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It is announced in the issue of Science for March 12 to Kingston, the port of shipment. Negotiations are that Col. George W. Goethals has been promoted to accordingly now pending for the purchase and shipbe a major-general of the line in recognition of his ment of considerable quantities of Jamaica fustic by services in the construction of the Panama Canal. dyers in this country. The Government of British Brig.-Gen. William C. Gorgas, surgeon-general, has Honduras is also taking action in this matter, and a been promoted to be major-general in the medical further supply of the wood may possibly be forthdepartment. Col. H. F. Hodges and Lieut.-Col. W. L. coming from that Colony. Further information may Sibert, U.S. Corps of Engineers, have been promoted be obtained on application to the Imperial Institute, to be brigadier-generals. The Bill authorising these South Kensington, London, S.W. promotions extends the thanks of Congress to the

By the death of Mr. J. J. Beringer on March 28, officers mentioned.

Cornwall has lost an indefatigable worker whose inWe regret to see the announcement of the death on

vestigations in the science of mining and metallurgy Sunday, April 4, at fifty-eight years of age, of Dr.

made him one of her most prominent and inH. Lewis Jones, medical officer in charge of the elec- teresting personalities. A personal friend, W. H. T.-J., trical department at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, and

sends us the following particulars of his career and a leading authority upon electro-therapeutics. Dr.

work. Born at Penzance, Cornwall, in 1857, Mr. Jones was president in 1903-4 of the British Electro- Beringer was educated at Redruth. In 1877 he won Therapeutic Society, and acted as official delegate for a Royal Exhibition, and took the course of the Royal the British Government to the International Congress

School of Mines in London. In 1880 he passed his of Physiotherapy at Liège in 1905, and also at Paris examinations with distinction, and secured his diploma in 1910. He was the author of “ Medical Electricity," A.R.S.M. In 1881 he became assistant in the chemand of numerous papers on the principles of ionic

istry and assaying department to Prof. Huntingdon medication and related subjects.

at King's College, where his work was very highly

appreciated. From 1882 to 1891 he was lecturer to The desirability of excluding cotton from Germany the Miners' Association, also public analyst for the and Austria has been urged upon the Government by county of Cornwall. From 1882 down to the date of a number of men of science. At a conference on

his death, he was principal of the County School of March 10 a letter was drawn up and sent to Lord Metalliferous Mining, Camborne, of which he also was Moulton at the High Explosives Department of the

made a governor, and it is mainly in that position War Office, pointing out that Germany is entirely that he distinguished himself as a lecturer of remarkdependent on her imports of unspun cotton for the able ability on mining and metallurgical subjects, not manufacture of propulsive explosives, and asking only by his erudition, but also by his sympathetic hold whether a complete embargo on cotton destined to on his students. He was the author of a text-book Germany and Austria by any channel had been de

on assaying, which has gone through some ten or clared and would be exercised. Among the signatories niore editions, and remains to-day the standard textto the letter were Sir William Ramsay, Prof. Clowes, book in Great Britain, and may be said to be used in Sir Alex. R. Binnie, Prof. H. Jackson, Mr. B. Blount, nearly all schools of mines throughout the world. Prof. Meldola, and Prof. W. J. Pope. Lord Moulton The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, in replied on March 19 to the effect that the Order in

recognition of the distinguished services he had renCouncil of March 11 would, he thought, satisfy the dered to the science and industry of metallurgy, besignatories, who, however, on March 22 pointed out stowed upon him the honorary membership of the that the Order in Council would become effective only institution. His death was partly due to weakness inif cotton were made contraband of war. Further duced by severe and continuous overwork, and correspondence has taken place, and the signatories especially by the loss of vision in one eye due to his have had an interview with the Board of Trade, but close application to microscopic and ultra-microscopic they appear to have been unable to obtain the assur- work. His loss will long be keenly felt, especially in ance they desire for the prevention of the importation Cornwall, by a large circle of personal friends, includof cotton by Germany.

