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British Association in 1903, on the necessity for the culture of science in all the affairs of life, Sir William Mather remarked :-" I venture to believe that we could claim for Sir Norman Lockyer the character of a prophet, for foreseeing, as he appears to have done, the movements of the world which have come to pass since, and more especially the great need, in regard to English culture and education generally, for more thorough scientific training. Had what he then proposed been carried out the effects at the present time would have been very greatly to our advantage as a nation."
The ninth annual report of the guild was adopted on the motion of Sir Boverton Redwood, seconded by Col. Sir John Young. The report was summarised by Sir Boverton Redwood as follows:-The activities of the guild have been well sustained during the past year, notwithstanding the war; and, in fact, in certain directions the guild has rendered services to the country in dealing with difficulties which the war has created. As in former years, the report reviews the action of the Government in the appointment of Royal Commissions, Departmental and other Committees that deal with matters in which the guild is interested. It is satisfactory to note that some progress has thus been made in enlisting the services of men of science and technologists, and it is still more gratifying to Sir Norman Lockyer and other members of the guild who have long advocated such an action, that the President of the Board of Education is proceeding with the scheme outlined by his predecessor for the co-ordination of higher education, and especially of higher technical education, with the object of developing industries in this country. Under the guidance of Sir Ronald Ross the medical committee, in common with other committees of the guild, has been chiefly occupied with matters arising out of the war. The action taken by the committee in strongly condemning the unpatriotic attempt to throw discredit on the practice of inoculation against typhoid_may_be specially mentioned. The attention of the Executive Committee having been directed to questions, in connection with science and the State and the encouragement of discovery, raised in Sir Ronald Ross's address to the members of the guild at the annual general meeting of the guild at the Mansion House in May, 1914, it was decided to appoint a special committee to consider and report on the matter, and especially to consider the desirability of increasing the financial support given by the Government for the higher forms of intellectual effort, and adequate remuneration of scientific workers and learned societies for services rendered in connection with Royal Commissions and Departmental and other Committees. This inquiry has not yet been completed, but considerable progress has been made.
In September last, the attention of the Board of Trade was directed to the effect of the war in putting a stop to the import from Germany of glass and glass apparatus, and to the possibility of taking advantage of the opportunity thus afforded of extending the manufacture of glass in this country. In this connection, Lord Moulton, as chairman of the Technical SubCommittee of the committee appointed by the Board of Trade, referred this matter to the guild for consideration, and the guild deferred it in turn to the Technical Optics Committee. A report was presented stating that proper provision should be made at the National Physical Laboratory for the examination of samples of glass as to their physical and optical properties, and that the director of the laboratory should be approached on the subject. It was also proposed that facilities should be provided for carrying out at the National Physical Laboratory or elsewhere of the
research connected with the manufacture of the optical glass referred to in the report; that steps should be taken as speedily as possible to give effect to the previous recommendations of the Technical Optics Committee in the direction of providing facilities for the systematic scientific and manual training in technical optics; and since this training requires time, the committee is strongly of opinion that the question is urgent and that organisation should be taken in hand at once.
Since this report was put in print the Executive Committee has learned with satisfaction that steps have been taken by the Government to give effect to the first two of the recommendations. In regard to the supply of chemical glass apparatus which, prior to the war, had been largely obtained from Germany and Austria, the guild, through the joint action of its Education Committee and Technical Education Committee, has been able to secure from a large number of the principal educational institutions assurances of support to British makers; and has done much valuable work in obtaining information as to the types and sizes of glass apparatus in greatest demand for the guidance of those who are engaged in meeting the present deficiencies in supplies.
Sir Philip Magnus, in moving the election of the Executive Committee and of the Right Hon. the Lord Mayor as a vice-president, said that at no period in our history was it more important than it is now that our country should avail itself of the services of its scientific men. It is absolutely essential that we should avail ourselves of the help which can be given by scientific men in this war, and a very important duty falls on the Executive Committee of this guild to organise or assist in organising these efforts. At the present time we are considering in the House of Commons a Bill described as the Munitions of War Bill. The object of that Bill is to make provision for furthering the efficient manufacture, transport, and supply of munitions for the present war and other purposes incidental thereto. When one looks at the contents of that Bill, the consideration and discussion of which took place a few nights ago on the first and second reading, there is no reference whatever to the assistance which science might be enabled to give to the very objects with which the Bill has been promoted. The whole of the Bill and the discussion in which it was introduced referred simply to the relation of employers to employed, and the condition under which the working classes may be willing to give their assistance.
