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This certainly requires more explanation than is (3) Philosophy: What is it? By Prof. F. B. given. The words “of course no terms must be Jevons. Pp. vii + 135. (Cambridge: At the omitted” begs the whole question; the sum is University Press, 1914.) Price is. 6d. net. a limit, and we cannot take all the terms. Perhaps (4) Know Your Own Mind. A Little Book of

Practical Psychology. the following might be suggested. Let Lun be

By W. Glover.

Pp.

(Cambridge: At the University Press, convergent as it stands, so that Lt(m)um=0. 1914.) Price 25. net. Let Lvn be so related to Lum that there is a one-one

(1) SYCHOLOGISTS have been slow to meet the

popular demand for a science correspondence of terms, so that we can write

of character. Under the name ethology, it was Um = Um', Un = Un's

planned by John Stuart Mill. But Mill failed to where m', n' are determined by m, n respectively. accomplish his plan. The laws of psychology,' Suppose further that when m-, then m-, upon which he proposed to base his new science, and that when n-00, then n'-->0; in these

were, in his day, inadequate and unsuitable for circumstances we can infer that Lum= &vn. So

the task. In Mr. Shand's eagerly awaited book far as Mr. Hardy's proof goes, we might infer

the attempt has been renewed. Will the new that

attempt meet with a greater success? 2 + 2 + 2 + = U., +13 + utt.

Judged by Mr. Shand's criterion, it undoubtedly

will. Mr. Shand no longer claims to deduce the but this is not true, unless u, occurs at a finite

laws of character from certain fundamental conplace on the right.

ceptions, initially established as true. He seeks (3) The contents of the last volume of the London Mathematical Society's proceedings are,

rather to formulate provisional hypotheses, and

to test them by their fruitfulness. His method is as usual, very varied, and only a very gifted or

thus concrete and synthetic. It gives him the very conceited reviewer would venture to express an opinion on the absolute or relative value of the

viewpoint of the novelist and dramatist, of the different papers.

biographer and historian; and enables him to As specimens, we note Mr. Bromwich's on Foucault's pendulum, Mr. Burn

utilise their material. In place of Mill's 'laws of

association 'he propounds the 'principle of organside's on prime-power groups, Mr. Carslaw's on Green's function for Aều + k?u=0, Mr. Hobson's

isation': all mental activity tends to produce and on the linear integral equation, and Sir J. Lar

sustain system; and, in sharp distinction from the mor's on the electromagnetic force on a moving

school of Mill, and in common with others who charge. There is also an interesting paper by

have more recently approached his field, he seeks Mr. Mordell the diophantine equation

the springs of conduct on the instinctive and y? - k=x.

emotional side of man's original nature, rather Altogether, the volume gives an

than on its intellectual side. encouraging view of the state of English mathematics, except for the lack of geometry, especially

In his conception of character the chief place pure geometry. This is becoming really a serious is given to those lower systems called emotions, symptom; not only is there an element of culture

and those higher systems, which he has already in geometry which analysis does not possess, but taught us to call 'sentiments. The influence of there is a risk of our studying the whole science intelligence and will is somewhat briefly dismissed. from a one-sided point of view, even if (as is

He treats more fully the influence of temperaprobable) strict mathematical geometry is reduced

ment; and, most suggestively, that of temper. to formal logic applied to few indefinable

The present volume deals in detail with each of axioms.

G. B. M.

the primary emotions. Together with fear, anger, wonder, and disgust, he includes repugnance,

surprise, sorrow, and joy. Tenderness, selfPSYCHOLOGY AND PHILOSOPHY.

assertion, and self-submission are omitted. His (1) The Foundations of Character, Being a Study list thus differs a little from that suggested

of the Tendencies of the Emotions and Senti- by Mr. McDougall. yet deeper differments. By A. F. Shand. Pp. xxxi+ 532. ence is revealed in his treatment of instinct. (London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 1914) In Mr. McDougall's view, to each principal Price 12s. net.

instinct there corresponds innately some one (2) Perception, Physics, and Reality: An Enquiry specific emotion. According to Mr. Shand, an

into the Information that Physical Science can emotion may include within its system several Supply about the Real. By C. D. Broad. Pp. instincts, and the same instinct may be found xii + 388. (Cambridge : At the University Press, organised in several different emotions. The 1914.) Price 1os. net.

difference is partly a question of fact, which future

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investigation may well set itself to solve; but it