ing the many students who passed through his hands. The present shortage in this country of synthetic In the University of Pennsylvania's Anthropological yellow dyes has put difficulties in the way of manu- Publications, vol. iv., No. 2, Mr. M. R. Harrington facturers of khaki cloth. A temporary way out of the describes a remarkable collection of the sacred bundles difficulty was found, however, by the increased use of of the Sac and Fox Indians collected by the expedition fustic, a natural yellow dye-stuff, consisting of the maintained by Mr. G. G. Heye. These bundles, conwood of a tree (Chlorophora tinctoria) which grows taining many heterogeneous articles, are held in the freely in Jamaica and also in British Honduras. highest veneration, and in many cases the religious When the shortage of yellow dye-stuffs first became observances of the tribe centre round them. The conapparent the Imperial Institute took steps to place cepts underlying their use are often obscure, but the British dye firms in touch with exporters of fustic in idea at the basis is that they are endowed with some Jamaica. Only a moderate amount of cut fustic wood supernatural power or mana, which directly influences was, as it happened, then available in the island, but, the phenomena of life in the interest of their owner. as a result of the institute's action the Government The bundles are supposed to possess a consciousness of Jamaica has offered to purchase from the growers of their own, to understand what is said to them, further supplies, and carry these at Government cost and to enjoy offerings presented to them. Some are

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used in religion, some in war, while others are of a reared by himself, which differed from the normal private nature, and bring success in hunting or in form by the curvature of the wings. In the new love, heal the sick, promote health, bring luck in form the wings curve upwards at an angle of about sports, gambling, or are used in witchcraft. Some 45° from the end of the abdomen, and thus somewhat belong to shamans, others are in private hands. A resemble rose-petals, instead of projecting horizontally full catalogue with photographs fully illustrates this over and above the abdomen, as in the wild form. interesting collection.

Unfortunately, all the members of the new stock died

during the hot weather of the summer of 1914. It is generally held that the presence of B. coli in pasteurised milk indicates either that the milk has not The problem of utilising museum collections for the been properly heated, or that it has been subsequently use of children seems to have been satisfactorily solved reinfected by careless handling. In the Journal of by the authorities of the Museums of the Brooklyn Agricultural Research for February, S. H. Ayres and Institute of Arts and Sciences, whose report for W. T. Johnson, jr., describe experiments which 1913, unusually belated, has just reached us. The suggest that this conclusion may not always be museum for children has been brought into close relajustified. From an examination of pasteurised milk tion with the city schools, the majority of visitors supplied by twenty-four dairies in Amsterdam, being under fourteen years of age. Well-arranged Ringeling declared that nearly half of them did not series are adapted for purposes of instruction, and pasteurise or handle the milk properly, since he found the library serves the threefold purpose of supplying B. coli in the samples received from ten of the dairies. children with books and magazines relating to their In recent years many investigators have found that studies, their clubs, and their hobbies. The total cultures of B. coli were easily destroyed at tempera

attendance was nearly 48,000, and about 2300 parents tures below 60° C., which is the lowest pasteurising and other adults attended, some with their children, temperature, but certain strains required heating for others desiring help in choosing children's books, 30 mins. at 70° in order to destroy them. The while others who began coming in their early days authors have studied the thermal death-point of 174

continue their visits. Teachers are encouraged to cultures of typical colon bacilli, isolated chiefly from inspect the collections under the guidance of expericow fæces, as well as from milk, cream, flies, human

enced instructors. The scheme seems to be well fæces, and cheese. These cultures were heated in

organised, and an examination of it may be useful to milk at temperatures ranging from 52° C. to 68° C.

school authorities in this country. for 30 mins. At 63° C., the usual temperature of The uncertainty that prevails with regard to the pasteurisation, 6-9 per cent. of the cultures survived,

correct zoological names of many of the commonest but only one culture (0-6 per cent.) survived heating

or most familiar animals is a source of great conto 66° C. Repeated heatings of the cultures that

fusion, especially to those who make use of such survived the normal pasteurising process showed that names without being themselves experts in the study 63° C. is a critical temperature for the comparatively of the particular class of animals dealt with. It is, few resistant strains, which are able to survive the

for instance, extraordinarily perplexing for a medical original heating by the resistance of a few organisms practitioner or student to see common human parasites only. If milk is pasteurised at 66° C. or above for appearing under different names in different books, 30 mins., the authors expect from their results that or the same name applied to quite distinct species by no colon bacillus would survive. Consequently under different authorities. The efforts, therefore, that are such conditions the B. coli test for the efficiency of

being made by the International Commission pasteurisation may be of value. It is, however, pos- Zoological Nomenciature to fix the names of animals sible that a study of a larger number of cultures

in cases where the matter is in dispute, will be welwould show that some strains may survive even higher comed by all who require to make use of the names. temperatures.

