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minent place, and one notes with satisfaction that the ferro-alloys, with special reference to aluminium general trend of the curve continues in a downward content. direction. Greater provision is likely to be made in The work of Prof. Leonard Hill on the effect of the near future for the care of expectant mothers, and open-air and wind in the metabolism of man is referred the official recognition of an ante-natal state, though to. He points out that the physical qualities of the somewhat belated, is none the less welcome. Much air-heat, moisture, and

movement—are of paramount good work has been done by voluntary agencies in the importance to health. The stimulating effect of cool past, and the linking up of this with the various and variable breezes acting on the skin leads to im. organisations dealing with child welfare must in- | proved health, while a stagnant, windless, over-warm evitably tend to a healthier future race.

atmosphere tends to depression and diminished vitality. Some interesting figures are given regarding vac- Two new instruments are described-the kata-thércination returns. It appears that in England and mometer and the caleometer—which enable the rate of Wales as a whole one-half of the children whose births cooling of the body and the variability of the rate to were registered in 1912 have been vaccinated, and be measured (see p. 205 of this issue of NATURE). nearly one-third have been exempted from vaccination Prof. Hill's researches on the physical condition of by statutory declaration of conscientious objection. the atmosphere have done much elucidate the When compared with the returns for 1911, these problem of "stuffiness," to which so many ailments figures show a percentage reduction of 52.3 to 50-1 are undoubtedly due. in the proportion of children born who are vaccinated. The percentage of children born who were exempted under certificate of conscientious objection increased

THE CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHfrom 28.5 to 32·1.

INGTON AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH. Inquiries have been made regarding certain out

THE

HE Carnegie Institution of Washington was breaks of enteric fever supposedly due to the con- founded by Mr. Carnegie in 1902, when he gave sumption of infected shell-fish. The medical officer to a board of trustees an endowment of 2,000,000l., of health of a seaport town has repeatedly referred to which he added 400,000l. in 1907, and a further to the danger incurred by persons in collecting shell- 2,000,oool. in 1911. The articles of incorporation of fish of all sorts from areas obviously contaminated the institution declare “that the objects of the corwith sewage. While it is difficult in most cases to poration shall be to encourage, in the broadest and prove conclusively that an epidemic owes its origin to most liberal manner, investigation, research, and dissuch a practice, yet, when local authorities have acted covery, and the application of knowledge to the imas if such were undoubtedly the case, the wisdom of provement of mankind,” and already, as the annual such action has been abundantly shown by the non- reports of the president and the directors of the recurrence of the disease.

various departments show, the objects of the instituProgress is constantly being made towards securing tion are being fulfilled admirably. purer and more wholesome food for consumption in The trustees have inaugurated and developed three this country. A careful watch has to be kept at the principal agencies to forward the aims of the instituvarious ports of entry to prevent so far as possible tion. In the first place, the departments of research the import of unsound and even poisonous material. attack problems requiring the collaboration of several As an instance of what is continually happening it investigators, special equipment, and continuous effort. will suffice to quote the following occurrence. During A second agency provides means to enable individuals the unloading of a cargo of sugar in the Port of to complete investigations requiring less collaboration London it was noticed that some of the bags contain- and simpler apparatus; while a third division deals ing the sugar were covered with borax, which had with the publication of the results obtained as the been carried in the same hold and had become loose result of the work of the first two agencies. during the voyage. Samples of this powder were The reports by the president, the directors of the taken, and analysis showed them to contain arsenic various departments of research, and the executive in considerable quantities. The whole of the sugar committee, contained in the 1914 Year Book, recently was rebagged, and that portion of it that had already received, give full particulars of the financial rebeen sent out was recalled for suitable treatment under sources of the institution, and of the activities of its supervision.

different departments, during the year under review. The effect of certain types of waters on lead has The Year Book provides convincing evidence of the again been brought into prominence by an outbreak, success of the trustees of the institution in their extensive though mild, of lead poisoning in an urban endeavours encourage and advance scientific district in Yorkshire. The waters most liable to act

research. in this way are acid, peaty supplies, and it is even

The following table shows the amounts of the asserted as conceivable that the treatment applied grants made by the trustees for the current year, and with a view of destroying the plumbo-solvent proper- the purposes to which they are being devoted :ties of the water mav tend in some way to increase the

£ ability of the water to erode the lead. At all events, Administration

10,000 further investigation is being made, as the case in Publication

12,000 point has proved a very difficult one to deal with.

