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AMONG the recipients of honours conferred on the occasion of the celebration of the King's birthday on June 3, we notice the following names of men of science and others associated with scientific work :—

having very fine private collections of Japanese metalwork, Oriental and English pottery, precious stones, and Italian and Oriental embroideries. This interest in art led him to take up the study of precious stones, on which he was a recognised authority, and on which he wrote a standard work, besides publishing valuable books on English Knights-Mr. C. E. Fryer, Superintending Inspector earthenware and English porcelain.


Sir Arthur Church will, however, probably best be remembered by his work on the subject of artists' pigments. In connection with the Royal Academy of Arts there is an appointment-the only one of its kind in Europe--of a professor of chemistry, whose duty it is to deliver certain lectures to the art students in training. Arthur Church was appointed to this professorship in 1879, and held the post until 1911, when he decided to retire. His professorship at the Royal Academy brought him into close connection with the many chemical problems involved in painting, and led to his carrying out a large number of investigations, the results of which are summed up in his book on "The Chemistry of Paints and Painting," which has passed through several editions. This book, which is the standard work on the subject, contains-very often in a few lines the results of long and careful inquiry and research, and has done a great deal to redeem the artist from the unfortunate position in which he was placed by the dying out of the old studio traditions, and by the flood of pigments and preparations which were due to modern chemistry, and were somewhat recklessly introduced into the artist's palette.

These researches naturally led Sir Arthur Church to make a special study of the old masters and their methods, and he was also asked to inquire into the condition of the frescoes in the Houses of Parliament, and report on the preservation of the decaying stone in Westminster Abbey. For many years he worked at these problems as a labour of love, either with his own hand, or under his personal direction, restoring and preserving the frescoes, and carrying out special researches with the view of stopping stone decay in such national monuments as Westminster Abbey. In all these problems his interest in artistic and archæological questions made him devote his special knowledge of chemistry to subjects which the ordinary chemist seldom regards as of sufficient interest to attract his attention.

Of late years he prepared for the Royal Society a classified list of papers and letters in the Society's archives, this classification being the result of much labour and research and of great value as a reference to the older work which was done in the early days.

Sir Arthur Church will be missed by all men of science who knew him, and also by his many friends, on account of his personal charm and kindness and his wide culture, which touched upon so many subjects outside the realms of chemistry. A. P. L.

of Fisheries Division of the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries since 1903; Mr. R. R. Gales, Indian Public Works Department, Engineer-in-Chief, Hardinge Bridge, Sara, Bengal; Dr. J. Mackenzie, F.R.S., lecturer on cardiac research at the London Hospital, and author of many works on the diseases of the heart; Dr. T. Muir, F.R.S., Superintendent-General of Education, Province of the Cape of Good Hope, Union of South Africa; Mr. W. Pearce, director of William Pearce and Sons (Limited) and Spencer, Chapman, and Mensel (Limited), chemical manufacturers; Mr. E. Rigg, since 1898 Superintendent of the Operative Department of the Royal Mint; Dr. W. N. Shaw. F.R.S., director of the Meteorological Office since 1905 and reader in meteorology in the University of London since 1907; Mr. W. Slingo, Engineer-in-Chief of the General Post Office. Knight Commander of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath (K.C.B.)-The Right Hon. Sir John Fletcher, Baron Moulton, F.R.S. Companions of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath (C.B.)-Surgeon-General T. M. Corker; Mr. E. H. Tennyson-d'Eyncourt, Director of Naval Construction, Admiralty; Mr. E. J. Cheney, Chief Agricultural Adviser, Board of Agriculture and Fisheries. Knight Commander of the Most Distinguished Order of St. Michael and St. George (K.C.M.G.)-Dr. W. Peterson, Principal and Vice-Chancellor of McGill University, Montreal. Companions of the Most Distinguished Order of St. Michael and St. George (C.M.G.)—Mr. A. W. G. Bagshawe, Director of the Tropical Diseases Bureau; Dr. D. M. Gordon, Principal and Vice-Chancellor of Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario. Knight Commander of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire (K.C.I.E.)-Mr. W. Maxwell, Director-General of Posts and Telegraphs, India; Lieut.-Col. Percy Molesworth Sykes. Companions of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire (C.I.E.) -Mr. A. W. Lushington, Imperial Forest Service, Conservator of Forests, Northern Circle, Madras; Mr. G. P. Millet, Indian Forest Service, Senior Conservaof Forests, Bombay Presidency; Lieut.-Col. C. H. D. Ryder, Deputy Superintendent of Survey of India. Companion of the Imperial Service Order (I.S.O.)-Rai Chuni Lal Basu Bahadur, First Assistant Chemical Examiner of the Government of India, Teacher of Physics and Chemistry, Campbell Medical School.