The latest “Opinion” (No. 66) issued by the ComVol. xi., part 1, of Records of the Indian Museum

mission deals with certain genera of Nematodes and contains articles on boring-sponges of the family

Gordiacea, including the round-worms parasitic in Clionidæ, by Dr. N. Annandale, on hermit crabs from

man, namely, Ancylostoma (type duodenale), Ascaris the Chilka Lake, by Mr. J. R. Henderson, and on

(type lumbricoides), Dracunculus (type medinensis), some South Indian frogs, bv Mr. C. R. N. Rao, as

Gnathostoma (type spinigerum), Necator (type ameriwell as two others. Of five species of hermit-crabs

canus), Strongyloides (type intestinalis =stercoralis), only one is described as new.

Trichostrongylus (type retortaeformis), Gordius (type

aquaticus), and Paragordius (type varius). The first The beauty and delicacy of execution of the two

of these genera, of which the type is the “Old World plates (reproduced from photographs) form a striking Hook-worm,” notorious as the cause of miner's feature of a memoir by Mr. S. Yehara on Cretaceous

anæmia, has hitherto appeared under about a dozen trigonias from Miyako and Hokkaido, published as different spellings, including even such barbarous vol. ü., No. 2, of Science Reports of Tohoku Imperial forms as “Agchylostoma”; it is to be hoped that in University, Sendai, Japan, series 2 (Geology). The

the future uniformity in this respect will be mainbeautiful preservation of the specimens themselves is tained. likewise noteworthy.

IN Records of the Botanical Survey of India, vol. In the American Naturalist for March Mr. R. R. vi., No. 5, an account is given by Mr. M. S. RamaHyde describes a fly of the species Drosophila confusa, swami of a botanical tour in the Tinnevelley Hills.

on a

third paper

on

A good map is included showing the author's route. cently published by Mr. E. S. Salmon from Of the 470 species collected, thirty-three, or about crossing female Oregon cluster by English male 7 per cent. of the whole, are endemic to the region, plants. The series of experiments suggest an in2 per cent. are purely Ceylon species, and 10 per cent. teresting line of Mendelian research. Mr. Schmidt's are peculiar to the South Indian peninsula. Legu- paper appears in Comptes rendus des travaux du minosæ, with fifty-five species, and Rubiaceæ, with Laboratoire de Carlsberg (ime volume, 3me livraison, thirty-eight, are the most extensively represented 1915). natural orders. One new species, Senecio calcadensis

PROF. A. P. BRIGHAM's presidential address to the -a composite—is described and figured.

Association of American Geographers, delivered at the The Missouri Botanical Garden completes its meeting in Chicago at the end of last year, is pubfirst volume with several interesting papers. Mr. lished in Science of February 19. Broadly speaking, E. A. Burt contributes

the his theme was that the geographer's "goal is broad Thelephoraceæ of North America, and details generalisation. But the formulation of general laws twenty-one species of

Cyphella. Mr. R. R. ' is difficult and the results insecure until we have a Gates publishes an account on some Enotheras from body of concrete and detailed observations."

Prof. Cheshire and Lancashire, with three well-executed Brigham's geographical keynote is environment, and plates. The work represents the results of cultivation certainly in this study the generalisations which have and hybridisation both at the Missouri Botanical hitherto preceded detailed observations have presented Garden and the John Innes Institution at Merton, and many pitfalls. Prof. Brigham's address was full of details of the new forms, both mutants and hybrids, suggestions for detailed research in various fields. In are given. In the same part Messrs. Greenman and an early paragraph he referred to the symposium on Thompson describe and illustrate new species of the trend of modern geography conducted by G. B. flowering plants from the south-western United States Roorbach, and published in the Bulletin of the and Mexico.

American Geographical Society for November, 1914.