Division of Publications

2,000 More research has been conducted on the subject of Departments of Research

138,462 ferro-silicon with special reference to possible danger Minor Grants

21,860 arising from its transport and storage. This sub- Index Medicus

2,700 stance, of certain percentage compositions, is liable Insurance Fund

5,000 to disintegration in the presence of moisture, and Reserve Fund

50,000 poisonous gases are given off in quantity sufficient to produce fatal results in human beings. It is suggested

Total

242,022 that liability to spontaneous disintegration with evolu- The next table shows the departments of scientific tion of poisonous gases may be related to the amount investigation to which the larger grants were made of aluminium present in the ferro-silicon. Further for the financial year 1913-14, and the amounts of reports are now issued on ferro-chrome and other these grants :

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44,178 31,481 5,380

t | to extensive additions to our knowledge of rock and Department of Botanical Research

8,428 mineral formations found in the earth's crust. Department of Economics and Sociology 1,000 Among the problems under investigation, one of Department of Experimental Evolution ... 12,696 immediate economic as well as of great theoretical Geophysical Laboratory

17,100 interest may be cited here by reason especially of the Department of Historical Research

6,220 fact that funds for its execution have been supplied Department of Marine Biology

3,830 by industrial sources; this is the problem of the Department of Meridian Astronomy 5,036 * secondary enrichment of copper ores," and the Nutrition Laboratory

9,159 success attained in its treatment demonstrates the Division of Publications

2,000 practicability of advantageous co-operation between Solar Observatory

the laboratory and industrial organisations without Department of Terrestrial Magnetism

restriction to scientific procedure and publicity. The Researches in Embryology ...

section of the director's report devoted to this subject

should be of special interest to geologists and to Total

146,508 mining engineers as well as to copper-mining indus

tries. A more comprehensive idea of the productive The following extracts from the résumé of the in- activities of the laboratory may be gained from its vestigations of the year included in the report of the publications, which embrace forty-nine titles of papers president, Dr. R. Woodward, will serve to indicate which have appeared in current journals or are in the nature and extent of the scientific work accom- the press, many of them having been published in plished during the year.

German as well as in English. Although the greater part of the work of the De- In accordance with plans recommended by the partment of Botanical Research is carried on at its director of the Department of Marine Biology and principal laboratory at Tucson, Arizona, it is essential approved by the trustees in 1912, an expedition to to a comprehensive study of desert plant life to ex

Torres Straits, Australia, was undertaken in the latter piore distant as well as adjacent arid regions. Thus, part of the preceding year. Early in September, 1913, having published during the past year the results of the director and six collaborators arrived at Thursday an elaborate investigation of the region of the Salton Island in the Straits, expecting to use this relatively Sea, the department is now turning attention to accessible island as a base of explorations; but it was similar desert basins, of which there are several in soon found advantageous to proceed to Maër Island, the Western States that have been studied hitherto in one of the Murray group, about 120 miles east-norththeir geological rather than botanical aspects. These east, and near to the outer limit of the Great Barrier researches are entailing also many applications of the Reef. Here a temporary laboratory was set up_in allied physical sciences not heretofore invoked to any

the local courthouse and jail, generously placed at Dr. marked extent in aid of botanical science. Hence Mayer's disposal by the British authorities. The there results properly a diversity of work quite beyond region proved to be one rich in coral reefs and in the implications of botany in the earlier, but now marine fauna for the work contemplated. Observaquite too narrow, sense of the word. The facilities of tions and experiments securing gratifying results were the Desert Laboratory have been enlarged during the

carried out during the months of September and year by the completion and equipment of a specially October, 1913. In addition to the critical data designed small building for studies in phyto-chemistry,

secured by Dr. Mayer with respect to the corals about which has been proved to play a highly significant

Maër Island, for comparison especially with correrôle in desert life.

sponding data from the corals of Florida waters, The observational, statistical, and physical methods

observations and materials for important contributions applied by the Department of Experimental Evolution to zoology were collected by each of his collaborators. are constantly adding to the sum of facts and of in- On returning to America from the southern hemiductions essential to advances in biological knowledge.

