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before he went to the front, of an important post at collections made in 1914 the microscope now shows
THE Art Museum of Boston has recently acquired
one of the gems of Minoan art, which is described by Manchester. For a time, too, he carried out impor
Prof. E. Gardner in part ii. of Ancient Egypt for 1915. tant work in the test-room of the Cambridge Scientific
It is an ivory statuette with gold ornaments and Instrument Company, and by his exceptional business
details, 6} in. in height. The resemblance of the ability and foresight he rendered highly valued ser
figure to that of the famous Snake Goddess found by
Sir A. Evans at Knossos is obvious. But it resembles vice as a director of the company. About seven years
not so much any art of ancient Greece as that of ago he went to Messrs. Bolckow Vaughan's at Middlesbrough, and his sound practical judgment time, the character of the materials seems to preclude
Gothic work of the thirteenth century. At the same and administrative ability soon won for him a very
the possibility of forgery. She wears a dress of important position in the firm. In this
Cretan type, and her head is adorned with a splendid country has to mourn the loss of
valuable lives, and Erasmus Darwin was one of those whose
crown, on which a gold ornament was probably fixed.
The statuette exhibits for the first time a treatment fine, modest conscientiousness and unswerving
of the human figure which is comparable with the strength and loyalty made us know that we lose a
fine studies of animals characteristic of Cretan or man whom we should have been proud to see taking
Mycenaean art. his part in the guiding of public affairs in the country.
It may be placed not far from the
high-water mark of Cretan pottery, and it may go The director of the Meteorological Office, Dr. back to the Middle Minoan age. This new discovery W. N. Shaw, has sent us a copy of a new scale of emphasises more than ever the contrast between the velocity equivalents of the numbers of the Beaufort art of Crete and that of ancient Hellas. It is much scale of wind force which he has received from Prince to be regretted that this fine work of art has not found Boris Galitzin, the director of the Russian Meteoro- its home in our national collections. logical Service. The table has been drawn up at the
MR. T. Eric Peet has issued in the Publications of Observatoire Physique Central Nicolas, and expresses the wind force determined by the Wild wind-gauge
the Manchester Museum, No. 75, an account of the
Stela of Sebek-khu, which contains the earliest record in terms of the Beaufort scale. These values will be
of an Egyptian campaign in Asia, one of the most used by Russian Meteorological stations as from May
important documents ever found in Egypt. It was The table has been compiled in accordance with
unearthed at Abydos in 1901 by Prof. Garstang, and the decisions of the International Meteorological Com
is now in the Manchester Museum. It measures mittee, at the meeting held at Rome in 1913.
16} by 10 in., and the inscriptions and representations Velocity in
are somewhat carelessly incised. Its importance lies
in the fact that this is a record of an early campaign
in a period hitherto unknown preceding the age from
which date the Hyksos invasion, the great wars of
Thotmes III. and Rameses II., down to the cam4 6-8
29-33 5 9-10
34 and more. paign of Sheshonk, mentioned in the Old Testament. 11-13
It represents the beginning of reprisals in the Asiatic The Smithsonian Institution announces that fossil
field at the beginning of the twelfth dynasty. The bacteria have been discovered in very ancient lime
people now attacked by Egypt were the Mentu of stones collected in Gallatin County, Montana, by Dr.
Sebet, or nearer Asia, and the Mentu were an Asiatic
tribe living close to the Egyptian frontier. On this C. D. Walcott, secretary of the institution. For some
occasion the Mentu were aided by their allies, the
Retenu, probably inhabiting the Peninsula of Sinai.
somewhere in Botanical Society of Washington on April 6, when
Palestine. However the details of the campaign may attention was directed to their existence in association with fossil algal deposits of the Newland lime
be worked out, this Stela remains our best authority stone. The belief that bacteria were the most impor
for Egyptian conquest in Asia prior to the eighteenth tant factor in the deposition of these ancient lime
dynasty. stones was also mentioned by Dr. Walcott in a pre- ACCORDING to the Victorian Naturalist for March, liminary publication of the Smithsonian Institution. examples of parasitic Copepods belonging to the family At that time, however, no definite bacteria had been Monstrillidæ, have been discovered for the first time discovered, but in thin sections of limestone from the in Australia by Mr. J. Searle, but as yet their specific
metres per second
metres per second
identity has not been determined. These small crus- pound, instead of d. per pound. Then the inspector tacea are parasitic on Serpulid worms, whence they of the Fishmongers' Company at Billingsgate came escape, by rupturing the body wall of the host, to to the rescue, and allowed the society to take away liberate their ova. This they do as free-swimming from the market quantities of fish good for immediate organisms, but lacking a functional alimentary canal, consumption, but not fit to distribute through the death ensues on the completion of the reproductive retail trade. But this source of supply failed when functions.
