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SUFFERING FROM THIRST. The suffering from thirst was terrible:

“Before reaching the water the men in charge of the loose catile had become 80 exhausted with long and incessant marching, suffering all the time from burning thirst, that one by one they had sunk down. The cattle, unherded, found their way to the fountain without much difficulty; but the wretched horse missed his, and kept wandering about until he dropped from sheer exhaustion. Some Ovotjimba fortunately found the brute, and reporting the discovery to their chief, he good-naturedly brought the dying beast some drink and fodder, by which means he gradually recovered. The animal when found had been seven days without water I had no idea that a horse was capable of enduring fatigue and thirst to the extent experienced by this hack of mine.

"The poor dogs were by this time in a fearful state. What was once a clear perspicuous eye, now appeared like a mere lustrous speck under a shaggy brow. Blood Aowed at times from their nostı ils, and it was with difficulty they dragged along their worn and emaciated carcasses. Sometimes they tried to give vent to their great sufferings in dismal howls, half stifled in the utterance. Some of the men were nearly as much affected.'

Having returned to the Omaruru, Mr. Andersson determined upon crossing over the Omuramba Ua' Matako, and on this route, game being plentiful, the narrative becomes a tale of giraffe, elephant and lion hunts. Once the hunter himself had a pack of elephants in chase of him; once he shot a fine lion as it crouched for the spring upon him. One of his native followers was brained by the tusk of a rhi

Mr. Andersson was glad, in due season, to dine on lion steaks, declaring lion's flesh to be "palatable and juicy, not unlike veal, and very white.” But the native African, in his character of “noble savage,” is not a pleasant friend to ask to dinner.


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The Ovambo caravan, alluded to in the preceding pages, were still sojourning in my neighborhood. At first they behaved themselves with due decorum; but, on a closer acquaintance, proved a perfect nuisance, more especially when feeding (not dining) time came. Very often on killing game I had to fight for morsels of it; nay, I was at times necessitated to threaten my black friends with the gun before I could obtain needful food. The scenes that sometimes presented themselves on these occasions were truly disgusting To say nothing of the screams, vociferations, curses, &c., which were deafening, assegai stabs and knobkurrie blows were administered indiscriminately and remorselesslyall for the sake of a lump of meat. Just endeavor, reader, to imagine from one to two hundred starving and ferocious dogs laying hold of a carcass, each tearing away in his own particular direction, at the same time biting and snarling incessantly at his neighbor, and you will have a faint notion of the beastly scrambles I allude co. I have seen human blood flow as freely at these feeds as had that of the animal we were devouring. The sacred ties of kindred and friendship were totally lost sight of in the all-absorbing anticipation of a gorge. All the revolting qualities of man in a barbarous condition, were brought on these occasions out into startling relief. Human nature seemed lower than that of the brute creation, whilst at the same time almost diabolical.”

It was upon this journey, after giving up hope of finding the Omuramba U’Ovambo, that Mr. Andersson came upon the river, hitherto unknown in Europe, which gives its name to his volume, the Okavango.



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“ After this little delay we agaio proceeded, but had not gone far before I perceived on the far away horizon a distinct dark-blue line. Ah, ah!' I exclaimed to myself, in the valley of which that line evidenily forms the border, there is surely something more than a mere periodical water-course.' A few minutes afterwards, catching a glimpse of an immense sheet of water in the distance, my anticipation was realized to the utmost. A cry of joy and satis. faction escaped me at this glorious sight Twenty minutes more brought us to the banks of a truly noble river, at this point at least two hundred yards wide. This was, then, in all probability, the Mukuru Mukovanja of the Ovambo, which these people had given us to understand flowed westward. Taking it for granted that iheir statement was in this respect correct, I had stood some time by the water before I became aware of my mistake. “By heavens!' I suddenly exclaimed, the water flows towards the heart of the continent, instead of emptying itself into the Atlantic! For a moment I felt amazed at the discovery • East!' I continued to soliloquise, why what stream can this then be, in this latitude and longirude? Tioughe? No; that channel alone is much too insignificant to form the outlet for such a mighty flow of water. Well, then, it must be one of the chief branches of that magnificent river, the Chobe.' This was my first impression, which was to some extent corroborated by the natives, who described this river, called by the Ovaquangari, Okavangn,' as forking off in two directions in the neighborhood of Libebé, one branch forming the said Tioughe, the other finding its way to the Chobe. But on mature consideration, I strongly question the correctness both of my own impression and of the account of the natives.

