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manner during the whole voyage, for which they received the thanks of the Relief's officers and men.
The slave trade is said to be becoming so dangerous a calling now on the coast that slavers are growing - small by degrees and beautifully less.” Light cargoes and quick clippers are out of date, the chances of escape being so dubious that every soul a craft can carry is put on board, the speculators averring that "it's as good to be hung for an eagle as for a dollar.”—N. Y. Herald.
From the New York Colonization Journal we copy the following letter:
Monrovia, Liberia, West Africa, September 15. Learning that the ship South Shore sails for New Orleans in two days, I send a line. This letter goes by the steamer Seth Grosvenor to Grand Bassa, where the S. S. lies, and where she landed her cargo of 210 of the recaptured Africans from Key West—the remnant of 35+ with which she started, 108 having died on the passage.
The Star of the Union started about the same time, with 381, having lost 40 in a passage of 44 days. These people have been landed at Sinoe, about 130 miles south-east from Monrovia. The Castilian arrived at Cape Mount on the 26th ult., in 46 days, with 400,—309 of which were landed ; 91 died; and the Castilian sails tomorrow for Calcutta. Shipped, 1135; died, 239; landed, 896.
The writer gives a particular account of the Storm King and of her company of more than six hundred; representing them to be under fourteen, and many not over eight, years old.
The following table shows the horrors of the Slave Trade :
Recaptured Africans. From the South Shore, at Landed at Key West
240 From the Wildfire 507 From the Star of the Union, William 513 at Sinou
343 Bogota 412
Total, 891 Total, 1,432 Died at Key West
214 Embarked for Liberia
CAPT'D. DIED. LAN’D By the Castillian
897 30 867 South Shore
355 Storm King, 619 3 616 Star of the Union 383 Cora,
705 9 694 Bonita, 717 6 713
Total, 1.138 Died on the passage
Total landed, 2.888 Landed in Liberia-
From Key West,
891 From the Castillian, at Cape Mount 308
THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT AND THE SLAVE TRADE.
BY THE REV. JOSEPH TRACY, D. D., OF Boston. The late revival of the African Slave Trade, (one of the greatest evils that has ever afflicted humanity,) has aroused the attention and sympathies of the Christian world. Dr. Tracy treats upon it with his usual clearness and ability, urging upon Great Britain the duty of enforcing her treaty stipulations with Spain against it, as the most effectual means for its extinction. The civilized world is mainly indebted to England for noble endeavors against this traffic; yet, not less early, sincerely, and boldly has it been denounced by the Government and people of the United States. Highly and most honorably distinguished is the administration of Mr. Buchanan in this humane work; and the present Secretary of the Navy, and our naval officers, both on the African and Cuban coasts, have won signal honors by their prompt, determined, and successful movements for the capture of slave ships. We know not why the proposal, urged with such force of reason and warmth of enthusiasm by the late General Mercer, of Virginia, that this trade should be made piracy by the law of nations, has failed to this hour of receiving the sanction of all enlightened and christian nations. We invite the attention of all our readers to the well considered statements, facts, and arguments of Dr. Tracy. It is much to be desired that the United States and England would consider the benevolent wisdom of multiplying christian settlements of colored men on the coast of Africa, as an effectual method of suppressing the slave trade, of civilizing the people, and developing the vast agricultural and commercial resources of Africa.
From the American Theological Review.-November, 1860. This detestable traffic, having steadily diminished for a number of years under the combined naval action of Great Britain and the United States for its repression, has suddenly revived. A single small cargo—that of the Wanılerer—has been stealthily landed in the United States. Other importations have been reported, but none of the reports are known to be true, and some of them are known to be false. Many slave-ships have been captured near the coast of Cuba, and more are said to have landed their cargoes. The capture of three by American cruisers, and the necessity of providing for the welfare of their rescued victims, brought the subject before Congress at its last session; and a call of the House of Representatives on the President for information, to be communicated to Congress at its next session, will bring it up again. Meanwhile from many motives, some of which are political and others pecuniary, the public mind, on both sides of the Atlantic, has been industriously and skilfully misinformed in relation to many parts of the subject; and some of the ablest, and many of the best men, both in England and the United States, have been led to assign false causes for the continuance and revival of the traffic, and to propose useless measures for its repression. There is, therefore, a special demand, just now, for reliable information ; and to such an extent as the limits of this article permit, we shall attempt to give it, on unquestionable authority. Several recent official documents settle some important points conclusively. We give them entire, as they deserve this mode of diffusion and preservation for future reference.
