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body, lays eggs deep in the unripe fruit of the Papaya, Nearly one-half of the total value of the mineral where the maggots find an abundant and congenial output is due to the production of gold, of which food-supply. This mode of feeding, as is well known, 42,011 ounces were obtained, both quartz mines and is practised in oranges, lemons, peaches, etc., by alluvial mines having contributed to the total. The larvæ of the notorious “Mediterranean fruit-fly" increase of production over 1912, when 27,582 ounces (Ceratitis capitata), which forms the subject of two were produced, is relatively important; it is mainly papers in the Journal (vol. iii., Nos. 4 and 5), by due to dredging operations in the Pasacale district, E. A. Back and C. E. Pemberton. This fly is now a where five dredges were at work, and where three serious pest in the Hawaian Islands, though it has additional ones were being constructed; it appears not yet been introduced into the United States. At- that the alluvial deposits are quite satisfactory, but tempts are being made to introduce parasitic and that a shortage in the fuel supply, which appears predaceous insects that may keep the fruit-fly in check, hitherto to have been wood exclusively, threatens to and one of the papers just mentioned deals with this become a serious problem in the near future. aspect of the question. Prof. F. Silvestri made last The output of iron, in the form of castings direct year a special journey to West Africa in order to from small native blast-furnaces, amounts to 227 tons, study the natural enemies of fruit-flies, the results of an increase of practically 50 per cent. above that in which are described in the Boll. Lab. Zool. Scuola 1912. These castings are almost exclusively ploughAgric. Portici (vol. v., 1914). Here may be found shares; they were produced in ten furnaces, each of diagnoses with structural figures of a number of the which averaged sixty-six days in blast throughout the destructive flies and of insects which prey on them, year; they consumed 555 tons of 60 per cent. ore and most of the latter being small Hymenoptera.
960 tons of charcoal, the iron extracted being thus Our own Bulletin of Entom. Research maintains just about two-thirds of the total iron present. It is the high standard of its systematic and economic interesting to note that this primitive method of ironpapers. In vol. v., pt. 3, lately issued, Dr. W. A. smelting is still able to hold its own in the face of Lamborn's account of agricultural pests in Southern imports of iron more than ten times as great as the Nigeria opens new ground, and is well illustrated total native production. with a coloured plate of Lepidoptera and several photographs of injured plants. Stanley Hirst describes mites-mostly Dermanyssus and other Gamasidæ
UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL found on rats in Egypt; while Rev. Jas. Waterston,
INTELLIGENCE. turning for a while from Mallophaga, gives an
BRISTOL.—The University has been concerned since account, with interesting structural figures, of new
its foundation with the question of residential accomChalcidoid fig-insects from Uganda. In the March
modation for its students. Early in its history it number (vol. v., No. 4), just received, Mr. Waterston
received an important benefaction for the accommodadescribes a number of parasitic Chalcidoids from
tion of women students in the shape of Clifton Hill tropical Africa and members of the same group from
House, to which the adjoining Callander House has Ceylon. Among several useful papers in this number,
since been added. During the past year the Imperial S. A. Neave's account of the Tabanidæ of Southern
Hotel and a large property on Richmond Hill, Clifton, Nyasaland, with descriptions of the early stages and
have been purchased for conversion into halls of resibionomics of the species, is noteworthy. The Review
dence for men and women training students. The of Applied Entomology is continued monthly, and
University has now taken two houses for the purpose contains excellent summaries of papers published in
of a temporary residential college for men students. all parts of the world, agricultural entomology being
These houses are being renovated and decorated, and contained in Series A, medical and veterinary subjects
will be opened in good time for next term. When in Series B. In placing these publications within the
the arrangements are complete, the temporary college reach of all students, the Imperial Bureau of Entomo
with accommodation for twenty-nine logy abundantly justifies its existence. G. H. C.
students. MINERAL RESOURCES OF THE
Glasgow.-His Majesty in Council has approved the
Ordinance of the University Court, empowering the PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.