I have been using my endeavours so far as possible to discover what steps our Government are at present taking to carry out the object to which Sir William Ramsay will refer in his address. It seems to me very desirable that all our departments of State should act in co-operation with each other so as to prevent any overlapping of effort in the endeavours to apply science to the varied requirements of the war, so I asked the Minister of Munitions if he could make a statement as to the steps that have been taken, and are about to be taken, for co-ordinating, for war purposes, the services of men of science, and for utilising the laboratories and workshops of our universities and technical schools for experiments, and for the making of munitions of war or parts thereof; and whether it is intended to establish, as has been suggested, a central committee or bureau for dealing with inventions and practical scientific questions incidental to the operation of the war. The answer I received was fairly satisfactory so far as it goes. It was as fol lows:-"I am fully alive to the great importance of securing the co-operation of scientific workers through
out the country, and of utilising so far as practicable the laboratories and workshops of our universities and technical schools for such purposes as those alluded to in the question. I am not at present able to make a detailed statement as to the points raised in the last part of the question. I take this opportunity of expressing my appreciation of the valuable help which is already being ungrudgingly given to the Ministry of Munitions by men of science and scientific authorities and institutions."
To a great extent that is a very satisfactory reply, and from all I have been able to learn I feel convinced that great efforts are being made at the present time by the Minister of Munitions and by the advisers of the War Office to utilise the services of scientific men, and I need scarcely point out that the Royal Society is doing all it possibly can with the view of helping the Government in the important objects which it has undertaken, but I am very desirous of urging upon the Executive Committee of the guild that it should use all its efforts to bring about co-operation between these various departments, so that some controlling power may be established which shall be in direct connection with the various Departments of State, and through which, from these departments, shall be forwarded all the various important questions with which those departments have to deal.
After the motion for the election of the Executive Committee and the new vice-president had been seconded by Prof. Perry, and carried by the meeting, Sir William Ramsay delivered an address, the main part of which is subjoined.
THE NATIONAL ORGANISATION OF Science. Sixty-three years ago, Dr. Lyon Playfair, afterwards 'Lord Playfair, gave an address on "Industrial Instruction on the Continent," in which he endeavoured to arouse interest in the applications of science to industry. In it he remarked:-"For many years foreign States, acting upon the facilities for communication, have expended annually large sums in sending highly enlightened men to our country, for the purpose of culling from our experience, and of importing it into their own land; and we see the effect of the experience thus readily acquired, when united with the high development of mental labour, in the rapid growth of new industries abroad. We still hold to mere experience as the sheet anchor of this country, forgetful that the moulds in which it was cast are of antique shape, and ignorant that new currents have swept away the sand which formerly held it fast, so that we are in imminent risk of being drifted ashore. In fact, this is the great question at issue between England and foreign States. With us, there is a widespread jealousy of science, and a supposed antagonism between it and practice. . . . While we continue to rely upon local advantages and acquired experience, we allow a vast power to arise abroad which is already telling against us with wonderful effect."
Reiterated appeals have been made to various Governments in power since that address was delivered; twenty years later, a Royal Commission was appointed under the presidency of the then Duke of Devonshire, which unanimously recommended that a science council should be appointed by the State. Our Science Guild originated as the outcome of a similar appeal made by Sir Norman Lockyer in his presidential address to the British Association, when it met at Southport in 1903.
Our existence as a nation is threatened. Although I am and have been for many years an advocate of compulsory military service, I cannot but admire the response to the call to arms by the Minister of War. But it is not enough. Every man and woman
must aid in combating the enemy. Words are incapable of expressing the detestation with which we all view the stupid and vicious methods which the Germans have adopted; but we cannot deny that the German people have been carefully organised, and that it will need every effort on our part, and on that of our Allies, to defeat their armies.
The French Academy of Sciences, at a general meeting on August 4, offered to its Government all its resources in aid of national defence. Committees were immediately constituted, and the Under-Secretary of State for War placed at the disposal of these committees the services of officers equipped with full knowledge of the requirements of the War Office.
On October 29 I wrote an article which appeared in NATURE, from which I may be allowed to quote the following passage:-"There is a class of our fellow-subjects which has yet, so far as I am aware, not been organised. That is the fellows of the Royal, the Chemical, and the Engineering Societies. In their own particular provinces they are the pick of the brain of the country. This war, in contradistinction to all previous wars, is a war in which pure and applied science plays a conspicuous part. Has any attempt been made to co-ordinate the efforts of the devotees of physical, chemical, and engineering science, so that they may work together at what for us is the supreme problem of all-how to conquer the Germans? For if we fail, civilisation as we know it will disappear." This is the first of July, and such an organisation has yet to be created.