Philosophy and science, materialism and idealis partly a question of what we are to term

ism, scepticism and philosophy, personality and instincts. Emotion itself is defined so as to the whole—these are the time-honoured themes include a cognitive and a conative attitude, as that Prof. Jevons discusses in a masterly but timewell as one of feeling. But the part played by honoured manner. They were chosen for lectures the former aspects is not quite as clear in the delivered at the request of branch of the book as it obviously is in Mr. Shand's own mind; Workers' Educational Association. In the debates this perhaps is due to a postponement of a full that followed, the burning controversies of the treatment of knowledge, intelligence, and will to day, and the actual contributions of contemporary the later volume dealing with the sentiments. philosophers, were doubtless freely discussed; and Perhaps the least convincing feature of the book

so, perhaps, it was best that the main impression is the source from which Mr. Shand has collected left was the enduring character of the old enduring his facts. To observational and experimental questions. Often and ably as these have already data he makes scarcely any appeal. In been treated in brief, cheap, popular manuals, support of his one hundred and forty-four pro- Prof. Jevons's little book will rank among the visional laws he

goes

almost entirely to best. literature. To illustrate the association of quali- (4) Mr. Glover's volume belongs to the same ties in various character-types he turns to Balzac pleasantly printed and pleasantly bound series. and La Bruyère rather than to the correlations In his endeavour to be up-to-date, he tells us, of Heymans and Wiersma, or the records of the he has tried to catch something of the cinema followers of Binet, Stern, and Freud. In the spirit.' His metaphors, his similes, and his allepresent stage of knowledge he is perhaps justified. gories are both vivid and picturesque. But his Doubtless, field-workers will soon come forward matter is not quite as up-to-date as his style. He to collect observations, make experiments, and gives us a revised and racy epitome of the tradiapply statistics. And for preliminary conceptions, tional Herbartian psychology. But the methods problems, and hypotheses they can go to no more and marvels of the psychological laboratory he inspiring source than Mr. Shand.

dismisses as of little practical utility and no (2) Mr. Broad's book attempts to discover how popular interest. Nor does he give any reference much natural science can actually tell us about which would help his reader to realise that the the nature of the real. But, unlike recent authors knowledge of our own minds, like most other who have approached this question, he deals with knowledge, has been largely extended by careful physical science rather than with biological. His observation and experiment. His main purpose, chief philosophical concerns are perception and however—to present the subject-matter of psychcausation. His problems are thus those of Mach

ology in a light which will be intelligible and or Lotze rather than those of Bergson or Driesch. interesting to the man in the street-this he has And his point of view owes much to Mr. G. E. brilliantly fulfilled. Moore and Mr. Bertrand Russell. His treatment, however, is none the less suggestive. And his

OUR BOOKSHELF. book provides an excellent refutation of Kant's

The Next Generation : a Study in the Physiology dictum that, in dealing with the traditional prob

of Inheritance. By F. G. Jewett. Pp. xi + lems, philosophy is concerned only with certainty

235 (Boston and London: Ginn and Co., and not with probability.

1914.) Price 3s. 6d. (3) The minds of most English people (so Mr. The author of this skilful little book is persuaded H. G. Wells has declared) will only be reached, that the improvement of the human breed would under present conditions, by thoughts that can be accelerated if people knew more biology. They

Science says perish for lack of knowledge.

In be expressed in the meanest commonplace. * Know Your Own Mind” and “Philosophy :

human beings will be safer when people know the facts, and are influenced by them.

Teachers say What is it? ” we have two deliberate endeavours

Give us the facts, and we will pass them on to to falsify this pessimistic prophecy. Mr. Glover

the boys and girls whom we teach.' Both man and Prof. Jevons have set themselves to interest of science and teacher agree that the human race the average man in two of the most abstruse and will be better able to escape certain kinds of peril technical branches of human knowledge-philo- if we let young people know what the perils are,

Such is the purpose of sophy and psychology. Unfortunately, philo- and how to avoid them.

this book.” sophers and psychologists themselves may be

The general facts of evolution, heredity, and inclined to think that the point of view repré

development are stated with simplicity and vividsented in both is not indeed commonplace, but ness, and on this foundation the author bases her perhaps a trifle old-fashioned.

instruction in regard to the culture of adolescence,

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the use of alcohol, the raising of the standard of causes the thermionic current to reinain at a value parental fitness, and similar problems. In a de- nearly constant, as the temperature is raised above tached appendix the dangers of venereal diseases

a certain value. The thermionic current begins by are frankly pointed out. The author's general obeying Richardson's law (i=av Te-T), and then later

(aV position is that much is to be attained by greater approximates to a steady value. cleanliness, increased control of the hours and Thus at low voltages variations of voltage cause conditions of labour, and improved environment

variations of temperature and consequent fluctuations for children, but that there must also be some

of thermionic current, heard through the telephone.