University to establish a degree of bachelor of science THE HE annual report upon the mineral resources of in applied chemistry. In conjunction with the Royal
the Philippine Islands for the year 1913 has just Technical College, which is affiliated to the University, been issued at Manila by the Division of Mines of courses in the various branches of chemistry relating the Government of the Philippine Islands. It gives to a wide range of arts and industries will be proevidence of fairly steady progress in the development vided. The curriculum extends above four years, and of the mineral resources
of these islands under the examinations will be of an honours standard. American auspices. The value of the mineral produc- More than 140 students in arts, law, and pure tion is estimated at just about 400,000l., an increase science have volunteered for service in the munition of about 14 per cent. above that of 1912, but it must be factories during the summer vacation. Arrangements remembered that these figures are made up, in accord- have been made by the Appointments Committee with ance with the usual practice of the United States, from a number of firms on the Clyde, which are prepared a number of items that are not generally included in to give employment of the kind to students who are the mineral statistics of other nations, such items as not eligible for active service with the forces. When clay products, sand and gravel, and lime accounting the sessional examinations are completed at the beginfor fully one-fourth of the total value. It is note
ning of June, it is expected that at least 100 more worthy that no coal was produced in the year under students will undertake similar work. review, whereas the output for the year previous had been 2700 tons; there seems to be no good reason
LONDON.-A new edition of the University College for this complete cessation of coal mining; it is true
Pro Patria" is in course of preparation, and will be that one of the mines that had produced coal in 1912
issued shortly. Past and present students, or their had been drowned out apparently through careless
relatives and friends on their behalf, are invited to driving into broken ground, which seems not to have
send full particulars of the capacity in which they are been properly tested before the drift in question was serving the country at the present time. In the case put in.
of the Army, rank and regiment should be given; in
the case of the Navy, rank and ship. These particulars measurement of the specific heat of steam in the should be addressed to the Publications Secretary, immediate neighbourhood of 100° C. permits extreme University College, London (Gower Street, W.C.). steadiness in the conditions of observation, and is OXFORD.-The Halley Lecture will be delivered on
important as the starting point for the investigation May 20 at 8.45 p.m., in the hall of Queen's College,
of the variation of the specific heat with pressure and by Sir Frank W. Dyson, F.R.S., Astronomer Royal. temperature, but presents special difficulties owing to The subject of the lecture, which will be illustrated
the possible presence of water in suspension when the with lantern-slides, is The Measureinent of the superheat is very small. The majority of determinaDistances of the Stars."
tions, such as those of Regnault (1256-225° C.), and
Holborn and Henning (1100-270° C.), have been made The Year Book Press, 31 Museum Street, London,
with highly superheated steam, and throw little light has been appointed by the Teachers' Registration
on the value near 100° C. Those of Knoblauch and Council as publishers of the first “ Official List of Jacob, and Knoblauch and H. Mollier, when extraRegistered Teachers," which will be issued as soon as polated towards saturation, appear to indicate a very arrangements have been completed.
rapid increase in specific heat near the saturation In the issue of Science for May 7 it is announced
point. The theory of the variation of specific heat that Mr. Andrew Carnegie's gifts to the Carnegie
with pressure is discussed in the preface in relation Institute and Institute of Technology-both at Pitts
to some experiments by the Joule-Thomson method,
the results of which were published in a previous burgh-have now reached a total of 5,400,000l., his latest contribution, announced on April 29, being
communication. It is shown that the presence of only
half-a-millionth of a gram-molecule of salt per gram of 540,000l. Of this latter amount 240,000l. is for new buildings, and 300,000l. for endowment.
steam is sufficient to raise the apparent specific heat From the
by 10 per cent. at 103° C., and that previous measurewe learn that the campaign to raise
ments near saturation were probably affected to a 277,000l. for the Stevens Institute of Technology in
slight extent by this source of error. Special preHoboken, N.J., has been concluded successfully. The entire indebtedness of the college, amounting to
cautions were taken in the investigation to secure
pure dry steam, and the conditions of experiment were 77,000l., has been cancelled, leaving 200,000l. to be used for the erection of new buildings and for endow
varied widely, especially with regard to external heat
loss. By using a silvered jacket of silica maintained ment. Gifts amounting to 14,58ol., to be devoted to
at a high vacuum, the loss was reduced to about a cancer research at the Harvard Medical School, have been announced. Of this sum 10,000l. is provided by
tenth of that in previous experiments, and amounted
to only two or three parts in 1000 of electric energy the will of the late Mr. Philip C. Lockwood, of Boston. The legislature of Nebraska has granted 30,00cl. for
supplied. The final result found was-S=2030 joules per the erection of a teaching hospital for the University equivalent to 0-485 mean calorie under the same con
gram per 1° C., at 760 mm. and 104:5° C., which is of Nebraska College of Medicine at Omaha, Nebraska.