sphere, the director was engaged, during April and The range of application extends from the lowest Nay, in two minor expeditions with the departmental organisms, like fungi, up to the highest, as typified

vessel Anton Dohrn. The first of these was in aid in the race to which the investigators themselves

of the researches of Dr. Paul Bartsch, on cerions, and belong. Thus, during the past year, observations and required a cruise along the Florida Keys from Miami experiments have been made mucors, plants, to "Tortugas and return. The second expedition was pigeons, poultry, and seeds, while the director has

in aid especially of Dr. T. W. Vaughan, long associcontinued his fruitful statistical studies in the rela- ated with the department in studies of corals and retively new field of departures from normality in man- lated deposits, and required a cruise from Miami, kind. The variety of agencies employed in this wide Florida, to the Bahamas and return. It appears that range of inquiry now includes a permanent staff of

during its first decade forty-nine investigators have about twenty members and a physical equipment

made use of the Tortugas Laboratory, twenty-eight enlarged during the year by the completion of an

of these having returned two or more times, making additional laboratory and a power-house. Early in the

a total of 108 visits to this relatively inaccessible centre year the facilities of the department were increased

of research. Of the publications emanating from the by the successful transfer, 'from Chicago to Cold department, sixty have been published by the instituSpring Harbour, of the remarkable collection of tion, while upwards of forty have been published pedigree pigeons recently acquired by the institution under other auspices. from the estate of Prof. C. O. Whitman.

The activities of the Department of Meridian AstroAn instructive example of the favourable progress, metry are concentrated on the derivation of stellar which may be confidently expected in any field of re

positions for the comprehensive catalogue in preparasearch when entered by an adequately manned and tion, on supplementary measurements of stellar coequipped department devoted solely thereto, is afforded ordinates with the meridian circle of the Dudley. by the experience of the Geophysical Laboratory. In Observatory, and on investigations of residual stellar less than a decade this establishment has not only motions. The latter have now become the most accomplished the formidable task of constructing the important element in the definition of stellar positions necessary apparatus and of preparing many of the

by reason of the extraordinary recent progress in pure minerals concerned, but has already begun the sidereal astronomy, to which the department has conprocesses of analysis and synthesis which are leading tributed in large degree. Thus, along with the form

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idable computations required by the large mass of An attempt at an ocean expedition into Hudson Bay observations made by the department at San Luis, was made under the charge of Mr. W. J. Peters Argentina, researches are simultaneously continued on during the past summer, but on account of unusual the problems of star-drift, including the speed and obstacles from ice this proved only partly successful. direction of motion of our solar system. In the mean- Entrance into the Bay with the auxiliary schooner time, the catalogue is progressing favourably and George B. Cluett, chartered for this purpose from the some portions of the observatory list of miscellancous Grenfell Association, was blocked until September 2, stars are approaching completion, although cloudi- leaving less than a month's time available for surveys. ness during the past two winters has interfered with Determinations of magnetic elements on land have this part of the departmental programme. In the been continued in six parts of Africa, in as many meantime, also, the manuscript of the zone catalogue States of South America, and in Australia, bringing of stars the positions of which were measured at the the surveys of all these continental areas to a wellobservatory during the years 1896 to 1900, is under- advanced stage. going the final process of comparison and checking With the end of the current year the Mount Wilson preparatory to publication.

Solar Observatory, like most other departments of the The anticipations of a specially favourable environ-institution, will have completed a first decade of its ment, which were entertained when the Nutrition history. Quite appropriately, this establishment was Laboratory was located in Boston near the Harvard founded at an epoch of maximum sun-spots, and a Medical School and near several existing and pro- marked increase in solar activity during the past year jected hospitals, are now fully realised; and it would furnishes similarly auspicious conditions for entrance appear that the laboratory is reciprocally advantageous into a second decade of research. But much more to the several establishments with which it is in

auspicious conditions are found in the extensive eximmediate contact. Indeed, with this, as with all perience and in the effective equipment acquired along other departments of research founded by the institu- with the capital progress attained during this first tion, the only fears to be entertained seriously are decade. The most sanguine astronomer would have those due to increasing capacity for usefulness and hesitated at the earlier epoch to predict that these scientific progress, since such capacity tends quite latter conditions could be realised at the present epoch. properly to grow faster than the institution's income Herein also is found a signal illustration of the warrants.

