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DAY, APRIL 8, 1915.

cost of the publication of the collected works,
which must be considerable, as it is being carried

out in a sumptuous manner, with very large, clear TE WORKS OF TYCHO

type on thick, strong paper, and will run into BRAHE.

several volumes. Dani Opera Omnia. Edidit

The heavens themselves signalised in a brilliant
Tomus I. Pp. lix +320.

manner the advent of Tycho by the outburst of videndalske Boghandel Nordisk Nova Cassiopeiae in 1572. The memoir, “De

Nova Stella," was the first of his published 's first sensation on handling writings, and appropriately begins the collection. l volume is one of surprise “Last year, on the evening of November 11, while

have been allowed to pass contemplating the stars, according to my custom, before his writings were given I observed a new, remarkably bright one nearly collected form; for he took a overhead. And since from my boyhood all the Iding the structure of modern stars were perfectly familiar to me (such knows the first to realise the imper- ledge is not diffcult to acquire) it was certain that ing solar and planetary tables, there had not been even a faint one in that posiheir improvement needed pro- tion, much less one of surpassing splendour."

with larger and more care- Mistrusting his own eyes, he quickly got his
uments than any that had yet neighbours to verify the discovery, which appeared

fortunately had the skill to more startling to him than to us, since he knew
the means to purchase them. of no parallel except the star of Hipparchus.
ity of Frederick II., he was He diligently observed the position of the Nova
aniborg Observatory, where at various hour-angles, and after some months'

and stars were observed observation satisfied himself that it had neither ty years.

proper motion nor diurnal parallax (on his geoervations led Kepler to the centric hypothesis annual parallax was not to be ve laws, those of the moon expected), so he rightly concluded that it belonged

detect the variation and to the sphere of the fixed stars; the fact that it
the oscillatory changes of scintillated confirmed this view. He estimated its

those of the sun led to bulk as many hundred times that of the earth,
eric refraction, and an no doubt thinking himself very daring.
115 amount. Those of His notes on the magnitude and colour are

teness of their diurnal interesting, to compare with those on modern
Ich more remote than Novæ. In November, 1572, the Nova was much

y were not vapours brighter than Venus, so that many people saw it
any had supposed, in full daylight; at that time its colour was com-
phere. His obser- pared to that of Jupiter. The brightness in

far more precise December was equal to Jupiter, in February and
according to Dr. March to a star of the first magnitude, in May to
s standard right one of the second. The colour became red like
may reasonably Mars or Aldebaran; later still it became livid like
ed a few years Saturn.
ic method, his The astrological significance of the Nova is
our day. fully discussed; Tycho made some lucky hits; in
he auspices of the next century many people saw in the career
Iskab," which

Adolphus a striking fulfilment of the
e services of

sed on thova. s evidently a

before so contains the horoiade a special

three

of Frederick II. : his biography

1 and

Dr. Dreyer notes eface of fifty-th

not be

if we desire to Living a bio- en

thoug! age, and that
of the astro- Ty

these horo-
raphy should
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or

and geology-is now welcomed both for purposes of in chemistry on his appointment to the London Uniexhibition and in the study series.

versity readership in chemistry in the department of Bureau of American Ethnology.

home science at King's College. The work of the Bureau of American Ethnology

CAMBRIDGE.-An exhibition of gol. a year tenable for during the year has brought together much new mate

two years is offered each year by the governing body rial relating to the habits and customs and the

of Emmanuel College to a research student comlanguages of the American Indians. One of special

mencing residence at Cambridge as a member of interest was a reconnaissance by Mr. F. W. Hodge,

Emmanuel College in October. The governing body ethnologist-in-charge, of a group of prehistoric ruins

may award additional exhibitions of smaller value on a mesa in Cebollita Valley, N. Mex. These ruins

should properly qualified applicants present themselves. consist of a number of house groups forming a com.