ditions, and is in good agreement with Regnault's The Board of Education has issued table of result at 175° C., if allowance is made for the small summer courses in England for instruction in many of variation deduced from the experiments by the the subjects of the school curriculum. The courses throttling method.-C. F. Jenkin and D. R. Pye : will be held on various dates during July, August, and Thermal properties of carbonic acid at low temperaSeptember next. Nature-study appears to be one of tures.-II. This is a continuation of the paper on the the most popular subjects, and courses in it are being same subject published in the Phil. Trans., A, vol. arranged at Ambleside, Bingley, Brighton, Falmouth, ccxviii., p. 67. It contains a description of (1) a series Great Yarmouth, Scarborough, Glastonbury, Newport, of measurements of the total heat of Co, gas from and Swanley. Geography, too, seems to be in great which the specific heats are deduced; (2) a few re. demand, probably in view of the growing popularity measurements of the total heat of liquid CO2; and (3) of practical methods of teaching the subject. Geo- a series of throttling experiments on CO, gas. By graphical courses are being held at Ambleside, means of the first series the 0° chart, part of which Brighton, Cambridge, Oxford, and Sheffield. Courses was drawn in the former paper, is extended over the in science will be held at Oxford, Wye, and Bangor, superheated gas area; its accuracy is then checked by and at five centres there will be lectures on the theory means of the throttling experiments. Graphic methods of education. The official table states the authorities are described for plotting the results of throttling responsible for the courses, dates, fees, subjects of experiments and thereby checking the specific heats instruction, addresses for further particulars, and gives of the gas and position of the gas-limit curve. Finally, useful general remarks. Copies can be obtained an lo chart is constructed for CO, based on the through booksellers at a cost of one penny each. The measurements described in both papers. To assist in war will reduce the facilities for foreign travel, and the construction of this chart, a series of theorems teachers who desire to combine further study with their connecting the total heat I with the other variables recreation during the long vacation should study this P, v, 6, and o are worked out, and their use in checkpamphlet.
ing the accuracy of Io charts for any substances is explained. The authors hope that the new lo for CO,
chart, which extends and corrects Mollier's, may be SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.
of some technical value in the refrigeration industry. LONDON.
Physical Society, April_23.—Dr. A. Russell, viceRoyal Society, May 13.—Sir William Crookes, presi- | president, in the chair.-Prof. W. B. Morton and Miss dent, in the chair.-Elizabeth A. Fraser and Prof. J. P. Mary Darragh : The theories of Voigt and Everett Hill: The development of the thymus, epithelial bodies regarding the origin of combination tones. Voigt conand thyroid in the vulpine phalanger (Trichosurus nects the existence of difference and summation tones vulpecula).-Elizabeth A. Fraser : Some observations with the fact that the stationary points of the comon the development of the thymus, epithelial bodies, pound vibration-curve, when the primary tones have and thyroid in Phascolarctos, Phascolomys, and Pera- equal energies, can be grouped in a certain way on meles.-J. H. Brinkworth : Measurement of the specific sine curves, which recur in the periods of these comheat of steam at atmospheric pressure and 104:5° C., bination tones. As against this view it is urged (1) with a preface by Prof. H. L. Callendar. The that the same points can equally well be grouped on a
whole series of curves with other frequencies; (2) stematic growth; the way in which the segmentathat the distinctness of the combination-tones would tion of the growing line leads to the growth of a rooton this theory vary greatly with phase-relationship of bearing surface, exposed by the progressive splitting,
the primaries; (3) that the tones would disappear when and to the carriage outwards of the roots initiated close the energies of the primaries are not very unequal. to the meristem are described in detail. The organisaVoigt applies a similar method to the case. where the tion of the central vascular axis of the rhizophore upper tone is weak compared to the lower to account behind the meristematic line is shown to correspond for Koenig's second beat-tone. The first of the above remarkably to that of the stem-stele as described in objections again applies. Everett supposed that the part ii. The arrangement of the roots, their exogenous distortion of the vibration-curve in passing through | insertion, and the course of the root-traces are comthe ear would bring in the note the frequency of which pared with the corresponding features of Stigmaria. is the highest common factor of the primary fre- In part iv., the progressive growth and organisation quencies. The effect of a special kind of distortion of the young plants of I. lacustris are traced from the has been tested, consisting in a proportional reduction stage of an advanced embryo to that at which a small of ordinates in one direction. The result does not plant exhibits adult characters as regards root- and confirm Everett's contention, but shows the appearance leaf-arrangement. The symmetry of the plant is only of the summation and difference tones.