Now it is exceedingly difficult to speak openly on this matter; for certain steps have been taken. One, known to the public, is the appointment of Lord Moulton as a general adviser; his efforts were concentrated first on the establishment of a colour industry; and we understand that he has now the task of organising the supply of munitions of war. Doubtless much has been done; but neither the general public nor the fellows of the various scientific societies have any special knowledge of what has been, and what is being, accomplished. If he has consulted anyone, that has been done privately. It is believed that a small committee was appointed to advise on the colour question; but here again we have no definite knowledge. Another fact in public view is the appointment of Mr. Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions. His counsel to the operatives is doubtless valuable. Here, again, a committee is being nominated.
A deputation of the Royal and Chemical Societies, and of the Societies of Public Analysts and of Chemical Industry, had an interview with the President of the Board of Trade on May 6; with him was Mr. Pease, President of the Board of Education. Shortly after, Mr. Pease announced in the House of Commons that he was considering names of members of an Advisory Council on Industrial Research"; I learn from Mr. Henderson, who has succeeded Mr. Pease in the Education Department, that he is proceeding to the appointment of this Advisory Council.
Letters have appeared from time to time in the Press from fellows of the Royal Society and others urging the centralisation of scientific effort. Prof. Fleming, whose knowledge of wireless telegraphy is second to none, has had no opportunity of helping his country, although it is long since he offered his services; and Prof. Armstrong, on June 21, makes the reasonable assertion that no half-dozen persons have a right to assume that they can do all that is required in any branch of science, and reminds the public that had his suggestion been adopted that the Royal Society should have been grouped, according to subjects, into Grand Committees, we should have been many months in advance of our present position.
It has been necessary to survey what has been done
up to now, in order to consider what it is best to do. And I must repeat that the whole energy of every subject of our King must now at once-be solely devoted to one object: that of helping our soldiers to defeat the enemy. Our Government has missed one great chance; if they had declared cotton contraband of war in January, as they were implored to do from many quarters, in all probability the war would be now nearing its end; the enemy would have run short of propulsive ammunition.
I may be allowed to quote a letter I have received from a distinguished French. professor of chemistry, an adviser to the French War Office :
"Le coton doit être prohibé au même titre que le cuivre. Il est aussi indispensable à la fabrication des munitions que ce métal et, avec les exigences actuelles de la balistique, il ne peut être remplacé par aucune autre matière première pour la fabrication du cotonpoudre.
"J'ose maintenant esperer que votre flotte fera bonne garde et qu'elle ne laissera plus passer les nombreux chargements qui s'acheminent vers l'Allemagne par le voie de le Suède, du Danemark et surtout de la Hollande.
"Il est probable que si ces derniers pays avaient pratiqué une vraie neutralité, nous serions bien près de la fin des hostilités et n'aurions plus à déplorer des pertes journalières de milliers de vies humaines."
As it is, cotton is still freely entering Germany through Rotterdam; it is true that a Dutch syndicate is bound under a penalty of 10,000l. to exclude it, if delivered to them; but there is good reason to believe that this penalty is ineffective.
It is bad policy to regret what might have been; it is much better to try to devise plans to make up for lost time; and the first essential is organisation. It is notorious that there is little intercommunication between the various Government Departments; many of them are confronted by the same difficulties; many of these difficulties would be overcome if scientific advice were asked for; and the prime necessity at the present moment is a central body of scientific men, to whom the various Government Departments should be compelled to apply for advice and assistance. And more; it should be within the province of such a central organisation of science to propose new means of circumventing the enemy; it should have access special information, and should be in close touch with all Departments of State, by having State officials as assessors at the meetings of the committees.
Instead of this centralisation, what do we see? Numerous small committees, composed of men who may be perfectly capable, but who are not in the public view; men whose mouths are muzzled, because it has been decided, in each case, to keep their names secret. This, I think, is due to a confusion of ideas; there is no object in preserving secrecy as to the members of such committees; there is every reason that they should regard their deliberations and actions as confidential.
Now, the creation of such small committees by various members of the Government has had the effect of stopping the organisation of men of science. Those who are serving on the committees feel that they would be guilty of a breach of trust were they to take part in the formation of a strong, central body of organised science. Hence various attempts to elicit the views of the fellows of the Royal and other societies have been blocked at the outset. What is the remedy? Let us see if we cannot learn from our neighbours the French; they have a remarkable power of meeting a difficult situation.