Above 140 volts, however, for the particular lamp way of preventing the decisively unfit from be

in question, a change of voltage and of temperature coming parents. The book is competent and produces no change of current, and hence no sound wise, but some of the statements seem to us to can be heard in the telephone. require safeguarding. The citations as to child It is possible that this method may prove very conlabour "in the greatest canning factory” in

venient for testing the electron emission from various America are so terrible that we hope there is some

substances in different gases, and it suggests a method of measuring a high vacuum.

A. S. Eve. mistake. The date should have been given. The book is dedicated to “Boys and Girls, the

McGill University, Montreal, March 31. Guardians of the Next Generation,” but we hope we are right in understanding that it is meant

A Mistaken Butterfly. only for the teacher's use.

While waiting for a car at Pacific Grove, Monterey Principles of Physical Geography. By G. C.

County, California, on February 12 (Lincoln's birthFry. Pp. x+151. (London: W. B. Clive,

day) of the present year, I noticed that a man stand1915.) Price is. 6d.

ing near me had the brightly-coloured “eyeof a

peacock 's feather in the band at the back of his hat. This little book contains that part of the author's While looking at this I saw a butterfly floating above text-book of geography which deals with physical the man's head. It suddenly lighted on the “eye' geography, with some additions on such subjects

and apparently began trying to extract food from it.

I directed the man's attention to it; he removed his as map drawing, climate, and the crust of the

hat, and we watched the insect for several minutes earth, as well as a new chapter on man and his

as it tried to secure food from the feather. It then work. It contains no definite instructions for flew away, as if satisfied that it had made a mistake. practical exercises to be worked by the pupil, but I do not know the name of the butterfly, but it was the descriptive treatment will prove suitable for one of many of a light brown colour that seem to students preparing for the examinations men- be plentiful at Pacific Grove at that season. tioned in the author's preface.

told that these butterflies at a certain time regularly alight in thousands upon a special pine tree (one of a great many) in the western edge of the town, and

from this fact they have called it the “Butterfly LETTERS TO THE EDITOR.

Tree." I do not know whether these insects seek [The Editor does not hold himself responsible for

their food from flowers by the sense of smell or that

of sight, but it was evident in the present case that opinions expressed by his correspondents. Neither this one was guided entirely by sight. can he undertake to return, or to correspond with

E. E. BARNARD. the writers of, rejected manuscripts intended for

Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, U.S.A this or any other part of NATURE. No notice is taken of anonymous communications.] The Thermionic Current.

BRITISH SUPPLY OF DRUGS AND FINE If a carbon filament lamp is silvered inside, and a

CHEMICALS. platinum wire through the side of the glass makes electric connection with the belt of silver, it is easy to

AT a British Association meeting about twent: experiment with the thermionic current, using a tele

years ago eminent physicist received phone receiver with one terminal to the platinum wire

some rough handling from his chemical colleagues and the other to the water mains.

on account of the impurities which were maniWith an alternating current at 110 volts, a loud festly present in the materials he had used in his note is heard, depending on the frequency of alterna- experiments. He replied, in effect, that chemists tion. With a direct current from a dynamo there is should employ themselves in purifying chemicals sufficient variation in the voltage to obtain a sound just audible at 100, loud at 110, very loud at 130,

for physicists to use. Nowadays chemicals such and it might be described as an uproar at 140 volts.

as he would have desired are made by the ton, It might be expected that the intensity would increase

chiefly by three firms in Germany. For ordinary until the lamp burnt out. Nothing of the sort. At

chemical, and even physical, research such fine 142 volts the uproar is replaced by dead silence, which materials are turned out that it may be doubted continues up to 165 volts, as high as the lamp would in many cases of the work done with them is stand.

worthy of such refinement. Frequently the chemiThe explanation may be gathered from Langmuir's cals used are better than the chemist who works paper (Physical Review, December, 1913). The thermionic current does not increase with the tem

with them could have produced for himself. For perature, according to Richardson's law, unless the

work of the highest degree of refinement, such as vacuum is of a high order. With a moderate vacuum

the determination of atomic weights, the chemithe volume charge between the filament and silver cals which can be purchased cannot be used with

March 29.