--- Miss Maud evident when the second leaf and second root Saltmarsh : Experiments on condensation nuclei pro- developed. Further roots arise from a meristem estabduced in gases by ultra-violet light. (1) Nuclei pro- lished at the base of the vascular axis of the shoot long duced in air by ultra-violet light which has traversed before any cambial activity has begun. The rhizoa few centimetres of air are not affected by an electric phore continues from this meristem as a region of profield of 50 volts per centimetre. (2) The nuclei are gressive growth, bearing roots acropetally. equally effective in producing condensation of water, correspond strictly to the root-bearing region in Lepitoluol, and turpentine vapours, and they are formed dodendreæ. The primary root in Isoëtes is lateral to even by light which has traversed 50 cm. of air. the axis of the rhizophore; the construction of the (3) Alcohol vapour condenses without expansion on plant thus appears fundamentally distinct from the much smaller nuclei than does water vapour. (4) No Gymnosperms and Angiosperms, where the first root nuclei were formed by the light unless oxygen or CO, continues the axis of the plant and behaves as a tapwas present in the gas. (5) No trace of H,O, could root. The progressive cortical growth of the young
. be detected in the clouds formed on the nuclei. (6) plants of Isoëtes appears to continue uninterruptedly Oxygen containing ozone also contains nuclei for into that of the adult stock. condensation, and these nuclei have similar properties May 11.-Prof. S. J. Hickson, president, in the to those formed by ultra-violet light. (7) The nuclei chair:-Dr. Arthur Harden, Prof. W. W. Haldane Gee, can be destroyed by heating the air containing them. and Dr. H. F. Coward : A report on the Dalton It seems probable that the nuclei formed by ultra- diagrams. A report on a collection of about 150 violet light do not cause condensation by virtue of any original pen-and-ink diagrams used by John Dalton. particular chemical composition, but that they are They describe the elementary principles of mechanics, particles large enough to act like dust particles as heat, optics, and astronomy; the laws of expansion centres round which condensation can begin.-S. by heat; the special scale of temperature used by Butterworth: The self-induction of solenoids of appre- Dalton; meteorological subjects; and chemistry and the ciable winding depth. The existing formulæ for coils atomic theory. The diagrams dealing with the atomic of this type-viz.; those of Rosa and Cohen-are theory show that Dalton used graphic formulæ for shown to be inaccurate, the error amounting to one- compound atoms" much more frequently than would fifth of i per cent. for the best formula when the be suspected from a study of his printed books or notewinding depth is one-tenth the diameter of the coil. books. Many sheets illustrate the atomic composition For greater winding depths the error is larger. The of inorganic and organic substances. The latter are inaccuracy in Rosa's formula is due to the neglect almost completely ignored in Dalton's published works, of curvature in correcting, for thickness, while in and in consequence his representation of them would Cohen's formula the error is due to the approximate be unknown at the present time were it not for the method of development. New formulæ are developed information disclosed by these diagrams. The formulæ by methods which are free from such approximations, are, however, very different from those now accepted. and which apply to any coil for which the length is One of the diagrams is a list of atomic weights and greater than twice the diameter, and the winding symbols made in 1807, and is, so far as is known, the depth is less than one-tenth the diameter. These second list presented in public by him. formulæ are capable of giving eight-figure accuracy. Simplified formulæ are also given which are suitable
Paris when only four-figure accuracy is required.
Academy of Sciences, May 10.—M. Ed. Perrier in the Mathematical Society, May 13.—Sir Joseph Larmor,
chair.-E. Bompiani : Thé equations of Laplace with president, in the chair.- Dr. Bromwich : The diffraction
equal invariants.-G. H. Hardy : The problem of of waves (i) by a wedge, (ii) by a circular disc.
divisors of Dirichlet.-Et. Delassus : The holonomial W. E. H. Berwick : An invariant modular equation of
movements with multiple forms of Bagrange.-G. the fifth order.-G. B. Mathews : A direct method in
Chesneau : Contribution to the study of coloured glass
of the Middle Ages. Analyses of violet, blue, green, the multiplication theory of the lemniscate function.