superior effectiveness of establishments primarily deImprovements have been made in the laboratory signed for and exclusively devoted to research as comitself, and several add ions to equipment have been pared with establishments in which research is a installed. These latter include

respiration matter of secondary interest. apparatus for studies of metabolism in muscular work Progress in construction of the 100-inch telescope of men and of small animals, a reconstruction of an has been made as rapidly as could be expected in so earlier form of bed calorimeter, and additional appar- formidable an undertaking. The delicate optical task atus for photo-electric registration of physiological of shaping the 100-inch mirror has been brought action in subjects under observation, whether near by successfully by Mr. Ritchey to the stage of sphericity or at a distance.

which precedes the final state of parabolisation. The As indicated in previous reports, the laboratory and difficulties due to distortion of the mass of the disc, its work are subjects of international as well as referred to in previous reports, have been overcome, national interest, and many co-operative efforts are and other obstacles due to temperature inequalities in arising therefrom. Among the researches in progress the optical room are likewise yielding to appropriate by the laboratory staff, attention may be directed par- precautions. In the meantime, the foundations for this ticularly to “ The gaseous metabolism of infants with

telescope have been completed, and the mounting and special reference to its relation to pulse-rate and dome are expected to be ready for erection during the muscular activity,” by Francis G. Benedict and Fritz coming year. Several smaller parts and accessories B. Talbot, and to “A study of prolonged fasting," by for this instrument, requiring special exactness, are Francis G. Benedict.

under construction at the shops of the observatory in of Department

apparatus already installed at the observatory have countries have been adequately supplemented during been made. The 60-foot tower telescope particularly, the year by the new departmental laboratory, the com- which was originally cheaply constructed in order to pletion and occupation of which took place nearly test the possible advantages of such a departure from simultaneously with the beginning of the second earlier forms of telescopes, has been put in a state decade of the department's existence. This laboratory of efficiency comparable with that of the 150-foot tower and its site provide greatly enlarged facilities for re- telescope, leaving the latter free for the uses to which search, as well as unsurpassed quarters for the resi- it is specially devoted. In these general improvements dent departmental staff.

much attention has been given to rendering the plant Near the end of the preceding year the non-mag- on Mount Wilson more nearly fireproof. The mounnetic ship Carnegie returned to New York City, where tain road has been repaired, widened, and strengthened she underwent such extensive repairs as are always in many parts in anticipation of the heavy traffic required by wooden vessels after long cruises in essential to transportation of the 100-inch telescope to tropical waters. After refitting, she left New York,

its destination. June 8, 1914, for a cruise in the North Atlantic. In this, the third of her expeditions, she traversed about 10,600 miles, making first stop at Hammerfest,

UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL Norway, July 3, reaching the high latitude 79° 52' off

INTELLIGENCE. the north-west coast of Spitsbergen, touching at Reykjavik, Iceland, August 24, and returning to the CAMBRIDGE.—The Adams prize for 1913-14 has been base station at Greenport, Long Island, October 9, awarded to Mr. G. I. Taylor, Smith's Prizeman in and to Brooklyn, New York, October 21. During this 1910. The subject selected was “The phenomena of cruise the Carnegic was in command of Mr. J. P. the disturbed motion of fluids, including the resistances Ault. She is now being refitted for a longer cruise encountered by bodies moving through them." The during 1915-16, in southern latitudes (50° to 75°), value of the prize is about 250l. where magnetic observations require supplementing.

Terrestrial Magnetism on the oceans and in foreign Pasadena: Many additions and improvements in the

It is stated in Science that by the will of General Brayton Ives, of New York City, the largest part of

of differentiating the two similar forms of white his estate is bequeathed to Yale University for its

animals known as dominant whites and recessive

whites, or albinos. Hitherto this has only been posgeneral purposes. The value of the bequest is esti

Dark mated at from 150,000l. to 300,00ol.

sible by observing their genetic behaviour.

animal pigments are believed to result from the oxidą. We learn from Science that through the efforts of tion of a colourless chromogen by an oxydase. The Dr. Ralph Arnold, and other alumni of the depart- skins of young black rabbits were found to yield a ment of geology and mining, Stanford University has tyrosinase which converted tyrosine to a melanin. just added to its collections the working library and By means of this tyrosinase it was possible to test material of the late Prof. H. Hemphill, of Los extracts from white rabbits of both types. Briefly, Angeles. The collection contains between 8000 and extracts from dominant whites contained an anti9000 specimens of shells and 150 volumes. The mate- oxydase which inhibited the tyrosinase of the black rial is of great importance in the study of the Tertiary rabbit extracts. Extracts from albinos, on the other geology of the Pacific coast, and especially of the hand, had no inhibiting influence, and were themgeology of the petroleum deposits of California. selves incapable of producing any pigment. The anti