I have before me a document headed "République française. Ministère du Commerce, de l'Industrie, des Postes et Télégraphes. Office des Produits Chimiques
et Pharmaceutiques." The directeur is one of the best-known French chemists, the discoverer of synthetic camphor and the inventor of a process for producing it commercially.
Various "Commissions," or, as we should say, Committees, have been appointed. These are:-(1)) Commission on Patents. (2) Commission on Chemical Solvents, Alcohol, etc. (3) Future Commercial Situation of German Works in France. (4) Customs Commission; Customs Union of the Allies. (5) Transport Commission: Rail, River, and Canal, and on the High Seas.
Other special Commissions deal with colours, drugs, general chemical manufactures, including manures, and with synthetic and natural perfumes. These are all in active operation. Each will make a report which will go first before the General Commission, and afterwards their proposals will be brought before the Chambre des Députés-the French Parliament.
Just imagine the state of mind of the permanent officials of our Government Departments were such a scheme forced upon them! It would disturb the even tenor of their way; they would be obliged to do something, instead of carefully classifying all pro posals made to them, and putting each into its appropriate pigeon-hole. But they have not yet realised that we are engaged in a war in which ancient prac tices may have to be superseded.
What are men of science to do? The Chemical Society has begun to organise itself; the Royal Society still hangs fire; other societies, I believe, have made attempts. It must be admitted that they have received scant encouragement. The recent deputation of some societies to Messrs. Runciman and Pease has resulted in the appointment of an Advisory Council of the Board of Education to encourage research. Various eminent men have been asked by Mr. Henderson, Mr. Pease's successor in office, to serve on this Council. It would appear that their functions will be chiefly to encourage education, especially in connection with research-a most excellent object, but surely one which can stand over until this life-and-death struggle is decided. I am glad to learn that it is not proposed to establish more scholarships; they tempt young men to embark on a scientific career for which there is little reward; for many of our manufacturers have not had time to grasp Lord Playfair's aphorism, now more than sixty years old "It is only experience, aided by science, that is rapid in development, and certain in action."
It is never too late to try to mend; and it is clear that we need expect no initiative from members of our Government. But we might, as scientific men, organise ourselves; and then endeavour to induce the Coalition Government to take some such steps as were taken by the French Government on August 4.
I am much indebted to Lord Sydenham for permission to use a draft of a scheme, which he provided at my request, for the organisation of the Roval Society. It has not yet been submitted to that body, which stands at the head of all our other scientific societies, nor to other societies; but it is certain that each society, after organising itself, would be willing to place its organisation at the disposal of the oldest and premier scientific society of the world. His scheme is as follows:
"The Royal Society keenly desires to place all its resources of expert knowledge and experience, collec tive and individual, at the disposal of his Majesty's Government, for the purposes of the war.
"It is also proposed to act as an intermediary between H.M. Government and other learned societies with a view to obtain their co-operation, which, it is certain, will be freely given.
Already the Royal Society has formed committees
for dealing with certain branches of applied science which can be brought to bear upon the operations of war. It is necessary to regularise the position and to extend the sphere of influence of such bodies. In order to carry out these objects without delay, the following measures appear to be necessary :
(1) The Royal Society to be formally constituted as an advisory body in regard to scientific questions arising out of the war, and requiring to be dealt with by his Majesty's Government.
(2) For this purpose the Royal Society would establish a general advisory committee to which all Departments of State would be directed to apply for assistance in regard to such matters as the following:
(a) New inventions or suggestions involving the application of science to warfare by sea or land.
(b) Any problems arising out of the proved needs of war which call for scientific treatment and investigation.
(c) Improved methods of manufacture, or manufactures, requiring to be started.
(3) The duties of the general advisory committee would be :
** (a) To make such subcommittees as are needed to deal with all the above-mentioned matters.
(b) To allocate them either to these subcommittees, or to individual experts, as may seem most efficacious. (c) To secure co-ordination and to prevent overlapping of work.
(4) The general advisory committee should also be empowered to make suggestions to the head of any Department of State in regard to questions of applied science.
(5) The subcommittees would not necessarily consist only of fellows of the Royal Society, but would contain members of other scientific societies, or individual experts, together with representatives, nominated by the Department of State concerned.
(6) Such representatives would act as intermediaries between the subcommittee and the Department, and would obtain from the latter any information required.