This marshalling of the views of some thirty geoTHE first number of the Kew Bulletin for 1915 is

graphers, mainly American, but some British, pointed mainly occupied by a paper on the semi-parasitic

to the same conclusion. It perhaps gave unfair genus Thesium in South Africa, which is illustrated

weight to a particular aspect of geographical opinion, by two plates showing the different types of

inasmuch as fully two-thirds of those whose views floral morphology. The genus which exhibits its

were given were professors or other teachers, and the maximum development in South Africa has been

mathematical and cartographical department of the studied in connection with the preparation of the

subject received rather scanty treatment. This apart, "Flora Capensis.” Some 128 species are found to

however, most of them expressed their ideas of the be represented at the Cape, belonging to four well

functions of geography in a variety of carefully marked floral types or sections. Two of these, the worded formulæ all of much the same meaning. In sections Penicillata, in which the tuft of hairs behind

indicating fields of research, they were less successiul the anther remains free and not attached to the than Prof. Brigham, and some suggestions (in the anther, and Annulata, where a ring of hairs at the

direction of climatology, for instance) travelled well throat of the perianth replaces the tufts of hairs behind outside the geographical scope. the anthers, are peculiar to the Cape region. A fresh description of the genus is given, a key to all the

Dr. BRUCE and Dr. Rudmose Brown gave an South African species, and fifty-two diagnoses of new

account to the Royal Geographical Society on March species are published by Mr. A. W. Hill. The dis

22 of Dr. Bruce's expedition to Spitsbergen in 1914. tribution of the genus is remarkable. The majority of

Its object was to investigate Stor Fiord, the great species are African, but several are spread over

bay to the south-east of Spitsbergen. Difficulties due Europe and temperate Asia, while two occur in Brazil

to the war seriously interfered with their plans, and and one in Australia.

most of the time was spent in geological work on

Prince Charles Foreland, the island off the western The permanence of the aroma of hops of a par- coast of Spitsbergen. Most of the paper was devoted ticular variety when grown in another locality has to a discussion of the ownership of Spitsbergen. The long been a vexed question. Mr. Johs. Schmidt has authors of the papers claimed that the archipelago been carrying out investigations at Carlsberg, and has should be British in virtue of prior claim. After the satisfactorily proved that if pure lines of hops with abandonment of the whaling fishery, the country was the “Saaz" aroma from Bohemia, or Oregon cluster long left derelict, but during the last forty years hops, with the distinctive and peculiar “American " claims for its possession have been advanced by aroma, are grown in Denmark, they do not lose their Russia, Norway, and Sweden. In 1909 the United characteristic qualities. The experiment of cross- States suggested the establishment of an American fertilising these varieties with pollen of wild Danish protectorate. In 1912 a conference between Norway, hops has also been made, and it was found that a pro- Sweden, and Russia agreed that Spitsbergen should portion of the offspring exhibited the character- remain neutral territory and be jointly administered istic aromas of the female parents, though the plants by those three Powers. Drs. Bruce and Brown maincarrying the aroma did not necessarily retain the tain that this agreement would deprive Britain of any external appearance peculiar to the mother plant. voice in the future of Spitsbergen, despite her right These latter results

similar to those re- i of ownership due to annexation, exploration, and pre

66

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removed shortly after taking office, on account of his fectly transparent "in" thicknesses up to 3 cm. Thus,

ponderating commercial interests They represent Clarke, in Science, been worked out by Prof. Fairchild this agreement as a practical surrender of Spitsbergen / and Mr. E. C. Quereau. In the course of Prof. Fairto Russia, which they insist has practically no claim child's work upon the Pleistocene geology of New to the country. In the development of the coal- York State, he demonstrated the accuracy of Mr. mining the American interests are important though Quereau's suggestion that in the retreat of the ice localised, and are of less value than the British. The mantle the outflow of the glacial waters was by way authors urge that in consequence of the growing of great rivers moving eastward into the Mohawkcommercial development of Spitsbergen some definite Hudson drainage, and in the Green Lake one of these government must be established, and they claim that streams cut its rock gorge in the limestones of the many of those interested in the country consider its Helderberg escarpment and left a series of plungeinterests would be best served by the establishment of basins beneath great cataracts which surpassed the a British protectorate.

dimensions, as they must have equalled the dignity

and grandeur, of Niagara. The lake is surrounded A SOCIETY of Vulcanology has recently been founded

on all but its eastern side by an amphitheatre of sheer in connection with the University of Catania. The

limestone cliffs rising to a height of nearly 200 ft., objects of the society are to collect accounts and

an the depth of the lake is stated to be not less than photographs of the volcanic phenomena of Etna and

100 ft. Water of a deep emerald hue still fills this Sicily and specimens of the materials ejected, and to

ancient plunge-basin, without visible outlet or inlet. encourage generally the study of vulcanology. We have received the first four numbers of the Pubblica. A VALUABLE investigation of the “Absorption, Rezioni issued by the society. They include papers by flection, and Dispersion Constants of Quartz” has Prof. G. Platania on the recent eruptions of Etna and

been carried out by Mr. W. W. Coblentz, and published on a proposal for the international organisation for the

as Bulletin No. 237 of the Washington Bureau of study of volcanoes.