the cold weather came. Happily, so far it has been
possible to arrange for a regular supply from Grimsby. In the Australian Zoologist for February, Mr. Allan
We would suggest that should this fail recourse should McCulloch gives a brief, but extremely interesting
be had to netting some of our inland waters for account of the hitherto unrecorded migration of the
“coarse fish," of which there must be an abundance larval eel-gudgeon (Galaxias attenuatus) from the sea
for a long time to come. to fresh water. He found numbers of these larvæ, about 38 mm. long, and quite transparent, making It is extremely gratifying to learn, from the spring their way through the surf into a small fresh-water number of Bird Notes and News-the organ of the stream about 6 ft. wide. Very little is known of the Bird Protection Society—that the colonies of the habits of Galaxias, but some interesting notes on the great skua are still increasing on the Shetlands, occurrence of G. truttaceus in damp soil in Tasmania though they have to be guarded jealously against the have been made by Mr. T. Hall and Mr. J. Fletcher. raids of the egg-collector. Strenuous efforts are being It would seem that this species is capable of burrow- made to save from extermination the red-throated ing into soft earth to a depth of eight or nine inches, diver, the black-tailed godwit, and the harrier. It is when the water dries up in times of drought, and there to be hoped that these efforts will meet with their æstivating until released by the rains.
due meed of success during the coming nesting season. How insect pests extend their range into new and
The largest colony of great black-backed gulls in
Great Britain, we are told, is to be found on Noss. distant
is shown by Mr. W. J. Rainbow in the Australian Zoologist for February,
But this does not afford us unmixed satisfaction. where he records the occurrence
of the carpet
This bird is ruthlessly destructive of the eggs of other beetle (Attagenus piceus) in woollen goods im
species, and of late years has become unduly numeported from London by a large drapery estab
rous; measures might, therefore, with advantage, be lishment, and of a West Indian longicorn beetle
taken to reduce their numbers. In the same number (Eburia binodosa), which had worked its way out of
we learn with much pleasure that the choughs and of an imported oak chair. This insect, doubtless in a
buzzards are more than holding their own in Cornsimilar manner, has also made its way into England,
wall, thanks to the efforts of the society's watchers. but so far with no evil results. The discovery of the
The report for 1913 of the periodic variations of carpet beetle in Australia is, however, a more serious
glaciers (Annales de Glaciologie, vol. ix. (1914), pp. matter, for much damage had been done before it was
42–65) includes the Swiss, Eastern, and Italian Alps, detected. Hence there is a possibility that its ravages and gives some information about the glaciers of may spread.
Norway, Russia, the Himalayas, New Zealand, and The peculiar methods of feeding displayed by the
North America, especially.Alaska. The Alpine glaciers, starfish are well known; but Mr. H. N. Milligan, in
the whole, are still retreating, though a few the Zoologist for April, describes for the first time the
advances are recorded. For instance, of sixty-one means adopted for disposing of a victim so unusual
Swiss glaciers, twenty-five continued to recede in 1913, a pipe-fish. After some experimenting the body
and ten probably did the same, while only one cerwas seized between two of the arms, and held in
tainlyoand ten probably advanced; the movements of position by means of the suckers, while the three
the rest being doubtful. In the other two Alpine dis
tricts the observations remaining arms were made to serve as the legs of a
less numerous, but on tripod. The upper portion of the abdomen of the the whole they point in the same direction. In other still living captive was brought immediately under the
countries the evidence, which, however, is sometimes mouth of the captor, when the stomach was everted
rather imperfect, shows that glaciers in the same in the usual manner to envelop this unwieldy morsel,
neighbourhood are uncertain in their movements, but which was held there until hunger was appeased. No
are generally receding, the small being more sensitive similar case seems ever to have been recorded. Two
than the large to the annual snowfall. This, howexcellent figures add not a little to the interest of this
ever, seems certain, that in the Alps the ice-streams strange record.