The exhibitions will be awarded at the beginning of pound built on an almost impregnable height, and

October. Applications, accompanied by two certificates designed for defence; not only the groups but the

of good character, should be sent to the Master of individual houses have the form of fortifications, while

Emmanuel not later than September 24. the vulnerable point of the mesa rim is protected by It is stated in the issue of Science for March 12 means of a rude breastwork of stones. Among the that the Massachusetts Committee on Education voted special features of interest which Mr. Hodge discovered unanimously on February 25 in favour of "taking were a burial cist in which skeletons, pottery, and initial steps toward the establishment of a State the remains of a mat were found; three small cliff

university.'' lodges situated in the sides of the cliffs; several ceremonial rooms

DR. F. J. GOODNow will be formally inaugurated or kivas associated with the ruined houses; and the remains of the early reservoirs of the

president of the Johns Hopkins University on inhabitants.

about May 20. According to Science it has been National Zoological Park.

arranged to give the occasion a double significance, The collection in the park is the outgrowth of a

for, in addition to the inauguration of the third presi

dent of the University, the new site at Homewood is small number of living animals which for several to be dedicated formally. years had been assembled in very crowded quarters near the Smithsonian building, mainly for the pur

The scientific advisory committee of the University poses of scientific study. Chiefly through gifts and

of Sheffield has recently held, on March 18, 19, and exchanges the size of the park collection has gradually

20, an exhibition of British-made laboratory apparatus increased, until it now numbers 340 species of nam

and material, with the double object of acquainting mals, birds, and reptiles, represented by 1362 indi

consumers with sources of supply, and of obtaining viduals.

support for the new industries so as to enable them Astrophysical Observatory.

to become permanently established. The exhibits inThe work of the Astrophysical Observatory has com

cluded glass and porcelain ware of different kinds and

different sources of manufacture, glass wool, transprised observations and computations at Washington

parent and opaque silica ware, acid-resisiing metals, and in the field relating to the quantity of solar radiation, its variability from day to day, and the effect of

filter papers, and a variety of clay goods. The exhibi

tion aroused considerable interest in Sheffield and the the atmospheric water vapour in absorbing the radia- neighbourhood, and great satisfaction was expressed tions of great wave-length such as are emitted toward

by visitors at the progress which the manufacture of space by the earth. Much attention has been given to the design, construction, and testing of new apparatus

laboratory ware has made in this country in the period

since the war began. for these researches, including apparatus for measuring the sky radiation, special recording pyrhelio

The Board of Education has published a "Memormeters to be attached to free balloons for the purpose

andum on the Teaching of Engineering in Evening of measuring solar radiation at great altitudes, and a

Technical Schools” (Circular 894, price 6d.).

Its tower telescope at the Mount Wilson Station.

object is to furnish suggestions to teachers and The principal results of the year include: a new

organisers of schools which provide evening classes determination of the number of molecules per cubic

in mechanical and electrical engineering, and not to centimetre of gas, depending on measurements at

lay down a scheme of instruction suitable for universal Mount Wilson of the transparency of the atmosphere; application. The need for a great variety both in successful measurements by balloon pyrheliometers of

methods and organisation, to meet the needs of the intensity of solar radiation up to nearly 45,000 ft.

students working in different areas under special inelevation above sea-level. The results tend to confirm

dustrial conditions, is borne in mind throughout. the adopted value of the solar constant of radiation.

Part-time courses only are considered in the memorMost important of all, the investigation by the tower

andum, and such subjects are dealt with as the telescope at Mount Wilson shows that the distribution

classification of the courses, suitable curricula, and of radiation along the diameter of the sun's disc

the outlines of laboratory and class work. The varies from day to day and from year to year. These

detailed outlines of work for courses in mechanical variations are closely correlated with the variations of

and electrical engineering to suit students of different the total amount of the sun's radiation. Thus the

grades will provide teachers with practical help in work of the year yields an independent proof of the

modifying and improving their own syllabuses of invariability of the sun and tends to elucidate its nature.

struction.

The annual report of the University College, LonUNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL

don, Committee shows that the total number of

students for the session 1913-14 was 2206, including INTELLIGENCE.

in the faculty of scie:ice 148 men and 50 women; in BIRMINGHAM.-Dr. Douglas Stanley has been ap- the faculty of medical sciences, 138 men; in the pointed to the chair of therapeutics.

facultv of engineering, 134 men; post-graduate and Dr. L. G. Parsons has been appointed to the newly research students, 313 men, 128 women. Of evening created lectureship in infant hygiene and diseases students there were in the faculty of science 22 men, peculiar to children.