Standards. Unlike fluorite, quartz shows a marked

absorption in the infra-red at 2 M, and becomes pracThe well-known Vesuvian Observatory was built in

tically opaque beyond 3M; but from 0-25 in the ,

ultra-violet to u in infra-is action in political movements. The observatory then

after allowing for losses by reflection at the interface remained closed until 1852, when Palmieri obtained

between quartz and air, the transmission is actually permission to make use of it for his own investiga- found to be 100 per cent., if an allowance of 2 parts tions. Four years later he was appointed director by

per 1000 is made for experimental error. The the Neapolitan Government, though regular observa

absorption does not appear to be affected by the tions only became possible when he was provided with

direction in which the radiations pass relatively to an assistant at the close of 1863. Four of the six

the optic axis of the quartz. papers which appear in the last five numbers of the Bollettino of the Italian Seismological Society relate In the Annals of the Association of American Geoto Vesuvian phenomena and to work done in the graphers, vol. iv., Prof. de Courcy Ward gives an observatory since the latter date (vol. xviii., pp. 87-338). excellent account of the general features of American Mr. A. Malladra studies the rainfall of Vesuvius weather regarded from the point of view of climate. during the fifty years 1863-1913, and the effects of Although climate is usually defined as the average of volcanic gases on vegetation. He also describes the weather, the irregularities of weather, the variations seismographs and seismoscopes in the observatory and from day to day, are in some respects more significant various chambers in the neighbourhood. Some of than averages : in addition to averages, we require these are of modern Italian construction and are frequencies and rates of change to get even an apcapable of recording strong earthquakes in all parts proximately true representation of climate. Prof. of the world. An important paper is that by Mr. C. Ward shows how in winter the controlling factor in Cappello on the variations in the altitude of Vesuvius America is the non-periodic variation arising from the from 1631 to 1906, and in the outline of the mountain passage of cyclones and anti-cyclones : the storm conin the years 1911 to 1914. After the eruption of 1906, trol, he calls it expressively. In summer, on the other the greatest height of the crater rim was 4013 ft. on hand, the non-periodic variations are less dominant the west-south-west side, the least 3619 ft. on the than the regular diurnal changes : storm-control is opposite side, and the greatest diameter of the crater subordinate to solai-control. The paper is illustrated about 2395 ft.

by diagrams showing the different paths of cyclones A Plot of ground covering seventy-five acres, which

and anticyclones and the changes in the weather as includes the remarkable Green Lake near Jamesville,

the cyclones and anticyclones cross the country. The

distribution about the cyclonic centres is illustrated N.Y., with its series of abandoned cataracts, rock

for different seasons, and the changes which take place channels, and dry plunge-basins, has been given to

at a fixed spot as the cyclones pass over it are shown the New York State Museum by Mrs. Mary Clark Thompson, of New York, and presented in the name

by reproducing curves from self-recording instruments. of her father, Myron H. Clark, a former governor of The February number of the Journal of the Royal that State, and by her desire it is to be known as the Microscopical Society contains a paper which Mr. “Clark Reservation." The significance of the con- J. E. Barnard read before the society in December formation of the new reservation has, says Dr. J. M. last on the possibility of utilising Röntgen rays in microscopic work. In his experiments the author has Gardner, assistant director of the Washington Inused the soft rays from a tube provided with a lithium stitute of Industrial Research. An extensive series glass window. The rays can only pass out of the lead of experiments on iron rods of 1/2 or 3/4 in. diameter chamber in which the tube is enclosed through a series embedded in concrete cylinders i ft. long has been of fine holes in lead screens in line with each other, carried out by the author to determine what type of and in consequence they strike the photographic plate paint was most effective. The rods were thoroughly as a parallel beam. The object to be photographed is cleaned, and two coats of the paint applied, each placed in contact with the plate, which is enclosed being allowed a week to dry. They were then emin a light tight box. Plates with thin gelatine films bedded in the concrete, which was aged for a month and very fine grain must be used. The time of expo- before the test was commenced. Each cylinder was sure depends on the thickness and opacity of the object,