out much further purification, but even in these elegant and even attractive form, and those whose cases much time is saved by the previous elimina- memories go back to the pre-tabloid days may tion of the grosser forms of impurity. To those well envy the younger generation. It would not who were in their early days limited to chemicals be just to underestimate the work done by certain produced in this country, the standard of purity firms in this country in the same direction, but attained by the German manufacturer came as a in the number of the drugs and the enterprise revelation, and the study of prices made it clear shown in collecting new ones, we are, without that the enormous advantage gained by the use doubt, behind our enemies. of the German materials was obtained at no un- In these matters of fine chemicals and drugs, reasonable cost. The standard set by the Ger- both synthetic and natural, it is an arguable man makers has not even been aimed at by our question whether the trade should be left as it is. own countrymen, and the words “pure," "puriss," On one hand it might be said that the work is and "absolutely pure, for examination purposes admirably done by the German manufacturers in on the labels, are ludicrously misused." Want of both branches; they have large and capable staffs method, want of care, and the employment of and works excellently fitted for the purposes for workmen instead of chemists in the preparation which they were built; should not these partiare at the bottom of the failure.

cular manufactures be left in their hands?

On With regard to drugs, it has been stated that the other hand, we have a sense of humiliation some eight hundred different medicinal prepara- that we should be, in any conceivable juncture, tions have been patented within recent years by dependent on those who are at present our German chemists, and although this is probably enemies. Certain allied manufactures, e.g., heavy an exaggeration, it is certain that a very large chemicals, are still left largely in our hands, but number of such substances have been prepared, if we yield in the smaller trades, is it not likely and that many of them have been found of suffi- that they will succeed in wresting from us the cient value from the physiological point of view larger source of profit? There can be no conto warrant their retention as commercial products. vention or agreement in these matters; each

In these days when the relationship between country will make what profit it can in the most chemical constitution and physiological action is convenient direction. “Capturing the Enemy's fairly well understood, it is clear that the dis- Trade” makes a good newspaper heading, but it covery of an organic structure which has valu- is painful to read the many impracticable suggesable physiological action will lead to the pre- tions which have been made on the subject since paration of large numbers of others differing but the beginning of the war. Many people seem to slightly in composition, and that these will find have the idea that all that is wanted is that a their way into patent literature mainly in the works shall be built, or even a derelict factory be hope of their being useful, and, incidentally, to adapted, and then the thing is done. No thought retain the field for further investigation. Such is given to the years of patient research, the long was the case of salvarsan, and since the dis- training of the workers, and the period which covery of that substance by Ehrlich, the patent must elapse before even the raw materials could literature has teemed with specifications dealing be collected. with the preparation of organo-metallic deriva- In the particular directions with which this tives of almost every conceivable description. The article is concerned there is no doubt that the antipyretics, again, of which phenacetin and thing can be accomplished in time. In one laboraaspirin may be quoted as types, belong to de- tory of university rank the manufacture of three finite groups of organic compounds, the other synthetic drugs in large quantities has been carmembers of which possess more or less important ried on since the opening of the war, and the properties, depending on a slight change of struc- resulting products have been handed over to the ture the nature of which is not definitely under- naval hospitals which were in urgent need of stood.

them. The preliminary investigation in this piece There is another class of drugs of which the of work occupied a staff of seven experienced Germans have made a special study, those which workers, under the direction of the professor, two are obtained from vegetable sources. In looking whole months before the details of the processes through their descriptive catalogues (in English) could be mastered. The results not only gave to which are largely circulated among medical men the naval service what was wanted at the moment, in this country, one is struck by their far-reach- / but they enabled the details of the processes to ing enterprise in this direction. Their travellers be handed over, through a committee of the Royal have gone to the ends of the earth to investigate Society, to three manufacturers who will produce native diseases and the local remedies which are the drugs on a large scale. In a similar way used for their treatment. So long ago as 1850, the laboratory of another institution has sucSchweinfurth, in his journeys in central Africa, ceeded in working out the process of making a compiled a list of such remedies and brought home natural drug. from its plant sources. These inspecimens of plants from which they were made. stances illustrate the magnitude of the task which In Germany a large trade is now done in the is before us, and the amount of highly specialised extracts from vegetable sources collected from labour which must be employed on the problems. the remotest corners of the globe, many of them It is only courting failure if the conditions necesBritish possessions. The medicines are sold in sary are not realised before a start is made.