“ It is true Dr Livingstone, in one of his early maps, lays down a river as coming from Libebe's towards Sekeletu's town; and I myself, when at Lake N'gami, heard of a water communication existing between these two places. But as the Tioughe is known to send out a branch towards Chobe, considerably below Libebe, i. e. south of it, called Dzo, it is just possible that this is the stream alluded to by the natives. Furthermore, the country, for a great distance about Libebe, is known to abound in immense marshes; it is probable, therefore, that the Okavango, though of such large dimensions, is more or less swallowed up in these extensive swamps, leaving merely sufficient water for the formation of the Tioughe and its inundations. Unquestionably, Dr. Livingstone, if he succeeds in revisiting Sekeletu's town, will be able to settle this question.”


[From the Christian Mirror, Portland, July 30, 1861.]

Annual Meeting



The Seventh Annual Meeting of the Maine Colonization Society was held at Bath on Wednesday evening, 24th inst., in the Winter street church. The introductory devotional services were performed by Rev. Messrs. J. O. Fiske and F. Butler.

In the absence of Hon. Phineas Barnes, the President of the Society, the Hon. George F. Patten of Bath, Vice President, took the chair.

Tne following letter from Mr. Barnes was then read by the Corresponding Secretary:

PORTLAND, July 24, 1861. My Dear Sir:-I had confidently expected to be with you this evening, at the meeting of the State Colonization Society, but I am imperatively barred from this pleasure by severe sickness in my family.

I congratulate the Society and the generous friends of our cause in Bath, upon the opportunity of seeing and hearing so interesting a representative of Liberia as Mr. Crummell. The hope that we may be favored with a similar opportunity in Portland on his return, relieves, in part, my regret that I cannot attend your meeting.

There are some dark and mysterious clouds now resting upon the future of our cause in America, but we may thank God that Colonization, conducted by Christian philanthropy, has planted a light on the African coast, which is now shining, as I believe, more clearly than ever before, and holds out a most aus. picious promise of guidance and deliverance to a race of our fellow men long unhappy and depressed.

1 hope and trust, most ardently and confidently, that the principles and the developments, the seeds and the fruits of enlightened Christian civilization are firmly established in Liberia, and that intelligent and prosperous life and growth are secured for that interesting community, however difficult it may be for us to carry.forward our part of the enterprise in this country. The period which has elapsed since the independent constitution of Liberia was framed and adopted, has been long enough to test the fitness of their institutions to their local circumstances, and to show the capacity of their people for effective selfgovernment. Few, if any, of the smaller political communities in the world, have been better governed, according to their means, for ten or twelve years past, than Liberia has been, and it is impossible to question the ability of black men to organize and administer national government for all its good ends, when we know what has been done by the Presidents Roberts and Benson, and their energetic associates in the management of Liberian affairs.

They are understood to be now about embarking in new efforts for the diffusion of knowledge among their people, by the establishment of higher institutions of learning, aided by endowments from this country. They have suffered for want of teachers, and, like every other people which has ever become well taught, they are determining to raise teachers for themselves upon their own soil. I trust that our friend, the Rev. Mr. Crummell, himself an excellent specimen of a well educated man, will meet with a warm sympathy in this State, and will carry back with him to his ancestral land, abundance of good wishes, and the answer of many prayers for the success of the noble objects among his brethren to which he has devoted his life.

The problem of African civilization, the problem of the future of the black race anywhere, is precisely the same, which God in his providence, at some time or other, puts before every race of mankind. It is simply the question, whether they can and will improve themselves and sustain a career of improvement, if only they can have a fair chance to try the experiment? And therefore we may have a short answer to all persons who question the ability of the African to improve and govern himself-_ Give him a reasonable chance to

The just conditions of the experiment are about the same for all races, and we have reason to hope and believe that Liberia presents at this time a better field than has ever before been opened, for the struggle of the black man to work out this problem for himself. There he has secured for himself a necessary separation from other races, not only because they might be unfriendly, but because he might weaken himself by leaning on them for support. Education and the self developing influences of Protestant Christianity, are as well provided for in Liberia as in any

other known community of the same growth and similar general resources. There is also the place, and there is no other like it in the world, where the black man is put straight to the work of governing himself, under a constitution of general freedom and equality of rights, and where amid such influences and such ends, he is brought under the potent influence of the idea of nationality-a prize and a blessing which he is to gain for himself, and to enjoy by himself. This idea of nationality, which has made so many kingdoms and empires and republics, of all other races, will work out an


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equal wonder for the black man, whenever and wherever he is fully brought under its spell.

A nationality of free, self-governing Christian men, has never yet been attempted for the negro race, except in Liberia. The world is full of the fame of what British philanthropy has done for the blacks, but English wisdom and English benevolence have never yet given the negro an opportunity to govern himself, nor a chance to gain a name and a place among the nations of men.