THE March number of the Nature-Study Review oxydase was also found in those white parts of rabbits (Ithaca, N.Y.), the official organ of the American which are dominant to colour, such as the white Nature-Study Society, is devoted to an elaborate pros- bellies of the wild rabbit and of the yellow rabbit pectus of courses in nature-study for elementary carrying agouti. These results tend to confirm the schools. It has been prepared by Mr. G. H. Traver's Mendelian view that dominant whiteness is caused by and Miss H. M. Reynolds, of the Minnesota State a factor which inhibits the pigment-producing mechanNormal School, and it is copyright. The authors take ism if present, and that albinism results from the a big view of their subject, and emphasise “the partial or total absence of the factors necessary for the æsthetic, the social, the economic, and the hygienic" development of pigment. The experiments also reaims of nature-study. (The old-fashioned teacher will vealed facts which suggest that the difference between rather miss the intellectual aim!) To help the pupils pigments producing black, chocolate, and yellow hairs to enjoy the world they live in, and to acquaint is quantitative rather than qualitative, for, after exthem with the useful and injurious forms of life, these traction, the pigments in all three colours appear we understand as the æsthetic and economic aims, identical. That variation in colour is a structural but the social aim, so far as explained, seems to us modification is supported by the fact that dilute colours, far-fetched, and the hygienic aim is lugged in by such as blue, are caused by a lack of pigment in the sheer force. The “disciplinary theory” of training cortex. In the corresponding intense colours, such as the powers of observation, memory, reasoning, and black, pigment being present in the cortex, the white imagination must be given up, we are told, for the light reflected from the vacuoles is absorbed, thus researches of modern psychology have shown it to deepening the colour. be unsound. But it seems to reappear under another

Paris. name. To more purpose, as it seems to us, the

Academy of Sciences, April 12.-M. Ed. Perrier in the authors emphasise that the nature-study should deal chair.-E. Guyou : Remarks on the Extrait de la with the material available in the child's environment, Connaissance des Temps for 1916. An account of which in urban conditions requires to be enlarged the modifications introduced with the view of shortenartificially. The starting point should always be in

ing and facilitating nautical calculations.-A. Müntz the child's experience, and the material should be of

and E. Lainé : Study of the material brought down interest_or capable of becoming of interest to the

by watercourses in the Alps and Pyrenees. Deterchild. Each study should concern itself with a child's

minations of the quantities of material carried by the problem, and the child should be guided to solve it.

principal watercourses in the Alps and Pyrenees. The And the solution should mean something in the life

erosion is much more intense in certain recent formaof the child. “If the problem does not seem to allow

tions. The agricultural value of the deposits has still of any application, we may well inquire whether the

to be examined.-M. de Forcrand: A hydrate of problem is really worth while.” This may be pushed hydrogen arsenide. The hydrate AsH ,6H,0 has too far, for a stimulated imagination may be a great been isolated and determinations made of its disgain and a search for applications a bore. The graded outlines of courses are carefully thought out, and

sociation_pressures at temperatures from o° C. to

25° C. From these data, with the aid of Clapeyron's the general arrangement-following the seasons-is admirable. Teachers will find the outlines very sug

equation, the heat of formation has been found to be gestive and the introductory essay very provocative.

17.75 calories. Comparisons are given for analogous

data for the hydrogen compounds of sulphur, phosWe would particularly commend the consistent way in which the authors have sought to get at the child's

phorus, and selenium.-J. Guillaume : Observations of point of view, and to keep to the Socratic method,

the sun made at the Observatory of Lyons during

the third quarter of 1914. Observations were made of not in the letter alone, but also in the spirit.

sixty-seven days, and the results are given in three

tables showing the number of spots, the distribution SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.

of the spots in latitude, and the distribution of the

faculæ in latitude.-S. Chevalier : The effect of atmoLONDON.

spheric dispersion on the diameter of photographed Royal Society, March 25:-Sir William Crookes, presi- celestial objects. Photographs of the sun and of Jupiter dent, in the chair.-Prof. B. Moore : The production show that the effect of atmospheric dispersion on the of growths or deposits in meta-stable inorganic hydro- diameter of a photographed celestial body depends very sols.-Prof. B. Moore and W. G. Evans : Forms of slightly on the brightness of the body or on the sensigrowth resembling living organisms and their pro- bility of the plates.-Ernest Esclangon: The limited