29 women. For the current session, 1914-15, owing Dr. C. K. Tinkler is resigning his post as lecturer to the war, there has been a decline in the total

are

number of 335, the decline in full-time students up may be afforded for purposes of comparison at some to the present date being 462. The fall in numbers future time when a regenerated lichen-flora has dewill involve a decrease in fees of not less than veloped under purer atmospheric conditions. The 10,000l. The “Pro Patria" list already issued con- authors show the extent to which the various classes tains 665 names, distributed as follows:-Army, 523; of lichens, more especially those of corticolous and Navy, 30; Officers Training Corps, 69; Red Cross rupestral habitats, have suffered; and in this connecwork, already abroad, 17; voluntary aid detachment, tion the marked influence of a calcareous substratum ready for service, 26. A large number of refugee in neutralising the deleterious effects of smoke on students has been received, each student paying, a lichen-growth is discussed. Particular attention has nominal fee. The number admitted since the begin- been paid by the authors to the lichens of the coast ning of the session has been 116; at the opening of sand-dunes, the lichens of the Sand-dune Plant the second term, the number actually at work was 81. Formation in · Britain not having hitherto been The college staff, with the help of its friends, has specially investigated. The characteristic lichens of provided hospitality for about forty-eight persons, and these dunes and their ecological relations has raised a sum of nearly 300l. to aid the students. described. A systematic list of all species of lichens The revenue of the college in 1913-14 was 71,5671., found in the vice-county is given; and four new the expenditure 71,2601. Members of the college have species and two new varieties are described. already indicated their willingness to assist in helping towards the deficit created by the war. The comple

MANCHESTER. tion of the new buildings has been delayed by the war.

Literary and Philosophical Society, February 23. A special effort on the part of the Equipment and

-Mr. F. Nicholson, president, in the chair. Endowment Fund Committee is to be made to raise

- Prof. W. W. Haldane Gee : A projection screen inthe remainder of the sum necessary for the completion

vented by the late Mr. Thomas Thorp. The screen is of the chemical laboratories. The sum still needed for made by producing a special type of matt surface on this purpose is 13,650l., the greater part of which glass, on which is then deposited silver. This forms (10,000l) is required for the special equipment of a

the opaque back of the screen, the front being of physical and electrical chemistry laboratory. The transparent glass. The screen gives a well-illuminated national need of improved facilities for chemical educa- picture when emploved for ordinary lantern work, and tion emphasises the desirability of completing the is especially good for use with the projecting microequipment of these new laboratories.

scope. By its means the Brownian motion of colloidal particles, which requires high magnification and great

loss of light, can be demonstrated. The screen is most SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.

effective when viewed at an angle nearly perpendicular LONDON.

to its surface. A microscopic examination of the surMineralogical Society, March 16.--Dr. A. E. H. face shows that it is made up of minute convex discs. Tutton, president, in the chair.-Prof. G. Cesàro :

--Prof. G. Elliot Smith : The significance of the geoOrpiment from Balia, Asia Minor. Results of a graphical distribution of the practice of mummificacrystallographic examination were given.-Prof. G.

tion. Mummification is the most distinctive element Cesaro : Stereographic projection of a cone touching

of a complexly-interwoven series of peculiar customs, the sphere of projection along a small circle.--Dr. S.

including the practice of building, megalithic monuKözu : The dispersion of adularia from St. Gothard,

ments, sun- and serpent-worship, circumcision, tattoofelspar from Madagascar, and moonstone from Ceylon. ing: etc. The art of embalming certainly originated A second communication giving the results of careful

in Egypt, and, as the practice is of a nature extremely measurements.-Dr. G. T. Prior : The meteoric stone

repulsive to mankind, the circumstances must have of Launton, Oxfordshire. The stone, which was seen

been of quite an exceptional nature to have driven any to fall on February 15, 1830, was acquired by Dr. Lee

people to adopt such a custom. It is altogether unand placed in his natural history collection at Hartwell likely that such a complex combination of special cirHouse, near Aylesbury. After his death it was,

cumstances as we know to have called the practice through confusion with another meteorite, lost sight

into existence in Egypt should have arisen in more of until 1895, when it was found by Dr. Fletcher

than one place. The details of the technique, in what. wrongly labelled in the Lee collection, and was secured

ever part of the world the custom is found, emphasise for the British Museum. The stone belongs to the

an Egyptian origin. The practice spread from Egypt white-veined chondrite group, and in chemical and

to the Mediterranean littoral, Europe, and the Canary mineral composition agrees with other members of

Islands; to East Africa, Upper Congo, Southern that group.