First, we give a Circular, addressed by Lord John Russell, her Britannic Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, to several British Ambassadors, to be communicated to the governments to which they are accredited.
[The circular above alluded to, appeared in the Repository for October last.]
We have a manuscript copy of this despatch, obtained from the Department of State at Washington; but for the convenience of the printer, we use a printed copy of that addressed to Lord Cooley, at Paris ; substituting only “the United States Government” for “ the French Government” in two places, and “ General Cass” for “M. Thouvenel” in the last paragraph. With these changes they are the same, word for word.
be sure, therefore, that this is a well considered document, and was sent, with these three variations, to several other powers.
We must notice in it, however, one chronological inaccuracy--the confounding of two treaties of different dates.
By a treaty signed at Madrid, September 23, 1817, Spain agreed to abolish the slave-trade for £100,000, as follows:
Article 1. His Catholic Majesty engaged that the slave-trade shall be abolished throughout the entire dominions of Spain on the thirtieth day of May, 1820.
Article 111. His (Britannic) Vajesty engaged to pay, in London, on the twentieth day of February, 1818, the sum of £400,000 sterling, to such person as His Catholic Majesty shall appoint to receive the same.
Article IV. This payment shall be in full “ for all losses which are a necessary consequence of the abolition of the said traffic.”
Other articles state the mode agreed upon for the suppression; conceding the mutual right of search and capture; providing for “ Courts of Mixed Commission,” to adjudicate on the legality of the captures, and on other questions of the kind. (See British Statutes at Large for 1818. 58 Geo. III, chap. xxxv. preamble.)
This treaty proving ineffectual, another was made, dated June 28, 1835. See Statutes at Large, for 1836, (6 and 7 Gul. IV, chap. vi.) We copy three of its articles entire:
" Article I. The slave trade is hereby declared, on the part of Spain, to be henceforward totally and finally abolished in all parts of the world.
“ Article II. Her Majesty the Queen Regent of Spain, during the minority of her daughter, Donna Isabella the Second, hereby engages that immediately after the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty, and from time to time afterwards as may become needful, Her Majesty will take the most effectual measures for protecting the subjects of Her Catholic Majesty from being concerned, and her flag from being used in carrying on, in any way, the trade in slaves; and especially that, within two months after the said exchange, she will promulgate, throughout the dominions of Her Catholic Majesty, a penal law, inflicting a severe punishment on all those of Her Catholic Majesty's subjects who shall, under any pretext whatever, take any part whatever in the traffic in slaves.
“ Article XIII. The negroes who are found on board of a vessel detained by a cruiser, and condemned by the Mixed Courts of Justice, in conformity with the stipulations of this treaty, shall be placed at the disposition of the Government whose cruiser has made the capture, but on the understanding that not only they shall be immediately put at liberty and kept free,-the Government to whom they have been delivered guaranteeing the same; but likewise engaging to afford, from time to time, and whenever demanded by the other high contracting parties, the fullest information as to the state and condition of such negroes, with a view to securing the due execution of the treaty in this respect.
This treaty of 1835, is referred to by Lord John Russell as still in force. That it is so regarded by Spain, and by the Spanish authorities in Cuba, is proved by the following circular of the CaptainGeneral of that island:
“ His Excellency the Captain-General has ordered the following circular, addressell to the Governors in the different districts of the island, to be published in the official Gazette :
“ In the orders communicated by this superior civil government under dates of 30th November and 6th June last, I cautioned the civil authorities of this island to observe the strictest vigilance in order to avoid the landing of African negroes, stating that I would exact, to its fullest extent, their responsibility, as well as that of all public functionaries in whose jurisdiction the landing of negroes might take place, whenever I should be informed that they had been effected by means of neglect or abuse on the part of the said authorities or functionaries.