then immersed in water, and a potential difference and the author prefers to use the harder rays from of 30 to 100 volts applied for 10 days between two the tube as the opacity increases. The resulting rods in each cylinder, or between one rod and an photographs are the same size as the object, and must outside electrode, the current transmitted being be enlarged by the usual photographic method. Six observed. In all cases in which an appreciable current reproductions of photographs showing the internal

passed, the concrete cracked round the anode. The structure of microscopic objects are given in the paper. uncracked cylinders were tested for the strength of The Rendiconti of the Italian Chemical Society

the bonding between the iron and the concrete. The

author concludes that the paint should be prepared (vol. vii., pp. 173-222) has an interesting discussion of the relationship existing between Mendel's principles rather than oxidation, that the pigments should be

from boiled or bodied oils which dry by polymerisation of heredity and the atomic theory by Prof. C. Vulpiani.

insulators and should give a rough surface, and that A brief survey is given of the recent developments of

the paint should have fine sand scattered over it before our views as to the atomic and molecular state, and

it is quite dry. an attempt is made to show that the natural basis of the hereditary elements which are transmitted accord- We are asked by the proprietors of the Mallocking to Mendelian laws is to be found in the molecular Armstrong ear defender described in last week's or atomic groupings present within the cells, and of NATURE (p. 131) to say that since January 1 of this year which the chromosomes are only the outward visible

all the defenders sold have been of an improved patmanifestation. The author very justly emphasises tern, furnished with gold-plated gauze wire to resist how the Mendelian laws of heredity have led to a corrosive effects--such as those of sea air—and genermore general recognition of the complexity of cell ally are more expensive to make than those first put protoplasm. The view that each hereditary element on the market. Accordingly the price is now 4s. the corresponds with some material factor in the ultra- pair, instead of 35., as stated in our notice. microscopic or molecular structure of the contents of the reproductive cells will undoubtedly lead to more

OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. correct conceptions being formed as to the nature of

COMET 19150 (MELLISH).—The following is a concell protoplasm than those which have in the past been

tinuation of the ephemeris given last week :current among biologists.

R.A. (true) Dec. (true)

Mag. A PAPER on the processes of manufacture of wrought

April 10 18 14 8 iron and steel tubes was read by Mr. J. G. Stewart

3 32.3 at the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in

14

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8.0 Scotland on February 16. The author states that it

16

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18 is very rarely that potable waters are found to have

-5 1.3

7.8 any appreciable corrosive effect on steel pipes, and The comet is situated a little to the east of n Ser. quotes several instances of pipes which have been in pentis. service many years with very little deterioration. The MEASURES OF SATURN.–From December, 1913, to principal fear is for the outside of the pipes. Most March, 1914, Prof. Percival Lowell made a series of natural ground, especially clay, is not only innocuous, measures of the ball, rings, and satellites of Saturn but is actually a permanent protection to steel pipes

with the 24-in. of the Lowell Observatory. They were

taken, as he states, “with an eye to the irradiation," from corrosion. In some cases where the pipes are

and the measures have been deduced to what is comlaid through artificially made, or alluvial ground, monly taken as the mean distance. These are now external protection is desirable. The want has been presented by the author in a communication to the met by dipping the pipes in a hot bath of Dr. Angus Lowell Observatory Bulletin No. 66 (vol. ii., No. 16). Smith's or other bituminous solution, and in cases

The diameter of the ball as determined from direct where the ground contains an excessive amount of

measures, measures of satellites, and measures of

B ring is first given, followed by measures of the salts and acids which cause corrosion, the additional

radius of the ball, breadths of B and A rings, and precaution is taken of wrapping the pipes in coarse width of Cassini's division. All these are summed jute Hessian cloth saturated with the hot solution, up in a table giving the means of the measures for winding it spirally on the already coated pipe.

mean distance, followed by a table of the direct

measures of the diameter of Titan. The March number of the Journal of the Franklin

STARS WITH VARIABLE RADIAL VelocITIES.-Several Institute contains a paper on paints to prevent elec- communications are contained in No. 267 of the Lick trolysis in concrete structures, by Mr. H. A. Observatory Bulletin. The first, by Mr. R. E. Wilson,

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