We regret to announce the death on June 5, in his sixty-eighth year, of Mr. F. H. Neville, F.R.S., late lecturer on physics and chemistry in Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge.

ON account of the unfavourable state of the finances of the country, due mostly to the European war, the Peruvian Government has, says Science, ordered the closing of the Museum of National History and Archæology at Lima.

THE Triennial Gold Medal of the Royal Asiatic Society, presented for special eminence in Oriental research, has been awarded jointly to Mrs. Agnes Smith Lewis and her sister and collaborator, Mrs. Margaret Dunlop Gibson.

We regret to announce the death of Mr. John Amory Travers, a past Prime Warden and a member of the court of the Fishmongers' Company, who was for twenty years hon. treasurer of the Marine Biological Association. Mr. Travers was greatly interested in scientific fishery investigations, and the work of the association had his unfailing support.

In a note in last week's NATURE (p. 377), referring to Sir Henry Jackson's appointment as First Sea Lord. of the Admiralty, it was surmised that no fellow of the Royal Society had hitherto received such nomination. Careful scrutiny, however, of a list of holders of the office, from the Revolution of 1688 down to the appointment on October 30, 1914, of Lord Fisher, reveals that there have been six First Sea Lords fellows of the society. Following are the names and dates of appointment :-The Earl of St. Vincent (1801); Sir Charles Morice Pole (1806); Sir William Johnstone Hope (1820); the Duke of Clarence (1827); Sir George Cockburn (1828, 1834, 1841); Sir A. Cooper Key (1879).

THE annual general meeting of the Society of Chemical Industry will be held at the Municipal School of Technology on July 14-16. Prof. G. G. Henderson, president of the society, will deliver an address, and the papers to be presented include "Research and Chemical Industry," Dr. M. O. Forster and Dr. C. C. Carpenter; Legislation and its Effect on Chemical Industry," Prof. H. E. Armstrong; and Chemical Engineering," Dr. G. T. Beilby.


THE Paris correspondent of the Times reports that the Osiris prize of 4000l., which the Institute of France gives every three years as a reward for the most remarkable work or discovery in science, art, letters, or industry, was awarded on June 2 jointly to Profs. Widal and Chantemesse and Dr. Vincent, of the University of Paris, whose names are connected with the development of anti-typhoid vaccination. As the Osiris prize can only be given to Frenchmen, the institute decided to award a special prize to Sir Almroth Wright, who gave the world this means of protection from typhoid.

PROF. F. C. COOPER, whose death on June 4, at Horsham, is announced, occupied the chair of chemistry in the University of St. John's, Shanghai. He was home on furlough, and expected to return to work last January. Originally a pharmaceutical chemist, his decided gift for teaching and lecturing led him to accept an appointment on the staff of the St. John's College in 1895. The science department gradually developed under his guidance to become one of the strongest faculties of the university, which is exercising so wide an influence in the educational work of China to-day. He was a keen advocate for the introduction of the metric system into China, and the

author of several books in Chinese compiled to assist the English student of the language. His knowledge of Chinese, especially of the Shanghai dialect, enabled him to work with a thorough understanding of China's needs. His sympathy in this direction, no less than his scientific abilities and organising power, doubtless accounts for the prominent place he holds in the esteem of his Chinese pupils and colleagues.