have not nearly regained the ground which they began
to lose rather more than half a century ago. At From the annual report of the Zoological Society present information about these variations, though in of London, it is apparent that the
a few cases it goes back some three centuries, is too only curtạiled its income, and made rigid economy imperfect to admit of any satisfactory explanation. necessary, but it has further hampered the smooth Oscillations such as have been observed during several running of the menagerie. More especially is this years, including the last one, are probably due to true in regard to the fish supply. Early in August variations in the temperature and snowfall during the contractor was unable to continue his supply, and one or more preceding seasons, but the great adfish had to be bought daily at from 4}d. to 7d. per vances, with corresponding thickening of the ice
streams, such as those which culminated approxi- | rainfall was less than 25 per cent. of the average. mately in 1820, and in 1850, lasting, perhaps with For the British Isles as a whole the rainfall was occasional slight recession, until well past 1860, must 58 per cent. of the average, whilst for the several parts be due to a more general cause. For determining this of the United Kingdom the percentages are : England the records, accumulated by the Commission Inter- and Wales, 54; Scotland, 79; and Ireland, 40. nationale des Glaciers, will be ultimately very valu
CIRCULAR No. 24, issued by the Bureau of Standards, able.
contains a list of the papers which have appeared in BULLETINS 41 and 42 of the Agricultural Research
each of the ten published volumes of the Bulletin Institute, Pusa, deal with investigations on sugar- and a classified list of the papers, with a short account vielding plants in India. In No. 41 Mr. H. E. Annett of the contents of each. The Bureau also announces deals with sweet sorghum and the variation in com- that in future the Bulletin will be supplied to subposition of this crop during growth, giving extensive scribers at one dollar a volume unbound, plus 50 cents and valuable data resulting from experiments and for postage to this country. Subscriptions should be analyses. He concludes that owing to the high glucose sent in advance to the Superintendent of Documenis, ratio and other difficulties, sweet sorghum is not worth Washington, D.C. We have no doubt there are many growing in India as a source of sugar, but that it in this country who will take this opportunity of seems likely to prove a valuable source of fodder,
getting a valuable series of papers which up to the being a fairly quick-growing crop; also that soon
present could only be found in the libraries of scientific after flowering the plant shows no increase in total
societies. weight or in sugar, hence it should not be allowed to grow beyond this stage, after which its value as
In a paper read before the Royal Society of Arts fodder decreases. Bulletin 42, by Mr. G. Clarke and
on April 14, and published in the Journal of the others, deals with cane-crushing. It is pointed out
Society for April 18, Mr. T. Thorne Baker gave a short that in order to ascertain the value of a variety of
account of the industrial uses to which radium is sugar-cane and the possibility of its succeeding as a
at present put. Radium residues left over after treatfield crop in any given district, it is necessary to
ment of the ores may or may not improve the growth investigate in the field the general crop characters;
of plants, according to the materials other than radium in the laboratory the sugar content and quality of the
contained in them, but if the metals have been rejuice; and in the mill what proportion of juice and
moved during the process of extraction of the radium total sugar can be extracted, and the cost of doing so.
the residue in suitable quantities appears to facilitate Tabulated details are given, representing the results
growth. These residues may also be utilised in the of a long-continued series of experiments on sugar
treatment of disease and as bactericides. In the discrushing and the sucrose yields of different varieties
cussion which followed the reading of the paper, it of cane; and the authors conclude that future increase was pointed out that in much of the plant growth in area under cane in the United Provinces and in
work which had been done with radium, sufficient number of mills will depend upon the introduction of
care had not been exercised to enable it to be affirmed cheaper and quicker methods of dealing with the
with certainty that the increased growth found in produce, the present crop being as much as the
some cases was not due to the nitrates and phosphates bullock-power of the provinces can deal with, and the
in the residues, rather than to the radium. Until this .ndustry unlikely to increase unless some cheaper question is settled, there appears no justification for form of crushing is introduced.