Nigeria; to the Persian Gulf, India, Ceylon, Burma,

Indonesia, New Guinea, the islands of the Torres Linnean Society, March 18.--Prof. E. B. Poulton,

Straits, and thence to Australia. Emigrants from president, in the chair.-J. A. Wheldon and W. G.

Indonesia carried it to Tonga, New Zealand, Tahiti, Travis : The lichens of South Lancashire. In the

and eventually to the Peruvian coast of South America. introductory part of their paper, the authors, after referring to the enormous industrial development and

Paris. increase of population which took place in South Academy of Sciences, March 15.-M. Ed. Perrier in Lancashire during the last century, point out the

the chair.-René Garnier : A class of Abelian sistems deterioration of the Aora which ensued, and then pro- deduced from the theory of linear equations.--Victor ceed to detail the results of their study of the effects Vâlcovici : The theorem of movements of quantities of of air-pollution by coal-smoke on the cryptogamic motion.-4. Le Bel : Researches on the catathermic vegetation, and more particularly on lichen-growth. radiation. Experiments on the hypothetical radiation They are of opinion that South Lancashire exhibits suggested by Tissot.-A. Leduc : The ratio y of the the deleterious effects of smoke on vegetation to a two specific heats of mixtures of gases. Applications. higher degree over a larger area than is, perhaps, A formula is deduced for the ratio of the two specific the case in any other part of Great Britain. They heats of gas mixtures based on expressions given by think, however, that these adverse conditions have the author in earlier papers, and it is shown that the now reached their maximum. It has, therefore, been results are appreciably different from those calculated considered of importance exactly to describe the state from the usual method of averages.-Léon Bloch : of the lichen-flora as it at present exists, so that data The absorption of gases by resonance.-A. Portevin :

a

118

The mechanical anisotropy of metals and alloys of Essays towards a Theory of Knowledge. By A. coarse grain.-F. de Montessus de Ballore : The seis- Philip. Pp. 126. (London : G. Routledge and Sons, mogenic influence of parallel faults.—Pereira de Ltd.) 25. 6d. net. Sousa : The macroseisms of 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914, in * Rain and Rivers." The Rev. Prof. Bonney and the north of Portugal. The earthquakes in the north the late Col. George Greenwood. Pp. 16. (London : of Portugal (Minho) from 1911 to 1914 were of epiro- Watts and Co.) 3d. genic origin. Their maximum intensity was shown Board of Education. Memorandum on the Teachalong the seismotectonic line Paços de Ferreira-Vila / ing of Engineering in Evening Technical Schools. Nova de Famalicão-Barcellos-Caminha, and their Pp. 59. (London : H.M.S.O.; Wyman and Sons, Ltd.) maximum extension along the seismotectonic line Vila 6d. do Conde-Malta-Gondomar.-G. Arnaud : The roots of A History of the Royal Dublin Society. By Dr. gummy beetroots. The gummy degeneration of the H. F. Berry. Pp. XV+460. (London : Longmans and beetroot, which has been rather marked this winter, Co.) 155. net. is shown to be caused by a bacterium, the isolation The Problem of Volcanism. By Dr. J. P. Iddings. and description of which are described.-P. Carnot | Pp. xvi+273. (New Haven : Yale University Press; and B. Weill. Hallé : The dissemination of the typhoid Oxford : University Press.) 215. net. bacillus round patients attacked with the disease. A Edema and Nephritis. By Dr. M. H. Fischer. study of the various types of typhoid carriers, with Second edition. Pp. x+695. . (New York : J. Wiley some practical recommendations, including the neces- and Sons, Inc.; London : Chapman and Hall, Ltd.) sity for the prolonged isolation of typhoid patients, 219. net. rigorous disinfection of the wards and of infected articles, and semi-isolation and hyper-vaccination of

DIARY OF SOCIETIES. the hospital staff.—Maurice Piettre : The feeding of

WEDNESDAY, APRII. 7. armies in the field. A statement of the advantages

ENTOMOLOGICAL Society, at 8. connected with the use of preserved vegetables.