WE learn from Science that the Franklin medal, the highest recognition in the gift of the Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania, has recently been awarded to Prof. H. Kamerlingh Onnes and to Mr. T. A. Edison. The awards were made on the recommendation of the institute's committee on science and the arts, that to Prof. Onnes being in recognition of his "long-continued and indefatigable labours in lowtemperature research which has enriched physical science, not only with a great number of new methods and ingenious devices, but also with achievements and discoveries of the first magnitude," and that to Mr. Edison in recognition of "the value of numerous basic inventions and discoveries forming the foundation of world-wide industries, signally contributing to the well-being, comfort, and pleasure of the human race." The Franklin Medal Fund, from which this medal is awarded, was founded on January 1, 1914, by Mr. Samuel Insull. Awards of the medal are to be made annually to those workers in physical science or technology, without regard to country, whose efforts, in the opinion of the institute, have done most to advance a knowledge of physical science or its applications. The present awards are the first to be made. A SUMMARY of the weather for the spring season is given in the Weekly Weather Report of the Meteorological Office for the several districts of the United Kingdom, and combining the results for the thirteen weeks ending May 29. The mean temperature was nowhere very different from the average, whilst it was only in Scotland and the south-east of England that the sheltered thermometer rose to 80°. The rainfall for the whole period varied considerably in the different districts. The south-east of England stands alone with an excess of rainfall, the measurement being 111 per cent. of the average, the abnormal rains occurring generally in the middle of May. In the north of Scotland the rainfall was 96 per cent. of the average, in the east of England 95 per cent., and in the north-west of England 84 per cent. The greatest deficiency of rainfall occurred in the south of Ireland, where the amount was only 61 per cent. of the average, and in the north of Ireland it was 64 per cent. the west of Scotland the rain was 69 per cent. of the average, whilst the lowest percentage of the average in any of the English districts was 76 in the southwest. The duration of bright sunshine for the spring was generally in excess of the normal; the only districts with a deficiency were the English Channel and the south of Ireland, whilst in the south-west of England the sunshine was normal.


THE REV. WALTER WESTON, who is already well known to lovers of mountain scenery from his frequent expeditions in the Alps of Japan, gave an interesting account, at the meeting of the Royal

Geographical Society on May 31, of the northern district of that region. It is an immense backbone of granite, associated in places with much more recent outbursts of volcanic materials. The older rock is carved into deep valleys and grand peaks, the higher of which rise well above the snow line, for they frequently exceed 10,000 ft. in altitude. The valleys often afford scenes of remarkable beauty, in which steep and rugged crags contrast with luxuriant vegetation, and the ice-fields above sometimes present the usual difficulties to the mountaineer. He ascended four of the principal summits, the highest of them attaining 10,430 ft. These masses of granite, into which the graving tools of nature have cut so deeply, must be vastly more ancient than the volcanoes, a few of which are still active at times, because the former, once a deep-seated, intrusive rock, must have been stripped of a thick protective covering before it could be exposed to the agencies of denudation by which it has been shaped. A parallel may be found in the Ecuadorian Andes, where the great volcanic masses, one or two of which are still active, rise from a high plateau of ancient rocks. In the Japanese Alps the flowers are often remarkably beautiful, and the traveller, as Mr. Weston found, can count on a kindly reception.

In the recently issued report of the Decimal Association for 1914 it is stated that since the outbreak of the war public interest in the metric system of weights and measures has greatly increased. Many of our manufacturers, however, still persist in using only British weights and measures in their catalogues and price lists intended for abroad, instead of quoting in terms of the units in vogue in the foreign country. It is evident from the reports of our consuls and representatives abroad that this practice has a prejudicial effect on the extension of our foreign trade, particularly in countries in which the metric system is used exclusively. That system has been legal in the United Kingdom for the last eighteen years, but comparatively little advantage has been taken of it either in internal or export trade. This is probably due to the fact that the system is not given sufficient attention in schools, and is more or less completely unknown to the majority of the trading public. The Association of Chambers of Commerce has realised that the general adoption of the metric system in this country is primarily an educational question, and has recently. passed a resolution urging the Board of Education to take action in the matter. The decision of the Decimal Association to give precedence in its propaganda to the adoption of decimal coinage appears scarcely to be auspicious for the success of its metric system campaign. The decimalisation of the coinage is not an urgent matter. It will meet with strenuous opposition from interests that look with favour or at least indifference on the metric system of weights and measures, so that the idea of making such a highly controversial innovation a preliminary to the introduction of the metric system seems rather a retrograde policy.