the use of radium in horticulture. The general deficiency of rainfall in March as shown An account of “Röntgen Motion Pictures" is given by Symons's Meteorological Magazine for April in the in the Scientific American for April 3. An illustration tentative table for the British Isles is of more than of the apparatus designed for the purpose of producing ordinary interest. The wet spell which was so char- them, by F. Dessaur, is also given, together with a acteristic of the recent winter has fortunately come
number of somewhat indefinite results. During the to an end. Statistics previously given by the British meeting in London of the International Congress of Rainfall Organisation show that the aggregate rain- Medicine, we had the advantage of seeing this fall for the four months November, 1914, to markable arrangement in action, and we brought February, 1915—was 168 per cent. of the average over away the impression that it added at least a new England and Wales, and more than 200 per cent. of terror for the patient who has to come in contact the average over the Thames Valley. The rainfall with the already rather alarming armament of table for March shows a totally different result. Rain modern radiologist. While it is certainly a model of measurements are given for fifty-five stations scat- ingenuity, the plate-changing operation is accompanied tered over the entire kingdom, and of these only five by a good deal of noise and clatter, and there is no have the total rainfall for the month in excess of the doubt that beyond fixation of the image little or no iverage; they occur along the east coast of England more is to be learned from the results than can be and in the north of Scotland. The greatest excess ascertained by
ordinary screen examination from the normal occurs at Gordon Castle, where the with a far simpler outfit. The apparatus, howrainfall was 147 per cent of the average, and at no ever, is not without special significance to us in other station was the percentage of the average more these days. To have brought it to perfection must than 110.
At twenty-one stations out of fifty-five the have involved great expenditure of time and money, rainfall was less than 50 per cent. of the average, nor is it likely, on account of its price and size, to and at two stations, Launceston and Killarney, the find a very ready sale. Yet this sort of thing is done
in Germany, and done well, to attract and to create ALTHOUGH it is perhaps one of the minor chemical the impression of progress and thereby to catch the products, allyl alcohol has been used extensively in market in X-ray apparatus generally. In the end it research, and is by far the most readily accessible of pays and incidentally leads to much interesting work, the series of unsaturated alcohols. Originally preas well as fostering a spirit of enterprise.
pared through the iodide from glycerol, it was a very costly product, but came into
use when We have received from Kodak, Limited (Wratten
Tollens showed that it could be prepared directly from Division), a copy of the third edition of their booklet
glycerol by heating it with oxalic acid. A greatly on photomicrography. As compared with the second
improved preparation has recently been described by edition, it is somewhat enlarged, and it comprises Dr. Chattaway in the Journal of the Chemical Society within its thirty-six pages simple and straightforward (vol. cvii., p. 407). Five hundred grams, each of instructions as to the arrangement of the apparatus,
glycerol and of anhydrous oxalic acid are heated at undisfigured by diagrams and directions with regard
100° in a vacuum during four or five hours, whilst to the illuminating system that are too often found
a certain amount of formic acid is distilled out; the in the text-books, although they can never be realised.
product, which contains much dioxalin, is then deWe refer to "parallel light," and so on. The price
composed by heating under ordinary pressure to of the pamphlet is 3d., and, of course, its strong point 2200-240°, when carbon dioxide is set free and allyl is the photographic side rather than the microscopical alcohol and allyl formate are produced. The oxalic side of the art, and especially the use of colour filters.
acid is decomposed almost completely, leaving a The spectrum transmissions of nine filters are given,
residue of glycerol, which can be made up again to and also the dominant wave-lengths of ten, most of
500 grams, mixed with 500 grams more of oxalic the latter being a combination of two. Another table
acid, and used over again; this can be repeated four gives the absorption bands of the eighteen principal
or five times. The waste of material is therefore very stains used in microscopy, with the suitable filters for
small, and the glycerol used up is converted almost securing maximum contrast in the photograph. Other
quantitatively into allyl alcohol, whilst the oxalic acid tables give the relative sensitiveness of various
is converted on one hand into carbon dioxide, and on Wratten plates to different light sources, and exposure the other into formic acid. factors for different focal lengths and apertures of
The importance, both to the manufacturer and the objectives, for various magnifications, for different light sources, and for fifteen different light filters, in
consumer, of having at disposal adequate facilities
for the scientific investigation and testing of the connection with the “M” plates. The illustrations include two excellent reproductions of stained prepara
quality of textiles is very great. At the present time tions, and two little colour filters in a pocket of the
when immense quantities of such materials are being
manufactured for military and naval purposes such cover, for viewing them through, serve to demonstrate
facilities are exceptionally valuable. The Public Texthe potency and usefulness of colour filters.