and red glass, dating from the end of the thirteenth MANCHESTER.
century, from Rheims Cathedral. The oxides of copper, Literary and Philosophical Society, April 27.--Mr. F. nickel, cobalt, manganese, and iron were used as the Nicholson, president, in the chair.-Prof. W. H. Lang : colouring materials.-J. Bougault : The dioxytriazines. Studies in the morphology of Isoëtes :—Part iii., The The synthesis of substituted semicarbazides. A method structure and growth of the rhizophoric region of for preparing asymmetrical dioxytriazines has been 1. lacustris, and the development and arrangement of given in a previous paper. These behave as acids the roots. Part iv., The progressive growth of the towards alcohols, and give mono- and di-ethers in young plant of I. lacustris, and the nature of the which the alkyl group is attached to nitrogen. The cortical extension of the stock. In part iii. the struc- mono-alkylbenzyldioxytriazine hydrolysis with ture of the rhizophoric lower region of the boiling alkaline carbonate solution gives the alkylstock of ], lacustris; the
of its meri- semicarbazone of phenylpyruvic acid, and this, treated
in the cold with strong hydrochloric acid, gives the The Morro Velho Method of Assay of Gold-Bearing Cyanide Solutions : chlorohydrate of the alkylsemicarbazide. The method
D. M. Levy and H. Jones. - The Effect of Differ ent Methods of Crushing
on the Ash of Coke : F. A. Eastaugh. appears to be general, and descriptions are given of AERONAUTICAL Society, at 8.30.-Wilbur Wright Memorial Lectiire-The methyl-, benzyl-, and ethyl-semicarbazides.—&chsner Rigid Dynamics of Circling Flight : Prof. G. H. Bryan. de Coninck and 'M. Gerard : Some basic salicylates.
FRIDAY, MAY 21. Amé Pictet and Maurice Bouvier : The saturated hydro
ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 9.-Beauty, Design, and Purpose in Foraminifera :
E. Heron-Allen. carbons of vacuum tar. The raw material for this
SATURDAY, MAY 22. work consisted of 60 kilograms of tar distilled from
ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3.-Colouring Matters of Nature : Dr. M. O. one and a half tons of coal under a pressure of 15 to
TUESDAY, MAY 25. 20 mm. The unsaturated hydrocarbons were separated ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3.-Dyes, the Creation of the Chemist : Dr. M. O. by means of liquid sulphur dioxide instead of with
Forster. fuming sulphuric acid, as in the preceding note on
ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 5.30.-A Blood-sucking Gamasid Mite parasitic
on Couper's Snake: S. Hirst.-A List of the Snakes of Madagascar, the same subject. Six saturated hydrocarbons have Comoro, Mascarenes and Seychelles : G. A, Boulenger.-Anatomical Notes been isolated, two being identified with certainty as on the Gruiform Birds Aramus giganteus, Bonap, and Rhinochetus kagu :
Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell, hexahydrodurene and hexahydromesitylene, and the
THURSDAY, MAY 27. remainder are probably homologues of cyclohexane.
INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.-Annual General Meeting. The same hydrocarbons have been isolated by Mabery
FRIDAY, MAY 28. from Canadian and Californian petroleums.-G. Roval INSTITUTION, at 9.-Engineering Problems of Mesopotamia and Murgoci : Rhodusite and abriachanite. These two
Euphrates Valley : Sir John Jackson.
INSTITUTION OF PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGISTS, at 8.- The Evolution of the minerals are the extreme ferric terms of the glauco
Oil Tank-ship: H. Barringer. phane series.--Const. A. Kténas : The iron minerals of PHYSICAL SOCIETY, at 5.-Numerical Relations between Electronic and igneous origin of eastern Greece and their trans
Atomic Constants : Dr. H. S. Allen.-A Method of Calculating the
Absorption Coefficients of Homogeneous X-Radiation : H. Moore. Two formations.—Stanislas Meunier : Mechanical pheno- Experiments Illustrating Novel Properties of the Electron Currents from mena as a factor in the elaboration of crystalline Hot Metals : Prof. O. W. Richardson. - High Permeability in Iroa: Prof.
E. Wilson. rocks.-N. Arabu : Studies on the Tertiary formations
SATURDAY, MAY 29. of the basin of the Sea of Marmora. The distribution LINNEAN SOCIETY, at 3.-Anniversary Meeting. of the faces in the different stages of the Tertiary; sketch of the tectonic of that region.-J. Deprat : The
PAGE intermediate folded zones between Yunnan and HautTonkin.—Eugène Pittard : Comparative anthropometry Science and the State. By Sir William Ramsay, of the Balkan peoples.