a

In the matter of highly purified chemicals

1915, pp. 1-7, Sir W. Schlich, criticising the preanother point must be noticed. The reputation of ceding report, asks what will be the position if the German makers is high, and deservedly so, the war should last for more than two years; and and it follows that it will be a long time before considers that in this case our coal mines would possible rivals, even if they produced materials of be obliged to shut down for want of pitwood. an equal degree of purity, could obtain the same As labour in Canada is very expensive, he believes degree of confidence in the minds of their cus- that supplies of mining timber from Nova Scotia, tomers. In order to give this confidence it has etc., may prove unavailable on account of the been suggested that the object might be most prohibitive cost. He urges upon the Government quickly attained by the establishment of the necessity of taking early steps to increase National Chemical Laboratory analogous in the area under trees in these islands, and reconstitution and management to the National iterates well-known arguments that, however Physical Laboratory, in which the products sound, appear to have little effect upon our rulers. of the manufacturers could be tested and

He sums up as follows :the standard of purity guaranteed. The scheme

Forest schools have been set up for instruction in would undoubtedly serve to hasten matters. The

forestry; a forestry branch has been established in guarantee of the National Physical Laboratory is connection with the Board of Agriculture and another accepted as impartial and accurate throughout in Ireland; an officer has been appointed to convert the world, and there is no reason why a chemical the Dean and High Meadow Woods into a demoninstitution of the same kind should not com

stration area. All this is in the right direction, but mand equal confidence. Into the question of cost

very little has as yet been done to increase the area there is perhaps no need to enter, but the fact

under forest. Too much talking and too little action

-that is the long and short of it. Let us hope that must be faced that the average man would not

the new situation wili lead without further loss of expect to pay a much higher price than he has

time to action. Of course, I should not advocate the paid heretofore because the substances were made taking of a single acre out of cultivation, because the in England.

H. B. BAKER. production of food goes before everything else; but

there are large stretches of land unfit for cultivation

and yet quite fit to produce forest crops. Nor should HOME FORESTRY AND THE WAR.

I advocate the formation of large blocks of woodland, N an article in NATURE of December 10, 1914,

all in a ring fence as it were. No, what I look for. IN p. 393, it was shown how dependent we were

ward to are moderate sized areas scattered over the

country. As long as the area is sufficiently large to upon foreign countries for our supplies of pitwood, justify placing a woodman in charge and also sufiwithout which coal-mining could not be carried cient to be placed under systematic management, say on. About half the total amount of pitwood ex- a minimum of 500 acres, we snall have all that is ported in normal times into the United Kingdom required. In that case agricultural labourers and comes from Baltic ports; and as a result of the

tenants of small areas will in time come forward and action of Germany in declaring pitwood contra

do the bulk of the forest work during the winter band, the supplies from this source have practi- standstill, thus improving their resources,

months, when agricultural work is practically at a

Such a cally ceased, what now arrives from Scandinavia

scheme will not be perfection all at once, but it will being merely small cargoes from Gottenburg, come by degrees. Only let the Government, with Christiania, and other ports outside the Baltic. funds allotted by the Development Commissioners, The important supply of pitwood from France, start actual work, even on a small scale; it is sure to Spain, and Portugal still continues, though at grow. enhanced prices; and in case of need, large Another article in this journal deals also with quantities can be obtained from Nova Scotia, New- the subject of pit-timber, and reviews the result foundland, etc. Nevertheless, it became neces- of an independent inquiry by the English Forestry sary to ascertain the available amount of home- Association. Further articles treat of the preparagrown timber suitable for use in mining; and an tion of yield tables, which are necessary in the inquiry into the subject was undertaken by the estimation of the financial returns that are probforestry branch of the Board of Agriculture, the able, when waste lands are afforested. Mr. Hiley report of which has been issued with great prompti- | writes a preliminary report on an investigation at tude. From this it appears that the total area Oxford into larch canker, and advocates a means of woodlands in England, 1,884,000 acres, is of treatment which is scarcely advisable on account capable of yielding 380,000 tons of pitwood annu- of the expense, not to mention the fact that the ally by normal fellings; and that by anticipating mode of infection on which the treatment is based the fellings of the next five years almost 3,400,000 is not yet clearly demonstrated to be the actual tons of pitwood are available in England and Wales alone. Scotland by similar extraordinary In the Transactions of the Royal Scottish fellings could supply about 2,500,000 tons; Arboricultural Society, xxix., part i. (January, that with the aid of a small quantity from Ireland, 1915), the production of pitwood on wooded about 6,000,000 tons of pitwood could be felled, estates in Scotland is investigated by Mr. J. H. enough to keep the collieries going for eighteen Milne Home, both as regards the present crisis months, as their average annual consumption of and also with a view to a permanent increase in pitwood is approximately 4,500,000 tons.

the supplies of mining timber in the future. Mr. In the Quarterly Journal of Forestry, January, Home considers that one-fourth of the normal

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