"(7) İf, arising out of the war, new processes of manufacture were needed to be begun, or existing processes to be improved or extended, the subcommittee involved would co-operate with the Munitions Department, and would provide such expert knowledge as might be required.
(8) When special experiments, lying beyond the resources at the disposal of, or accessible to, the Royal Society, became necessary, funds should be made available ad hoc, either by the Treasury, or by the Department concerned."
It will be observed that Lord Sydenham's draft scheme deals only with exigencies of war. But is it too much to hope that if and when peace comes, the organisation would not be allowed to lapse? This will not be the last war; we have learned, in the crucible of fire, that we must be prepared. Nor is what we usually term "war" what is most to be dreaded. It is the insidious advance by fair means or foul means of our enemies the Germans to obtain a monopoly of all fields of human endeavour. That nation is organised for that purpose, and this war is merely one attempt, and let us hope a fruitless attempt, to obtain world-wide dominion.
May I conclude by quoting again from Sir Norman Lockyer's presidential address?
"Without such a machinery [as that of a Scientific National Council], how can our Ministers and our rulers be kept completely informed on a thousand things of vital importance? Why should our position and requirements as an industrial and thinking nation receive less attention from the authorities than the head-dress of the Guards? How, in the words of Lord
Curzon, can the life and vigour of a nation be summed up before the world in the person of its Sovereign' if the national organisation is so defective that it has no means of keeping the head of the State informed on things touching the most vital and lasting interests of the country?"
In the course of his remarks while moving a vote of thanks to Sir William Ramsay for his address, the president said:-Though some of us may differ from Sir William as to the likelihood of another war as great as this, on one point we are all bound to agree with him, namely, that there should be prompt national organisation of all the scientific capacity we possess; co-ordination, and supreme control by a council-it need not consist of more than a dozen men, whose duty it should be to apply scientific results to the war in every department. There is no doubt in the world that we can have an organisation in Great Britain equal to anything which the Germans possess if we will only make up our minds to do it. Our Parliamentary Committees and other committees dealing with most important aspects of this war will not succeed in doing anything of real importance to our present needs unless they work through such a council as has been suggested. From that point of view I think the British Science Guild might be of service. We must spare no effort to impress upon the Government and the public that the course proposed by Sir William should be taken at once.
Sir Archibald Geikie, in seconding the vote of thanks, said:-It is a painful history-the history of the indifference of the State to science and our country. I throw my mind back to the time when I heard Sir Lyon Playfair give that address from which Sir William has quoted, and I know that every word then said was true. I dare say that since that time some of the indifference-I would almost call it the antipathy on the part of the official mind towards science has altered a little for the better, but there is still plenty to be done. It is not all the fault of Governments. They themselves have to work against the dead-weight of this incubus of indifference which goes right through society. The Royal Society has been mentioned, and I am proud of its history. As you are aware, the Royal Society is actively at work at present, the council having been converted into a war committee so as to devote the whole of its efforts to war matters. If there is to be some central committee dealing with scientific matters, I am sure there could be no more efficient centre than the council of the Royal Society.
The proceedings terminated with a vote of thanks to the chairman, proposed by Sir Ronald Ross, seconded by Sir A. Phillips, and carried unanimously.
A CONSULTATIVE COUNCIL IN
E print below a letter issued by the president and council of the Chemical Society with the view of assisting the Government to bring the war to a successful conclusion. Fellows of the society are invited to offer suggestions likely to be of value to our armed forces, to state in what branch of work they consider they can be of most use to the country at the present juncture, and what facilities they can offer either as regards laboratory accommodation or time available for voluntary work on national services. The council has constituted itself a consultative committee to consider suggestions and inventions placed before it; and its action should be the means of placing at the disposal of the country an effective body of expert opinion. The co-ordination and organisation of the various branches of chemical science and their appli
cation are of the utmost importance to the Empire; and the efforts being made by the Chemical Society with these ends in view will give satisfaction to all who realise the difficulty of the problems before us. Whilst much has been done to assist the Government in many of the scientific problems arising from the war, the technical knowledge and talent of the nation are not being utilised to their utmost. No one knows what is being done, and there is no way of finding out what problems in chemistry, physics, and engineering are urgently requiring solution. The practical man with his problem has no means of getting in touch with the inventor who delights in grappling with practical difficulties, or with the man. of science who can bring his expert knowledge to bear upon it. Further, it is realised that an worked War Office is not the place at which original methods or devices can be given adequate and competent consideration.