tile Testing and Conditioning House carried on under THE March number of the Journal of Chemical the auspices of the Corporation of Belfast, and located Technology contains a report of a special meeting of in the Municipal Technical Institute of that city, has the London Section of the Institution of Chemical just issued the fifth edition of its regulations and Technologists which was held on March 11 to discuss schedule of charges, and this publication indicates * The Future of British Chemical Industry." In very strikingly the extent to which textile testing has opening the discussion, Colonel C. E. Cassal em- now been elaborated and perfected. The Belfast phasised the fact that the chemical profession in this testing house is one of the more recently opened, country stands alone among the professions in that having been established in the year 1910 by the corit is utterly without organisation, and is split up into poration at the direct request of the textile trades of a number of different camps. At the present time
Belfast and district. The house is carried on under there is little sympathy between the college laboratory Parliamentary authority, has power to grant certifiand the technical laboratory; it is on the closer union cates respecting the articles submitted for examinaof these that future progress of chemical industry will
tion, and certificates so issued receivable depend. Colonel Cassal, in referring to the ignorance
evidence in a court of law. The schedule of charges of the general public and of State departments as to shows that a very wide range of tests are undertaken the value of science, illustrated his remarks by a in the testing house. The tests include physical, reference to the now notorious advertisement of the chemical, and microscopical investigations of fibres, Royal Arsenal, referred to in NATURE of April i yarns, cloths, and bleaching and dyeing materials. (p. 119), and to the organisation of “British Dyes, A noteworthy section of the testing scheme is that Ltd." Mr. W. J. Dibdin remarked that the chemical concerned with the determination of the cause of department of the London County Council, of which defects in cloth, more especially such causes as are he was formerly the chief, effected a saving of classed under the technical heading of “tendering." 10,000,000l. capital expenditure in the plant necessary Part 4 of the Proceedings of the Institution of for dealing with the sewage of London. The general Mechanical Engineers for 1914 has just been issued, trend of the debate was that only by the education of and contains the recommendations of the refrigeration the chemist supplemented by the education of the research committee. There are also given charts of employer will it be possible successfully to fight entropy and total heat for each of the three subGermany in the field of industrial chemistry.
stances in common use for refrigerating purposes,
18 53 31
16 25.9 18 173
viz., carbon dioxide, ammonia, and sulphur dioxide. conspicuously visible while measuring the other satelThe use of these charts is explained in a note by the lites; Umbriel was seen with much more difficulty, chairman of the committee, Sir J. A. Ewing. The
and made no impression on the eye except when
special efforts were made to see it. By direct comchart for carbonic acid uses Dr. Mollier's figures, but
parison it was estimated to be from 1 to 1 magnitude with British units of pressure and with some addi- fainter than Ariel. The latter appeared to be a magtions based on the recent researches of Prof. Jenkin nitude fainter than Titania; Oberon, from to } and Mr. Page. For the other two substances the magnitude fainter than Titania. While these obexperimental data available are much less complete.
servations were being made the sky was very clear, For ammonia, the chart must be regarded as no more
the seeing good, and the planet screened by an occult
ing bar. Measures of the satellites were made by than provisional; values given by Prof. Goodenough
Mr. S. B. Nicholson from photographs taken with and Mr. W. E. Mosher have been adopted. The chart the Crossley reflector at the Lick Observatory during for sulphurous acid is also provisional; values given 1914. The positions of Uranus and of the satellites by Dr. J. Hýbl have been employed. Tables giving were measured in rectangular co-ordinates, so that the properties of these substances are also included.