FRIDAY, APRIL 9.

RYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, at 5.
March 22.-M. Ed. Perrier in the chair.-Paul
Brück : First elements of the Mellish comet. Based

CONTENTS.

PAGE on an observation on February 15 made at Taschkent Observatory, and two observations by M. Coggia made The Development of the Invertebrates. By E. S. on February 20 and 25.-Emile Saillard : The estima- Goodrich, F.R.S....X.

113 tion of saccharose in beetroot after freezing and thaw- The Butterflies of Australia. By E. B. P.

114 ing. A considerable proportion of the saccharose has Physical Anthropology. By A. K.

115 disappeared by viscous fermentation.-Louis

Monographs and Text-books of Chemistry. By
T. M. L.

116 Rousseau : Crystallised calcium theobrominate. Lime

Our Bookshelf

117 water and theobromine react at the boiling point

Letters to the Editor :forming a crystallised compound which, on analysis,

The Rules of Zoological Nomenclature. -Dr. F. A. proved to have the composition (C,H,NO), Ca, H.O.

Bather, F.R.S. The properties of this compound detailed.

The Preparation of Anhydrous Solids.-W. R. G. Maurice Lugeon and Gerhard Henny : The alpino

Atkins dinaric limit in the neighbourhood of the massif of The War and British Chemical Industry

119 Adamello.—Henry Hubert : Anomalies in the distribu- Dr. A. S. Lea, F.R.S. By J. N. L. tion of the temperature curves in western Africa.- Prof. A. A. W. Hubrecht. By E. W. M. Julien Loisel : a representative nomogram of the

Notes psychrometric formula.-M. Pavillard : Increase and Our Astronomical Column :scissiparity in the Peridineans.-J. Basset : Preserved

Comet 1915a (Mellish) food for the armies in the field. Modifications of the

The Ninth Satellite of Jupiter existing ration are suggested with a view of giving

Relative Proper Motions of the Pleiades

Report of the Stonyhuist College Observatory, greater variety of food.-H. Vincent ; Experimental

Recent Work of the United States Geological vaccination against the cholera bacillus by a vaccine

Survey. (Illustrated.) By G. A. J. C.

127 sterilised with ether. The advantages of the use of The Position of the Organic Chemical Industry. ether are the rapid sterilisation, reduction in the By Prof. W. H. Perkin, F.R.S. amounts of useless lipoid bodies, and the dissociation The Co-operation of Science and Industry. By of the treated bacilli favourable to their rapid bac- S. R. I. ..

130 teriolysis in glass and their rapid resorption in the

The Institution of Naval Architects body.-Ch. J. Gravier : The biology of corals from Ear Protection Against Artillery Sounds. By

C. V. B.

131 great oceanic depths.

Some Scientific Aspects of Piano-Players. By
Prof. G. H. Bryan, F.R.S.

131 BOOKS RECEIVED.

Scientific Work of the Smithsonian Institution. The Works of Aristotle, translated into English: De

(Illustrated.)

University and Educational Intelligence Mundo. By E. S. Forster. De Spiritu. By Prof. Societies and Academies

139 J. F. Dobson. (Oxford : At the Clarendon Press.) 25. Books Received

140 net.

Diary of Societies
The Works of Aristotle, translated into English :
Magna Moralia. By St. George Stock. Ethica

Editorial and Publishing Offices :
Eudemia. De Virtutibus et Vitiis. By J. Solomon.

MACMILLAN & CO., LTD., (Oxford : At the Clarendon Press.) 5s. net.

ST. MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON, W.C. Principles of Physical Geography. By G. C. Fry. Pp. x+151. (London : W. B. Clive.)

6d.

Advertisements and business letters to be addressed to the First Principles of Production. By J. T. Peddie.

Publishers.
Pp. 231. (London : Longmans and Co.) 5s. net.
Modern Illuminants and Illuminating Engineering.

Editorial Communications to the Editor.
By L. Gaster and J. S. Dow. Pp. xiv + 462. (Lon- Telegraphic Address : Phusis, LONDON.
don : Whittaker and Co.) 12s. 6d. net.

Telephone Number : GERRARD 8830.