Holding this judgment and this augury concerning the present and the future of Liberia, I look away, not without satisfaction, from the present difficulties of our enterprise at home, to what is now doing and what may be done upon that favored part of the African coast, and earnestly hope that nothing which may check our usual efforts here, will dampen the ardor of our best wishes for that interesting community. They have not yet wrought out all the problem to which they are set, though they are hard at work about it, and we can afford to help them, because they are doing so nobly in helping themselves.

For one, I should be quite willing that American benefactions in this cause, for some time to come, should be directly and extensively applied to the strengthening of all good institutions, and the aiding of all good endeavors in Liberia; satisfied, that by every degree, by which we make Liberia a safe and happy home for the black man, by so much shall we hasten the day when vast multitudes of the children of Africa shall press into her expanding borders, and the land once “ forsaken and hated" shall become “joy of many generations.

I am, very truly, your friend in a good cause, Rev. John O. FISKE.

P. BARNES. Freeman Clark, Esq., then made a statement of his attendance as delegate from this auxiliary to the Parent Society at Washington in January last. Expressing his pleasure in attendance upon that meeting, and his gratification with the favorable condition and prospects of the Society.

The Corresponding Secretary, Rev. John O. Fisk, of Bath, presented the Annual Report of the Society, in his very able and instructive manner, which was ordered to be published under the direction of the Executive Committee.

Rev. Alexander Crummell, a colored missionary of the American Protestant Episcopal Church at Cape Palmas, Liberia, was then introduced to the audience. He addressed the people on the condition and prospects of Liberia, as an instrument of good to Africa, for more than an hour, in a manner that held their close and unwearied attention. He earnestly maintained that Liberia, by her civilizing and evangelizing influences, is a prominent instrumentality of Africa's redemption, and that she is eminently worthy of the sympathy and aid of all who would benefit the black man.

She has now, with an emigrant population of scarcely 15,000, a government and laws, sufficient for her protection, a commerce not to be despised. She has schools of the highest order, and the building for a College is now erected, and a board of teachers will soon be there to commence instruction. Churches and Missions of all denominations are founded, and native tribes are gradually coming under the influence of the Republic. Coffee, sugar, cotton, and various other tropical productions abound there, and the people are emulous of progress. The introduction of recaptives is a benefit to her, and

may garded as a favorable providence for her growth. They are easily assimilated and they soon become good citizens. .

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Mr. Crummell says Liberia can receive twenty thousand recaptives without detriment, provided the necessary aid is afforded from this country for their instruction in agriculture, letters and religion.

The slave trade is broken up all along the coast and within the limits of Liberia, and the peaceful arts of civilized and Christian life are pushing into the interior of long neglected Africa.

At the conclusion of the address, the Treasurer made his report, and the officers of the Society for the ensuing year were elected, of which we noted the following: Hon. Phineas Barnes, of Portland, President; Rev. John O. Fiske, of Bath, Corresponding Secretary; Freeman Clark, Esq., of Bath, Treasurer.

The thanks of the Society were presented to Mr. Crummell for his very interesting and instructive address.

The following Resolution was unanimously adopted: Resolved, That the present condition and prospects of Liberia afford convincing evidence that the enterprise of Colonization is conferring great benefits upon Africa and the colored man, and that passing events in this country are admonishing us that the vigorous prosecution of this work is imperatively demanded as well by true patriotism as by pure philanthropy and religion.

This anniversary will long be remembered with peculiar interest, as occurring at a most eventful time in the history of our country, in one of the most noble cities of our land, and among a people whose interest in the objects of the Society are worthy of all praise.

Yours very truly,




The Philadelphia Ledger of September 12th contains the following letter from the Rev. Alexander Crummell, of whom our readers have derived information from our previous numbers. Mr. Crummell is familiar with Liberia, and very competent to express a judicious opinion of the probable effect of the introduction of these victims of the slave trade into Liberia. Messrs. Crummell and Blyden are now professors elect in the College of Liberia.

217 Sullivan Street, New York City,

5th September, 1861. DEAR SIR :-I find in your letter a question which has already, even before leaving the coast, come to me from other correspondents in the United States—it is this, “If you take further shipments (of Congoes,) will they not seriously affect the interests of the Republic, and may they not jeopardize the very existence of the people and the government?” To this I must reply to you: First, that the providence of God in the recaptures is one of the greatest blessings which could have been bestowed upon the Liberians, for the Liberians themselves. For it gives them, first of all, a laboring population, which is their greatest need in the cultivation of their great staple, sugar.

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