation of small quantities of maize or millet, cotton of good staple, ground-nuts, gourds, and yams. Their field is a small patch of ground, in the immediate vicinity of their huts, which, unlike the Shilluks, are placed at considerable distances from those of their neighbors, each group of which appertaining to the same family, are defended by strong and high palisades, for their protection against wild beasts. Their sheep and goats afford them neither wool nor milk, and dependent entirely upon the produce of their cows and the chase for nourishment, sometimes, from a deficiency of grain, many have died of starvation; and frequentiy while shooting in the bush have I beheld skeletons of children, in twos and threes, who have dropped and died from want while in search of gums or berries to satisfy their hunger.

We have now entered into a latitude, according to my calculation about 80 N., where the tsetse fly abound, and where consequently cattle can no longer exist; therefore the Djour tribe, as well as those in more southern latitudes, are agricultural in their habits.

Iron ore, a rich red oxide, is found here, which the Djour, who are capital smiths, turn to account by the manufacture of lances and hoes, which they exchange with their pastoral neighbors for fat oxen and beads.

The Djour are a small, powerless, and consequently peaceable tribe, who having tasted the profits of their industry--in the manufacture and sale of iron implements of war and husbandry-entered eagerly into the spirit of the ivory trade, and would collect and purchase tusks wherever they heard of them within their reach, to retail to me at a small advantage.

· Although my advance thus far may appear from these extracts to have been smooth sailing, yet from the plundering and cut-throat propensities of my present friends—the Dinkas—it has during preceding years called forth all my energy and nerve, not only to make good my footing, but to insure the lives of myself and followers.

While on my first journey into the interior, in the year 1854, I pursued a more westerly route, with thirty-five Arabs, and ninety negro followers of the Raik tribe, as porters; and after having entered the Wajkoing tribe I was placed in as awkward a fix as any man with an ordinary love of excitement could desire.

The savages, during my absence shooting in the bush, had, by dint of hard threats, induced my porter-negroes to abscond, and by their refusal to provide me with substitutes, hoped to compel me to abandon my baggage, which offered a prize far exceeding their hopes of gain by legitimate trade or labor. Disappointed in their expectations, collecting by hundreds, they used threats and menaces, calling us frequently to arms during many a weary day and watchful night. After six weeks of patient and trying endurance, a detach. ment of my men induced the Waj chief Maween, ever after my staunch friend, to bring one hundred men under their escort to my relief, and conducting me through his own territory, eventually left me with the Djour, among whom I succeeded in engaging porters to return to my boats.

In expectation of concluding a peace with the chiefs of the neighboring tribes, the most formidable of whom was Angoin of the Neanglau, I may as well relate what had led to the rupture between us, as it will serve to throw a light on the slight estimation in which human life is held by these tribes.

My success in the ivory trade had ereated a jealousy among the mercantile community at Khartum, and had induced several parties to get up expeditions similar to my own,

and to my great annoyance, follow my footsteps, rather than break new and dangerous ground. One of these parties, on two occasions while on the march, had been fallen upon by the negroes and plundered.

In the first instance, added to the loss of their property, eight out of twentyfour of their men had been murdered by the Ajack tribe, a fate which, no doubt, the entire party would have suffered, had it not been for the providential and unexpected arrival of another Arab company in time to extricate them. A few days after this occurrence, and without any knowledge of it, a second and smaller detachment of nine men, in the service of the same person, were sent from their temporary establishment to their boat on the lake, and were all brutally murdered by the Neanglau, at a distance of about 20 miles from my head-quarters.

These facts were for a considerable time kept secret from me, as it was determined, in consequence of the easy prey the last party had proved, to fall upon us, and secure to themselves a more valuable booty. The Djour would not join the neighboring Dinkas, who comprised the entire negro population, coniposed of six tribes, between me and the lake, and, in order to take a neutral part, decamped during the night, without any warning, from their huts into the bush.

My first object was to afford protection to the unfortunate Arab merchant, the principal of the murdered men, and his ten ill-armed remaining followers, by taking them into my camp, with whom and my own men-at the time but thirteen in number, and these reduced by illness to only six able men-we set about barricading and strengthening our position, where we stood a six weeks' siege.

At last my men, consisting of two detachments of thirty-five each, although among a far distant tribe, the Dôr, heard of my situation, and, joining, came to my relief. I now no longer feared an attack by day or night, which had often been threatened; but a friendly Djour named Pfing, a valued companion in frequent exploits with elephants, under cover of the night, informed me that Meckwen Dit, the chief of the Neanglau, and leader of the tribes, had determined not to expose himself or men to the effect of our fire-arms in the open plain round the village, but to occupy in preference the thick bush, through which we should be obliged to pass on the way to regain our boats.

Having secured the safety of a large quantity of ivory and valuables among my southern friends, the Dôr tribe, the rainy season being at hand I decided, at whatever risk, to commence my return. With the certainty of an attack from vastly superior numbers, in a disadvantageous position, I determined to outmanæuvre my enemy; and knowing the tribes to prize cattle above anything on earth, decided on a counter-attack upon their Kraals, which, in expectation of encountering me on my line of march, I conjectured might possibly be illdefended.

Starting with sixty of the best armed of my Khartumers, having given Meckwen Dit and his Dinkas in the bush a wide berth during the night, at sunrise on the following morning we were, as I had anticipated, quickly in possession of their Kraals; the few negroes in charge, after a short resistance, abandoned their herds to us. We were yet busy in detaching the cattle from their tethers, with which each was secured by fore and hind legs to pegs in the ground, when the old Neanglau chief, at the head of a large party of negroes,


yelling and flying rather than running, assailed us with volleys of clubs and lances.