THE National Geographic Magazine for April contains a timely article by Miss F. C. Albrecht, illus

trated by a fine series of photographs, on the AustroItalian mountain frontiers. These admirable photographs, with interesting letterpress, give a vivid impression of the enormous difficulties which the Italian army must face in forcing its way through the Trentino.

IN the June issue of Man Major A. J. N. Tremearne describes a new variety of head-measurer for use in anthropometry, and likely to be suitable for sculptors. It is intended to meet the prejudices of savages who do not fear to submit to an instrument of this kind so long as all the measurements can be taken from one single position. The new model has been improved under the advice of Profs. A. Keith and Karl Pearson. Those who are interested in the subject can inspect the model at the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons.

PROF. ELLIOTT SMITH, speaking on "The Influence of Racial Admixture in Egypt" at the Grafton Galleries before the members of the Eugenics Education Society, on June 4, gave an account of the distinctive physical and cultural characteristics and racial affinities of the earliest Egyptians, and discussed the factors which determined the development of their peculiar type of civilisation. He described the various alien peoples who entered the Nile Valley at its northern (Mediterranean) and southern (Sudanese) extremities; their influence upon the physical features and mental aptitudes of the Egyptians, and its bearing upon the history of Egypt and the achievements of its people. The stimulating effect of contact with the more energetic and enterprising people of the north was counterbalanced by the retarding influence resulting from intermixture with the negroes from the south; and the fluctuating fortunes of Egypt throughout her long history was intimately related to the ascendancy of one or other of these conflicting factors.

THE U.S. Department of Agriculture has just issued a pamphlet embodying the results of "an experiment in house-fly control" carried out at the Maryland Agricultural College. In this experiment it was sought to destroy, not the adult insect, but the larvæ bred in a "maggot trap," formed by an exposed heap of stable-manure placed on a specially constructed platform. This consisted of a wooden grating placed upon stout pillars standing upon a concrete floor surrounded by a concrete wall, four inches high, to retain water. All the flies in the neighbourhood resorted to the heap to deposit their eggs. None of the larvæ hatched therefrom attained to the pupation stage owing to the fact that the manure was kept saturated with water, which served to deprive the heap of air. Such as attained to full growth invariably migrated to the bottom of the heap and fell through the grating into the water. In this way it is claimed that 98 per cent. of the larvæ hatched in the heap were destroyed. Old manure was found to be unfavourable for the breeding of flies, owing to the absence of air and the high percentage of carbon dioxide and methane within the Adult flies, captured as they emerged from carefully guarded breeding places, were powdered


with red crayon or sprayed with rosolic acid, and liberated to test their range of migration, which was found not to exceed 700 yards.

A VIVID account of the fauna and flora of the great forests and swamps of northern Queensland appears in the Victoria Naturalist for April by Mr. J. A. Kershaw, the Curator of the National Museum of Melbourne. In spite of rain and mosquitoes, much valuable field-work was accomplished. His account contains some interesting notes on crocodiles, fireflies, and elephant beetles, and on the "bower" of the fawn-breasted bower-bird, a specimen of which was procured for the museum.

AN exhaustive and well-illustrated history of the midges (Chironomidae) of Illinois, by Mr. J. R. Malloch, appears in the Bulletin of the Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History for May, which may be read with profit by those interested in the problem of the origin and evolution of species, as well as by students of the Diptera. The author describes the complete life-history of a most peculiar form of larva belonging to the Ceratopogoninæ, which lives in submerged logs; and he has, besides, succeeded in discovering new characters which will materially lessen the labour of distinguishing the members of this sub-family, which is always a difficult task.


INSTANCES of discontinuous distribution are always worth recording. Hence attention may well directed to the surprising occurrence of a gnat (Culex hortensis) at Logie, Elgin, which, according to Mr. F. W. Edwards, in the Entomologist's Magazine for May, was until recently not known outside the Mediterranean region. In 1913, however, it was recorded from the neighbourhood of Bonn. The Scotch specimen differs from its congeners from southern Europe only in having the wing-scales slightly broader, and from the common British gnat (Culex pipiens) in having the white bands on the abdominal segments apical instead of basal, and in having broad, flat scales on the prothoracic lobes.