, ducts slowly deposited from meta-stable solutions of integrals of linear differential equation.-Ph. inorganic colloids.-H. Onslow : A contribution to our Flajolet : Perturbations of the magnetic declination knowledge of the chemistry of coat-colour in animals at Lyons (St. Genis Laval) during the third quarter and of dominant and recessive whiteness. This research of 1914.—M. Lubimenko : Some experiments on the was undertaken in order to discover a chemical method antioxydase of tomato fruits. Details are given of a

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method for estimating the amount of peroxydase in the tomato,

and this method was applied to determining the proportions of peroxydase during the

different stages of the ripening of the fruit. From the results obtained, it is concluded that the tissue of the tomato contains an enzyme which paralyses the oxidising action of the peroxydase. This is provisionally termed antiperoxydase, and it is much more sensitive than the peroxydase to the influence of antiseptics. Even toluene destroys it fairly rapidly. The relations between these two enzymes during the ripening of the fruit is discussed.-A. Jungelson : Chemical intoxication and mutation of maize. Studies in the variations produced by treating the seed with a solution of copper sulphate.-H. Vincent and M. Gaillard : The purification of drinking water with calcium hypochlorite. Compressed tabloids of 0.015 gram calcium hypochlorite with 0.08 gram salt are used. These contain 3.5 mgr. of active chlorine, and one is capable of sterilising a litre of water in about twenty minutes. There is no appreciable taste. Bacteriological experiments are given showing the removal of pathogenic bacteria.-J. Vallot : An installation permitting the application of intensive heliotherapy, in winter, to wounded and military convalescents.-MM. Hirtz and Gallot : A new radioscopic method for the determination of the depth of a foreign body in the organism.

TUESDAY, APRIL 27. ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3. --The War on Belgian Architecture : Banister

Fletcher. ZOOLOGICAL Society, at 5.30.-White Collar Mendelising in Hybrid

Pheasants: Mrs. Rose Haig Thomas.- Two New Tree-Frogs from
Sierra Leone, recently Living in the Society's Gardens : E. G. Boulenger,
- The Foraminifera of the Kerimba Archipelago (Portuguese East Africa).
Part II.: E. Heron-Allen and A. Earland.
I1.LUMINATING ENGINEERING Society at 8.–Visibility: its Practical

Aspects : C. C. Paterson and B. P. Dudding.
INSTITUTION OF Civil ENGINEERS, at 8.--Annual General Meeting.

WEDNESDAY, APRIL, 28.
Royal Society OF ARTS, at 8. The Utilisation of Solar Energy: A.S. E.

Ackermann. INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 7.45 (Students' Section).

Annual General Meeting. GEOLOGICAL Society, at 8.-A Composite Gneiss near Barna (County of

Galway): Prof. Grenville A. J. Cole.-Further Work on the Igneous Rocks associated with the Carboniferous Limestone of the Bristol District : Prof. S. H. Reynolds.

THURSDAY, APRIL 29. Royal Society, at 4:30.--Probable Papers: The Transmission of Insta

red Rays by the Media of the Eye, the Transmission of Radiant Energy by Crookes's and other Glasses, and the Radiation from various Light Sources: H. Hartridge and A. V. Hill.--Surface Tension and Ferment Action : E. Beard and w. Cramer.-Surface Tension as a Factor con

trolling all Metabolism : W. Cramer. RovaL INSTITUTION, at 3.-Advances in General Physics : Prof. A. W.

Porter. INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 8. --The Bombay HydroElectric Scheme : A. Dickinson.

FRIDAY, APRIL 30. Royal INSTITUTION, at 3.-Emulsions and Emulsifications: Prof. F. G.

Donnan. INSTITUTION OF PetroLEUM TECHNOLOGISTS, at 8.-Oil Well Engineering: W. Calder.

SATURDAY, MAY 1.
Royal INSTITUTION, at 3.--Photo-Electricity : Prof. J. A. Fleming.

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198

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200 202

202

BOOKS RECEIVED.
Year Book of the Royal Society of London. Pp.
250. (London: Harrison and Sons.) 5s.

Imperial University of Tokyo. Calendar 2573-2574.
(Tokyo : Z. P. Maruya and Co.)