In order to remedy this unsatisfactory condition of affairs some system for organising and co-ordinating the inventive power of the country must be devised. With the object of doing this for chemistry and its allied sciences, the Chemical Society has put forward its scheme. The society will have the cooperation of committees specially qualified to deal with individual problems; each of these committees will consist of eight members, of whom six will be appointed by one of the kindred societies, while the other two will be members of the council of the Chemical Society, to form a link with it as the central body which will forward inventions or suggestions and the reports upon them to the proper authority. For dealing with questions of the general policy to be pursued, both during and after the war, a committee thoroughly representative of chemical opinion in all its branches will, we understand, be appointed immediately.
The Chemical Society,
Burlington House, Piccadilly, London, W. DEAR SIR,-In March last the Council of the Chemical Society presented to the Prime Minister a memorial on "The Position of the Chemical Industries" in this country and asked him to receive a deputation from the Society to explain in greater detail the opinions set forth therein. A similar memorial had also been presented by the Royal Society, and on May 6th the Presidents of the Boards of Trade and Education received a joint deputation from the two societies. The deputation assured his Majesty's Ministers of the loyal desire of the Fellows of both Societies to assist the Government and promised their hearty cooperation in all that could be done to utilise the great but latent chemical talent of the nation.
As the war proceeds, the paramount part which chemical science is playing and is destined to play in the present struggle becomes daily more evident to everyone, and in pursuance of the assurance given to the President of the Board of Trade, the Council has constituted itself a Consultative Body which will meet at frequent intervals to consider, organise, and utilise all suggestions and inventions which may be communicated to it, and will report on the same to the proper authorities. In this work it will have the assistance of Committees specially qualified to deal with individual problems, the nature of which will doubtless be very diverse. The Council is of opinion that much can be done in this way to relieve the overwrought Government Departments of work which would probably appear less complex to such Committees of chemical experts.
1 A report of the proceedings will appear in the Transactions for July.
This Consultative Body having now been formed, the President and Council invite the Fellows of their own and kindred societies to forward in strict confidence suggestions and inventions for its careful consideration. However trivial some of these suggestions may appear if taken alone, it is always possible that when brought into correlation with others they may lead to results of great value, and it is this process of correla tion and subsequent presentation to the suitable Government authorities which the Council has in view.
All suggestions should be addressed to the Council of the Chemical Society, Burlington House, London, W., and will be regarded as confidential by the Council, which feels that it may rely on the loyal and energetic co-operation of the Fellows in this attempt to render assistance to the Empire.
It is of great importance that the Council should know on whom it can rely for help and the nature of the services each Fellow can render; it will be of considerable assistance, therefore, if you will kindly fill in and return the form attached.
Issued by the authority of the Council,
July 1, 1915.
are those scientific societies which have not been thrown out of work by the War, but have found something that they can do for the country in its time of suffering. The Research Defence Society, if its only occupation were to denounce and oppose anti-vivisection, would have been well-nigh useless since last August; none of us, now, is thinking of this old adversary of science. But the Research Defence Society found plenty of work; it set itself to the business of explaining and commending, to audiences of soldiers, the protective treatment against typhoid fever, and, at its annual general meeting on June 30, it was able to give a good report of this part of its work.
Last October, with the approval of the War Office, it published a four-page leaflet, "Protection Against Typhoid Fever." Consignments of this leaflet were sent, with the help of the War Office, to be distributed through the Army. Many scientific or philanthropic bodies also helped in the work of distribution. About 350,000 copies of this leaflet have already been issued. It has been translated into French, and 20,000 copies of this translation have been distributed, by the help of M. Maton, Belgian Military Attaché in England. Copies of the leaflet can be had on application to the hon. secretary of the society, 21 Ladbroke Square, London, W. The society also has given a great many lectures to soldiers, illustrated with lantern-slides and moving pictures, on wound infection and on the infective diseases, with special reference to the protective treatment against typhoid fever.
The opposition to this treatment, happily, is nearly It would not stand against the facts of the case, and there is an end of the matter. Mr. Tennant, in the House of Commons, on July 1, gave the latest figures relating to it, and they leave nothing to be said. But there is another disease, tetanus, which has been fought, and beaten, among the Expeditionary Force, by a protective treatment. None of us can soon forget the terror of the news, early in the war, that tetanus was frequently occurring. We feared lest it should be again as dreadful as it was in the American Civil War. Everything was in its favour: the soil was heavily charged with tetanus-germs, many of the wounds were deeply lacerated, and the vast majority of them were septic. It is impossible to