THOSE interested in the behaviour of animals will find two suggestive papers in the Zoologist for May. In the first of these the Rev. H. Victor-Jones discusses the vagaries of the parasitic protozoan Kerona. Contrary to the generally accepted opinion he finds that all three species of Hydra serve as its hosts, and, further, his experiments seem to show that when food is withheld from the Hydra the parasites migrate with impunity to the cœlomic cavity, "wandering in and out with safety." Thus, he points out, Kerona can no longer be regarded as a strictly Ecto-parasite. Another interesting point raised in this paper is the nature of the stimulus which apparently controls the migrations of Kerona from the outside to the bodycavity. It would seem that the guiding factor in this migration is the search for food, from which the author infers that after all Kerona may have to be regarded as a commensal rather than as a parasite. In the second paper Mr. H. N. Milligan contributes some observations on the behaviour of a captive rockling (Motella mustela), which would seem to be one of the most timorous of fishes. The introduction

of some common gobies into the tank, of which it originally was the sole occupant, caused a striking change in its habits, marked by an obvious mistrust of the new-comers. The author's description of the association, which gradually manifested itself, between the movements of its fellow-captives and the advent of food, which always caused them to display the most extreme excitement, furnishes another example of the way in which instinctively nervous animals overcome groundless fear as a result of experience.

A NEW edition of the Hand-list of Tender Monocotyledons-excluding orchids-cultivated in the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, has just been issued. For convenience of reference the plants are arranged in alphabetical order, which is a departure from the previous edition, but will no doubt be found more practical and serviceable, though perhaps somewhat less instructive at first sight. The present list contains many more names than were in the original edition of seventeen years ago, partly owing to accessions from Central and South America, South-east Asia, and especially tropical Africa, and partly also because the more important natural families of Monocotyledons have been the subject of careful study by botanists, which has resulted in the more exact determination of the plants now under cultivation. The Kew hand-lists are of so much value to horticulturists that it is to be hoped it will soon be found possible to bring the other hand-lists up to date.

MOULTONIA, a new genus of Gesneraceæ, forms the subject of an interesting paper by Prof. Bayley Balfour and Mr. W. W. Smith in No. xl., vol. viii., of Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. As in some species of the genus Streptocarpus and in Monophyllea, only a single leafy organ is present, but the inflorescence is epiphyllous. The plant is considered to show a permanently embryonic vegetative state, the stalk and lamina being outgrowths from the primitive protocorm of the plant. The protocorm possesses great meristematic activity, and gives rise in due course to the flowers. The plant is thus without stem, and probably without a true root. All that is developed is a cotyledon-like lamina from one end of the protocorm, which becomes the assimilating organ, and a long stalk which is hypocotylar in nature and probably gives rise to adventitious roots. An interesting comparison is drawn between this plant and the different types of Streptocarpus, and also with Chirita hamosa, where the flowers arise in a line on the upper surface of each petiole.

SOME time ago the mathematical paradox referred to by "A. S. E.," in NATURE of May 27, p. 345, was put in a much more striking form: "Suppose the earth spherical, and a cable laid along the equator in contact with the surface; its length would be about 25,000 miles. If the cable were everywhere 6 ft. from the earth's surface, how much longer would it be?" Led up to by talking about allowances for curvature in road-making, and by measuring circumferences of plates, etc., this is a good "catch" to try on your cleverest nephew at Christmas. Letters sent to NATURE on the subject give correct explanations of different

kinds (for the case of the circle), but they seem to
miss the essential point, namely, that we are dealing |
with the difference of two values of a linear function
of a variable. As a contrast, let us suppose the depth
of the sea increased an inch; this would mean the
addition of many millions of tons of water. There
are two principal reasons why results of this sort are
truly paradoxical to most people, in the sense of being
unaccountably surprising. Comparatively few people
really appreciate the properties of the simplest mathe-
matical formula; and, apart from this, it is a difficult
thing to make a mental scale of magnitude of any
great extent. Thus observation and calculation con-
vince us of the fact that if the earth were placed at
the centre of the sun, the moon's orbit relative to the
earth would be inside the sun; but it is very difficult
for people who are not astronomers to realise this in
the same sense as they realise that a pea will go
into a thimble.