Royal Societies Club. Founded A.D. 1894. Foundation and Objects. Rules and By-Laws. List of Members. Pp. 354. (London.)

Practical Irrigation and Pumping. By B. P. Flem-
ing. Pp. xvi +226. (New York : J. Wiley and Sons,
Inc.; London: Chapman and Hall, Ltd.) 8s. 6d.
net.

The Design of Steam Boilers and Pressure Vessels.
By Prof. G. B. Haven and G. W. Swett. Pp. vii +
416. (New York : J. Wiley and Sons, Inc.; London :
Chapman and Hall, Ltd.) 125. 6d. net.

Electrical Engineering. By Dr. T. C. Baillie.
Vol. i., Introductory. Pp. vii +236. (Cambridge: At
the University Press.) 5s. net.

CONTENTS.

PAGE The Biological Problem of Sex .

197 X-Rays and Crystals. By Dr. A. E. H. Tutton,

F.R.S.
Sir Hiram Maxim. By J. P.

199
Appearance and Reality. By A. E. Crawley
Our Bookshelf
Letters to the Editor:-
The Principle of Similitude. — Prof.

D'Arcy W.
Thompson, C.B.; Lord Rayleigh, O.M.,

F.R.S.
The Age of the Earth.--Dr. F. A. Lindemann 203
Harmonic Analysis. -Dr. Alexander Russell . 204
A Mistaken Butterfly.-Dr. Henry O. Forbes 204

The “Green Ray at Sunset.-T. B. Blaithwayt 204 Healthy Atmospheres. (Illustrated.) Prof. Leonard Hill, F.R.S.

205 Aids to Nature Study: (illustrated.)

207 Three Naturalist-Travellers. (Illustrated.) ByJ. W.G. 209 Prof. W. Grylls Adams, F.R.S. Notes Our Astronomical Column:Comet Notes

217 The Rotation of the Solar Corona .

217 The Annual of the Bureau des Longitudes, 1915

Chinese Records of Eclipses
Teaching of Engineering in Evening Technical

Schools
English Mathematics. By G. B. M.

219 Public Health

219 The Carnegie Institution of Washington and

Scientific Research .
University and Educational Intelligence
Societies and Academies

223 Books Received

224 Diary of Societies

224

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218 218

218

220 222

DIARY OF SOCIETIES.

Editorial and Publishing Offices :

MACMILLAN & CO., LTD., ST. MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON, W.C. Advertisements and business letters to be addressed to the

Publishers.

Editorial Communications to the Editor. Telegraphic Address : Phusis, LONDON, Telephone Number : GERRARD 8830.

THURSDAY, APRIL 22. Royal Society, at 4:30.- Deep Water Waves, Progressive or Stationary, to the Third Order of Approximation : Lord Rayleigh.-A Chemically Active Modification of Nitrogen, produced by the Electric Discharge. VI.: Hon. R J. Strutt.—The Difference between the Magnetic Diurnal Variations on Ordinary and Quiet Days at Kew Observatory: Dr. C. Chree. --The Effects of Different Gases on the Electron Emission from Glowing Solids : F. Horton.--Heats of Dilution of Concentrated Solutions :

W. S. Tucker.- The Origin of the “ 4686 Series : T. R. Merton. ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3: The System of the Stars: The Stellar System in Motion : Prof. A. S. Eddington.

FRIDAY, APRIL 23. ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 9.-Military Hygiene and the War : Major P. S.

Lelean. INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, at 8. PHYSICAL SOCIETY, at 5.–The Theories of Voigt and Everett Regarding

the Origin of Combination Tones : Prof. W. B. Morton and Miss Mary Darrach. -Experiments on Condensation Nuclei Produced in Gases by Ultra-Violet Ligat: Miss Maud Saltmarsh. - The Selt-Induction of Solenoids of Appreciable Winding Depth : S. Butterworth.

SATURDAY, APRIL 24. Royal INSTITUTION, at 3.- Modern Artillery ; Lieut.-Col. A. G. Hadcock.

MONDAY, APRIL 26. ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, at 8.30. ---Geography of the War Theatre

in the Near East: D. G. Hogarth. ROYAL SOCIETY OF ARTS, at 8.- Foodstuffs : Dr. D. Sommerville. INSTITUTE OF ACTUARIES, at 5. - The New National Life Tables : G. King,

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