the distances of the satellites from either Uranus or
one of the outer satellites could be obtained. ERRATUM,- In NATURE of April 29, p. 238, col. 1,
THE GREENWICH SECTION THE ASTROGRAPHIC line 10 from bottoni, for “solstice" read “equinox." CATALOGUE.-The third volume of the Astrographic
Catalogue 19000 deals with the Greenwich Section,
declination +64° to +90°, and is deduced from photo
graphs taken and measured at the Royal Observatory. Comet 1915a (Mellish).- The following is a con- The first portion contains a catalogue of 2212 stars tinuation of the ephemeris of Mellish's comet (1915a) within 3° of the north pole in standard rectangular taken from Astronomische Nachrichten, No. 4796 :- co-ordinates. In the original scheme of publication
this, the third volume, should have included a general May 6
discussion of results, but the Astronomer Royal has
deferred this discussion for a fourth volume. The pre-
sent catalogue includes: (1) stars used as reference 19
stars for the astrographic plates; (2) other stars con5
tained in the catalogues of the Astronomische Gessell-
schaft; (3) stars contained in Carrington's Catalogue The comet is rapidly moving southwards, and is (1855.0); and (4) stars in the Bonn Durchmusterung situated a little to the north of a Sagittarii.
Zone, 80°. The right ascensions and declinations A third series of elements and an ephemeris of this depend throughout on the places of stars observed comet are published by Mr. R. T. Crawford, of the
with the transit circle at Greenwich in the years 1897 Berkeley Astronomical Department, in the Lick Ob- to 1905. The proper motions given in the Greenwich servatory Bulletin, No. 270. It is pointed out that Catalogue have been used in forming the constants there seems to be a similarity between these elements of the plates. In the main catalogue the epoch is and those of comet 1748 II., and computations are 1900·0. The stars are arranged in zones of declinabeing undertaken to test the possibility of the identity. tion 1° wide, and the photographic magnitudes are ORBIT OF JUPITER'S Ninth SATELLITE.—A more
on the scale of Prof. E. C. Pickering's north polar rigorous reduction of the elements of the orbit of the
sequence. ninth satellite of Jupiter is given by Seth B. Nicholson
RECENT PAPERS IN THE “ASTRONOMISCHE NACHRICHin the Lick Observatory Bulletin, No. 271, this being TEN.”—The following is a continuation of the chief a continuation of the investigation previously pub- contents of some of the earlier numbers of the Astrolished in the Bulletin, No. 265 (see this column for nomische Nachrichten referred to in this column last April 1). The following the
elements week :—No. 4785: Trial of the photographic magderived :
nitude-scale of the bright Pleiades stars, by E. HertzEpoch and Osculation=1914 August 210 G.M.T.
sprung: No. 4784 : Observations of Halley's comet M=135° 57'2'
1910 II., made at the Chamberlin Observatory of the
University of Denver, by Herbert A. Howe. No. 4783 :
Photographic observations of some bright double stars,
by E. Hertzsprung; observations on the brightness e =0'1105
and form of comets, by M. Ebell. No. 4782 : The u =0°:4518
special motions of stars with known parallaxes, by R, P=2'182 years
Klumak. No. 4781: Observations of planets and log a=9*2192
comets made with the 360-mm. refractor of the Copen
hagen Observatory, by C. F. Pechüle and E. As a result of the alteration in the elements it is
Strömgren and R. Andersen. No. 4780 : Observastated that the errors in the final elements do not
tions of the planet Venus, by W. Rabe; definite orbit exceed 2 per cent. of their values. An ephemeris for
of comet 1906 VII. (Thiele), by E. Waage. No. 4779 : the coming opposition is promised at an early date.
Observations of the planet Mars, by H. E. Lau; THE SATELLITES OF URANUS.---Two communications observations of the variables U Sagittæ and R. S. regarding measures of the satellites of Uranus are Vulpeculæ, by M. Maggini. No. 4778: Test for published in the Lick Observatory Bulletin, No. 269. variability of 113 Herculis and a Sagittæ, by E.
, The first, by Prof. R. G. Aitken, were made in 1914 Hertzsprung; photographic measures of the magnitude with the 36-in. refractor using a 350 power eyepiece. difference between the two components of v Draconis, An interesting opportunity presented itself on July 21 by E. Hertzsprung; observations of the variables to estimate their relative brightness. The four satel- • Herculis, g Herculis, and RZ Cassiopeiæ, by. M. lites were all south of the planet, Ariel and Umbriel Maggini. No. 4777: Mean elements of sixty minor almost in line with it, and only a few seconds of arc planets, by M. Brendel; ephemeris for Polarissima apart. Ariel was seen at the first glance, and was (BD +80° 37') for 1915, by L. Courvoisier.