“ Notwithstanding such plain and strict determination on my part, several lots of African negroes have been recently landed in various parts of the island, and I have been compelled to adopt such measures, which are always unpleasant, against certain functionaries, because they have not fully shown that they had used every exertion, and displayed the necessary zeal required. for the exact fulfillment of their duties, and the orders and instructions from this government.
" In consequence, therefore, of the above-mentioned circumstances, and determined as I am, to prevent by every means within my power the continuation of the slave-trade, thus strictly fulfilling the treaties with other nations as well as our laws and dispositions on the subject, I again call upon you, earnestly recommending that under your own responsibility and that of all public officers immediately subordinate to your authority, you shall keep the most vigilant watch, in order 10 avoid any infringement of the said laws and dispositions in the jurisdiction under your charge ; with the understanding that the simple fact of a cargo of Africans being landed, will be deemed sufficient cause io suspend any public functionary who may not use every exertion, and employ all the means which the laws place at his command, in order to avoid or prevent the said landing, whether it is from neglect or from any other cause, subjecting him besides to the decision of the proper tribunals, in case that his behavior or conduct should give cause to suspect his honesty in such cases.
“ Your good judgment will at once cause you to understand the great importance of this subject, and as any neglect of zeal or activity would doubt
less fall upon the honor of the government—which it is my duty to keep stainless even to the last of public functionaries I hope that without any loss of time you will communicate to all those dependent upon your authority, the foregoing determination, and such others as your zeal and good wishes to favor the general interest in its true sense may suggest ; with the understanding that I will not deviate in my course for the proper punishment of the guilty, while at the same time I will endeavor to reward the good services of those who may be worthy of it.
“I finally recommend to you that in order to fulfil properly what I have ordered, you shall avail yourself of all such legal steps as may be within your control, with the understanding that all such measures as may tend to prevent the unlawful slave-trade will be approved of by this superior civil government. May God preserve your life many vears.
FRANCISCO SERRANO." “ HAVANA, September 4, 1860.”
This, if the Captain-General is like some of his predecessors, is just a notice to the local magistrates, to pay over a larger proportion of the bribes they receive to him, and a sham to blind the eyes
of the British Government. Still, it shows what the obligations of Spain are known to be. In it, Spain, speaking through his Excellency, the Captain-General of Cuba, September 4, 1860, acknowledges herself bound by these treaties, by which, and by her own laws, the importation of slaves into any part of her dominions, and the traffic in slaves anywhere by her subjects, are forbidden. The forces of both Spain
, and Great Britain are pledged by these treaties for the enforcement of their stipulations. Let those treaties be enforced, and there can be no importation of slaves into any of the dominions of Spain. Great Britain has the power and the right to enforce them, even by
Lord John Russell, in his circular, calls the attention of the leading powers of both hemispheres to the statement, which he quotes with approbation, from a message of the President of the United States of May last, that "the only portions of the civilized world where it [the slave trade] is tolerated and encouraged, are the Spanish Islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico." This fact is certainly worthy of the attention which it solicits. It shows conclusively, that Great Britain has the destiny of this odious traffic in her own hands, and can put an end to it, whenever she chooses to enforce on Spain the observance of her treaties. It continues, because Great Britain sees fit to indulge Spain in violating her treaty obligations. She can not honcrably shirk this responsibility. She has sought it industriously by negotiation for forty-three years at least, since 1817. She has paid £400,000 sterling for it. She has possessed it in full, revised and perfected, for a quarter of a century, since 1835. To her immortal honor, she has accomplished the work in many parts of the earth. She can finish it when she pleases ; and needs not the assistance or assent of
power on earth. True, if she were going to war to enforce these treaties, it might be well to prepare other governments for that event, by calling their attention to the facts that make war a duty, so as to secure their approbation in advance. Some parts of this circular read as if written for that purpose. The Liverpool steamer of September 8, too, brought