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THURSDAY, MAY 27, 1915.
explosive and eruptive actions of volcanoes could be accounted for by the access of sea-water to
these incandescent materials through fissures in THE SCIENCE OF VULCANOLOGY.
the earth's solid “crust.” Now, after a full disThe Problem of Volcanism. By Dr. J. P. Iddings. cussion of the astronomical, physical, chemical,
Pp. xvi + 273. (New Haven : Yale University | and geological evidence involved, the author shows Press; London : Oxford University Press, that there are no valid grounds against the conclu1914.) Price 215. net.
sion that the earth's interior is solid and cold, and HIS work is the latest published of a series that all thermal action may be attributed to radio
issued by the Yale University, acting as activity, whilst many problems of far greater comtrustees for the Silliman Memorial Fund; the fund plexity than were ever thought of in the past consists of the sum of 85,000 dollars left to pro- await solution. vide for the delivery and publication of annual Although every outstanding branch of the incourses of lectures “to illustrate the presence and quiry meets with full and sympathetic treatment providence, the wisdom and goodness of God, as at the hands of the author, yet it is on the charillustrated in the natural and moral world.” Al- acteristics and relations of volcanic rocks that he though the terms of the bequest strikingly recall writes with special authority, and more particuthose of the once-celebrated “Bridgewater Trea- larly on the light which has been thrown on tises,” yet the testators of the Silliman Fund petrology by microscopic research, the branch of qualify the statement of terms by a declaration study with which Dr. Iddings has been so long of a belief that “any orderly presentation of the identified. But whether dealing with such facts of nature or history contributed to the ends problems as those belonging to his own studies of this foundation more effectively than any or such varied questions as are suggested by the attempt to emphasise elements of doctrine or of characters of nebulæ, Dr. Iddings is equally at creed.” In the end they conclude that dogmatic home; and nowhere, to our knowledge, can there and polemical theology should be excluded, and be found an account, so complete and illuminatthat “the subjects should be selected from the ing, of all the varied lines of research bearing on domains of natural science and history, giving the subject under discussion. A word of praise special prominence to astronomy, chemistry, geo- must be added for the numerous and beautiful logy, and anatomy.” A comparison of the terms illustrations, while the printing of the work of the Bridgewater and Silliman foundations give exhibits all those excellences which we are accusa by no means unsatisfactory impression of the tomed to find in scientific works issued in the improved relations between the representatives of United States.
J. W. J. natural science and theology which have arisen in the course of the last century.
With characteristic impartiality the authorities LIQUIDS UNMATHEMATICALLY TREATED. of Yale University have invited representatives of (1) The Dynamics of Surfaces: an Introduction to various branches of science to give clear and up
the Study of Biological Surface Phenomena. to-date presentments of the condition of our By Prof. L. Michaelis; translated by W. H. knowledge on the subjects selected by them. The Perkin. Pp. viii + 118. (London : E. and F. N. successive courses of lectures have been given by
Spon, Ltd., 1914.) Price 4s. net.
Villamil. Pp. xiv +210. (London: E. and by Profs. Nernst and Max Verworn from Ger
F. N. Spon, Ltd., 1914.) Price 7s, 6d, net. many; and by Arrhenius from Sweden; only three (3) Liquid Drops and Globules: Their Formation of the published courses, indeed, are by American and Movements. By C. R. Darling. Pp. x+ men of science.
83. (London : E. and F. N. Spon, Ltd., 1914.) For the science of vulcanology no better repre
Price 25. 6d. net. sentative could possibly have been found than Dr. ) HE first part of the title of Dr. Michaelis's Iddings, and no more striking illustration of the
book is erroneous and misleading, for progress of investigation and theory could be a mathematical physicist will fail to find anything given than his discussion of the problem. Fifty whatever in these pages dealing with the dynamics years ago the question was thought to be virtually of surfaces. It treats entirely of certain physicosettled by the assumption of a molten central mass chemical and electrical phenomena connected constituting the earth's interior, or at least of mainly with surfaces of separation of different pockets of such heated material at moderate media, and it makes no attempt at a rigorous depths; granted this, it was believed that all the theoretical investigation of these. As an illustra