The first to drop from the fire of my exasperated followers was Meckwen Dit, the author of the preceding murders, and the zealous advocate for our own destruction; around him fell also several of his bravest warriors, and as impetuous as the onslaught had been was their flight precipitate.

Our booty consisted of a herd of cattle and some sheep, several guns and pistols, which had belonged to the unfortunate Arab victims, and sundry prisoners, whose restoration I looked upon as a means of re-establishing peaceable, if not friendly, relations between us. In this I was not disappointed. The discomfited Dinkas never having contemplated a reprisal by me so mortifying to them as the loss of their cattle, now feared a repetition of a similar attack on other Kraals, to prevent which they engaged the good services of my old Djour chiefs, Akon Dit and Pfing, to negotiate a return to our former peaceful alliance, which by their guarantee I was but too willing to embrace, and thus rid myself of the prisoners, who were all given up, my object in visiting the country being a peaceful one-namely, trade.

The cattle went to reward my friend Maween, the Waj chief, for his assistance in helping me out of my fix among the Wajkoing.

While journeying homeward towards the lake, a few days after the above affair, and proceeding through the Ajack tribe, they, hoping to retrieve their fortunes, while acting in concert with the Neanglau, attacked me, and were again defeated.

Jan. 24th.—The tribes now seemed to deplore with myself the melancholy consequences of their barbarous assaults, and I had this day the pleasure of receiving their chiefs--six in number-accompanied by several heads of neutral tribes, among whom was my old friend of the Waj, to unite in assurances of their peaceful intentions for the future. I am happy to say that, under the conviction of the advantages which peaceful traffic would confer on them, and the futility of opposing their crude weapons to fire-arms, I have ever since enjoyed uninterrupted respect from, and cordiality with, the Dinka tribes.

Jan. 25th.—I broke up, with forty of my own men and fifty Djour negroes, soon after sunrise, and passing into the territories of the Dôr at noon, when we halted an hour, in thick bush, through which the most of our route lay, we, after ten hours' march, arrived in the evening at the village of Djau, so called after the chief.

Finding my journal might extend to impracticable dimensions, I shall curtail it, by merely giving the names of the villages at which we passed the nights whilst traversing the Dôr country southwards.

Henceforth the negroes will not proceed more than one day's journey with me, so that I have to get a new set of porters every morning, and lose all connexion between us and our station and boats

Jan. 26th. - My old friend Djau having prepared our porters, we were early on the road, and during our journey to the frontier of the country, quartered at the following villages, viz:-Kurkur, Maeha, Mura, Umbura, Modocunga, Miha, Nearhe, Gutu, Mungela, Ombelambe, Lungo, and Umhotea, which, after several halts, we reached on the 19th of February, after sixteen days' march. Between Djau and Maeha, six small streams, and near Gutu a large navigable river, are crossed, all flowing from the southeast in a northwesterly direction towards the lake, which they feed.

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The country, from the lake up to the Djour, is exceedingly flat, but in the Dôr country it first becomes undulating, where the new red sandstone crops out on the sides of several heights and ravines until near Gutu, Mungela, and Ombelambe, bold red granite mountains, with exceedingly large mica, rise perhaps 2,000 feet above the level of the country.

Generally the country is thick bush, but cleared in the neighborhood of the villages, and in a high state of cultivation.

The Dôr are not so tall as the Dinka tribes generally, but thick-set and strongly made. They speak a totally different language, and their color is dark brown. Unlike the Dinka, they do not extract the front lower teeth, nor do they construct their villages similarly. Their huts are larger, made of bamboo, and nearer to each other, without palisades.

As a general rule, the centre of each village cônsists of a circle of huts, constructed around the largest tree in the neighborhood, upon which the wartrophies—such as skulls, &c.,

,-are suspended; underneath is a large tom-tom, formed of the hollowed trunk of a tree, and between it and the huts a large circular space forms the dancing ground.

Their arms consist of bows and arrows, clubs and lances, which both Dôr and Djour, who are excellent smiths, manufacture exceedingly well.

The women perforate the under lip, in which they wear a piece of round wood for ornament. Young girls introduce a piece of wood about the size of a sixpence, whilst full-grown women wear pieces as large as a florin.

Married women, in lieu of aprons, wear bunches of green leaves suspended by a belt to the waist, hung down to the ankles, which latter are ornamented with a solid iron ring, each fully one inch in diameter. Whilst dancing, these rings are struck together, and produce an agreeable sound.

Feb. 23d.-After a few days' rest, and some trouble in procuring an interpreter, we traversed a hilly and rather dreary country, and, after a forced march of ten hours, we arrived at Baer, also called the Mundo country. This tribe resemble in color and habits the Djour, from whom perhaps they are descended, as their languages much resemble each other. They are also good smiths.

Occupying a hilly and almost mountainous but narrow strip of country, between two powerful tribes, they are hunted by the Niam-Nam, their southern neighbors, and when taken become their slaves.

Their villages are either on the summits of the hills or at the foot of some rock difficult of access, to which they fly when attacked by the Niam-Nam, whom they say are cannibals.

We remained with this tribe three days, having with difficulty found a dozen men to carry on my beads, baggage, &c.

I should have said that I had left the greater part of my merchandize at Lungo among the Dôr, in order to be less encumbered.

Feb. 24th.–At sunrise recommenced our journey, and passing through some fine ravines, gradually came out upon a fine undulating country, in parts beautifully wooded. We halted under the shade of some very large trees, the leaf of which much resembles that of the fig-tree, for an hour at noon, and at 4 P. M. entered the large village called Mundo, in the Runga or Niam-Nam tribe.

It was some time before I could feel comfortable; the sight of my white skin, added to a quantity of cowry-shell and glass beads in my possession, having excited great curiosity, and a strong desire to become possessed of both our


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