IN an address delivered before a joint meeting of the Franklin Institute and the Philadelphia Section of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers in January last, Mr. W. S. Murray, consulting engineer to the New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railway Company, reviewed the conditions affecting the success of main-line electrification. The experience of that line, which possesses 75 miles of four to twelve track electrified route are largely drawn upon. The system in use is the high potential single-phase with contact wire, and as it has enabled the coal bill of his line to be reduced 50 per cent., Mr. Murray considers it superior to its rivals. He gives a long series of statistics of the amount of power generated at the central station, and the cost of operating the passenger and goods services and of maintaining the line and equipment. From these we gather that the total cost per train mile for power, engine-house expenses, locomotive supplies and repairs, and train men is 73 cents, and per 1000-ton mile 47 cents. The address is reproduced in the May number of the Journal of the Franklin Institute.


THE Bureau of Standards of the Department of Commerce at Washington has just issued "circular " on "The Composition, Properties, and Testing of This is a pamphlet of thirty-five Printing Inks." pages, and deals concisely with various oils, pigments, driers, and formulæ for the making of printing inks. The relationship of the ink to the paper is also considered, from the highly absorbent papers used for newspapers to the coated and wholly non-absorbent papers used for illustration work. In the former case the vehicle may be a non-drying oil, but where there is no absorption it is necessary to employ a quickly drying or hardening medium, though it must not dry on the formes or rollers. One of the most useful sections of the pamphlet describes the "ink requirements of the Government printing office" for web-press ink, job black ink, flat-bed black ink, and half-tone black ink, with the methods of making the practical tests. Actual printing tests under definite conditions are preferred for practically finding the qualities of various inks, because "if the article does all that is

required of it, its composition is of minor importance." But analytical tests are valuable for ascertaining the causes of trouble in printing, the permanency of pigments, and so on, and, in the opinion of the director, there is room for a considerable extension of such work. The circular is a valuable addition to the technology of the subject.

OWING to the enormous quantity of oil which is now carried in bulk annually across the oceans, considerable interest is attached to a paper on the evolution of the oil tank-ship, read by Mr. H. Barringer at the Institution of Petroleum Technologists on May 28. Although there is no written history of the earliest bulk oil-carrier, the Chinese Newchang junk, originally built for the carriage of water in bulk, and afterwards used for oil, must be amongst the earliest examples of this class of vessel. The Chinese junk is provided with an expansion trunk, as in the modern steamer, the objects being to provide for the expansion of the oil caused by rise in temperature, and to keep the main hold always full, thus minimising the wash of oil due to the movements of the vessel. For some years, vessels carrying 6000 to 7000 tons were favoured by owners, but lately the tendency has been to build larger ships; in 1912 to 1914 the average was about 9000 to 10,000 tons, although ten vessels each of 15,000 tons capacity were built. There are now about 434 bulk-oil, ocean-going steamers afloat, representing a total gross tonnage of 1,637,000. One hundred and ninety-two of these vessels are fitted for burning liquid fuel. In the years 1910 to 1914 inclusive, 166 vessels were put into commission, having a total gross tonnage of 800,000, the output in these five years being equal to nearly half the tonnage now afloat. In addition to these steam vessels there are fifty-seven sailing ships representing 99,788 gross tons. Many of the recent ships are constructed on the Isherwood principle of longitudinal framing. The oilpumping arrangements are very complete. The capacity of each of the four duplex pumps fitted to recent steamers is 300 tons per hour; these pumps are designed to deliver oil against a pressure of 250 lb. per sq. in., and have enabled 15,200 tons of liquid fuel to be discharged in 31 hours through one 14-in. shore


INFORMATION has been received at the Meteorological Office from the seismological observatory at Eskdalemuir of the record of a large earthquake which occurred on June 6, at about 9 p.m., G.M.T. The computed position of the epicentre of the disturbance is latitude 10° S., longitude 60° W.; that is, in Brazil.

MESSRS. WITHERBY AND CO., who are to publish "The Birds of Australia," by Mr. Gregory M. Mathews, announce that the subscription list will close on June 30, so that orders should be placed immediately, as no new subscribers will be accepted in the British Islands after that date. The complete work is compiled from all published sources and from the author's own observations, together with those of a large number of field-naturalists in all parts of Australia. The edition is strictly limited to 260 numbered copies, more than two hundred of which have been already taken up.

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