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THURSDAY, APRIL 8, 1915.

cost of the publication of the collected works,

which must be considerable, as it is being carried THE COMPLETE WORKS OF TYCHO

out in a sumptuous manner, with very large, clear

type on thick, strong paper, and will run into BRAHE.

several volumes. Tychonis Brahe Dani Opera Omnia. Edidit

The heavens themselves signalised in a brilliant I. L. E. Dreyer. Tomus I. Pp. lix + 320. manner the advent of Tycho by the outburst of (Copenhagen : Gyldendalske Boghandel Nordisk Nova Cassiopeiae in 1572. The memoir, “De Forlag, 1913.)

Nova Stella,” was the first of his published ERHAPS one's first sensation on handling writings, and appropriately begins the collection.

this beautiful volume is one of surprise “Last year, on the evening of November 11, while that three centuries have been allowed to pass contemplating the stars, according to my custom, after Tycho's death before his writings were given I observed a new, remarkably bright one nearly to the world in a collected form ; for he took a overhead. And since from my boyhood all the notable part in building the structure of modern

stars were perfectly familiar to me (such knowastronomy. He was the first to realise the imper- ledge is not difficult to acquire) it was certain that fections of the existing solar and planetary tables, there had not been even a faint one in that posiand the fact that their improvement needed pro- tion, much less one of surpassing splendour.” longed observations with larger and more care- Mistrusting his own eyes, he quickly got his fully designed instruments than any that had yet neighbours to verify the discovery, which appeared been employed; he fortunately had the skill to

more startling to him than to us, since he knew design these, and the means to purchase them. of no parallel except the star of Hipparchus. Thanks to the bounty of Frederick II., he was He diligently observed the position of the Nova enabled to found Uraniborg Observatory, where at various hour-angles, and after some months' sun, moon, planets, and stars were observed observation satisfied himself that it had neither assiduously for twenty years.

proper motion nor diurnal parallax (on his geoThe planetary observations led Kepler to the centric hypothesis annual parallax was not to be enunciation of his three laws, those of the moon expected), so he rightly concluded that it belonged led Tycho himself to detect the variation and

to the sphere of the fixed stars; the fact that it annual equation, also the oscillatory changes of scintillated confirmed this view. He estimated its the node and inclination; those of the sun led to bulk as many hundred times that of the earth, the detection of atmospheric refraction, and an no doubt thinking himself very daring. approximate measure of its amount. Those of His notes on the magnitude and colour are comets showed, by the minuteness of their diurnal interesting, to compare with those on modern parallax, that they were much more remote than Novæ. In November, 1572, the Nova was much the moon, and hence that they were not vapours brighter than Venus, so that many people saw it in our own atmosphere, as many had supposed, in full daylight; at that time its colour was combut belonged to the planetary sphere. His obser- pared to that of Jupiter. The brightness in vations of the fixed stars were far more precise December was equal to Jupiter, in February and than any previous ones, so that according to Dr. March to a star of the first magnitude, in May to Dreyer the probable error of his standard right one of the second. The colour became red like ascensions is only 24" ; thus we may reasonably Mars or Aldebaran; later still it became livid like conjecture that if Tycho had lived a few years Saturn. later, and known of the telescopic method, his The astrological significance of the Nova is results might be of utility even in our day. fully discussed; Tycho made some lucky hits; in

The present reprint is under the auspices of the next century many people saw in the career “Det Danske Spreg og Litteratur Selskab,” which of Gustavus Adolphus a striking fulfilment of the has been fortunate in securing the services of horoscope based on the Nova. Dr. Dreyer as editor. The task is evidently a The volume before us also contains the horolabour of love with him, as he has made a special scopes of the three of Frederick II. : study of Tycho's life, having written his biography Christian, Ulrich, and Hans. Dr. Dreyer notes in 1890; he has written a Latin preface of fifty- that astrology cannot be omitted if we desire to nine pages in the present work, giving a bio- enter fully into the thought of that age, and that graphical outline and a summary of the astro- Tycho could not refuse to draw up these horonomical achievements; the fuller biography should scopes when the king, his patron, requested him however, be read by all serious students of his life. to do so. Also, belief in planetary influence seems Mr. G. A. Hagemann is generously bearing the less unreasonable in the case of those who accept

sons

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